REVIEW for BIOLOGY UNIT TEST

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1 REVIEW for BIOLOGY UNIT TEST NOTE: The Unit Test will cover everything we have learned in the Biology Unit, starting from cell structures, cell division, various organ systems, disorders, organ donation, plant system, information from the group cancer presentations, etc. This review is only provided as a guide to help you study. Match the appropriate terms with the descriptions: F 1. This organelle contains chromosomes and has a double membrane. A. Exocytosis I 2. A component of blood that is responsible for clotting. B. Metastasis G 3. Found in stacks in chloroplast, its membrane contains chlorophyll. C. Interphase B 4. When cancer cells break away from original site and move to secondary site D. Spindle fibers C 5. DNA replication occurs at this phase of the cell cycle. E. Cartilage rings H 6. Stem cells that can specialize to any type of cells & easier to grow in cultures F. Nucleus A 7. Vesicles travel to cell membrane, fuse and empty out their contents G. Thylakoids J 8. A component of blood that is biconcave and contains hemoglobin H. Embryonic stem cell D 9. Protein structures that guide chromosomes during cell division I. Platelets E 10. This structure keeps trachea open at all times for air flow. J. Red blood cell L 11. This organ can be donated by a living donor & has the ability to regenerate K. Phloem M 12. This vascular tissue system in plant is responsible for transport of water and minerals and will no longer be a living tissue once matured. L. Liver M. Xylem TRUE or FALSE T 1. Fecal Occult Blood Test looks for presence of blood in stool to screen for colon cancer. F 2. In the acidic stomach, only chemical digestion will occur. F 3. Atria are thick-walled chamber in the heart that pump blood away from the heart. T 4. During anaphase, daughter chromosomes will move apart, towards opposite ends of the cell F 5. Endoplasmic Reticulum is the organelle that is responsible for mucus-production in cell. F 6. During prophase, spindle fibers and centrioles disappear and nuclear membrane appears. T 7. Peristalsis is a way to get food through the esophagus and into the stomach. T 8. Trachea will branch off into two bronchi, one leading to the right lung, the other to left lung. T 9. Merismatic cells are undifferentiated plant cell that can become specialized cells F 10. Periderm tissue is part of the plant s vascular tissue system. F 11. Ligaments are less elastic than tendons and are used to connect muscles to bones. T 12. In multiple sclerosis patients the myelin sheaths of neurons are being destroyed by the patients own immune system.

2 For each of the diagram below label each part and identify its function: D F G C A B H K E I J L M P R N Q O S N A. Vacuole (large central vacuole means this is a plant cell) storage of food, water, enzymes B. Chloroplast (thylakoids also accepted as answer) chemical factories & storage house for food & colour pigment. Contains chlorophyll which allows photosynthesis to occur. C. Nucleus contains genetic material of the cell (in form of chromosomes), control centre of the cell. D. Endoplasmic Reticulum used to transport materials within the cell. Rough ER contains ribosomes & produces proteins, while Smooth ER has no ribosomes & produces lipids. E. Cell Wall (as this is a plant cell) rigid, protective barrier for plant cells F. Mitochondria power plant of the cell. Cellular respiration occurs here. Sugar & oxygen converted to Energy.

3 G. Golgi Apparatus produces & secretes mucus, collects & processes materials to be removed from the cell. H. Right atrium pumps oxygen-poor blood into the right ventricle I. Right ventricle pumps oxygen-poor blood out of the heart and into the lungs where blood can pick up oxygen. J. Left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood out of the heart and into the rest of the body K. Left atrium pumps oxygen-rich blood (from the lung) into the left ventricle L. Centrioles small protein bodies in animal cells which help to give direction during cell division. M. Spindle fibers protein structures that guide chromosomes during cell division. N. Chromosomes contain genetic materials of the cell. (Also acceptable answer is Metaphase plate where chromosomes will line up during Metaphase) O. Alveoli tiny sacs with thin walls, surrounded by capillaries. This is where gas exchange occurs. Oxygen will diffuse out of alveoli into the capillaries. The opposite occurs for carbon dioxide. CO 2 will diffuse out of the capillaries into alveoli. P. Left Bronchus carry air coming from trachea to the left lung Q. Bronchioles bronchi will branch off into smaller branches called bronchioles, which has no cartilage rings R. Neurons nerve cells which conduct electrical signals in the body S. Myelin sheath fatty covering at the end of neurons that prevent misdirection of impulses. Short Answers: 1. Explain what arteries and veins are. What are the differences between them? Arteries and veins are blood vessels of our circulatory systems, enabling transport of materials throughout the body. Arteries are thick-walled, high pressure blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood away from the heart to be distributed to rest of body. While veins are thin-walled, low pressure blood vessels that carry oxygen-poor (deoxygenated) blood from the rest of the body to the heart. Veins have valves to prevent back flow of blood. 2. List the 4 components of blood, their composition within the blood and their characteristics. Plasma : fluid portion of the blood, contains 90% water & makes up about 55% of blood s volume Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes): transport O 2 and CO 2 to the bloodstream, contains Hemoglobin ironcontaining pigment that allows blood to carry O 2 & gives the RED colour, makes up 45% of blood volume White Blood Cells (Leukocytes): the only blood cells with a nucleus, colourless, makes up < 1% of blood volume, destroy invading microbes by phagocytosis Blood platelets : has a lifespan of only 7 10 days, initiates blood clotting

4 3. Explain how the liver and gall bladder work together in our digestive system. Liver makes bile which are then secreted into the gallbladder. The gallbladder will store the bile until it is needed. When we eat food containing fats, once the fats reached the small intestine, gallbladder will secrete bile to the small intestine. Bile works by physically breaking down large fat molecules to smaller sized ones. 4. In diabetic patients, what enzyme is either produced too much or too little? What is the organ that produce this enzyme? Insulin. Pancreas produces insulin. 5. Explain the events that happen during: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase & Cytokinesis. See your notes on Cell Cycle. 6. What is stem cell? What are the 2 types of stem cells we discussed in class? Explain the pros and cons of both types. Stem Cell : Undifferentiated cell that can divide to form specialized cells. Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells Unspecialized Specialized Can be trained to develop into different types of cells Are not capable of developing into tissue that they are not already specialized for. During development unspecialized stem cells are plentiful Unspecialized stem cells are easily cultured and easy keep unspecialized It is hard to find stem cells in mature tissue Adult stem cells are hard to culture and are hard to keep from becoming specialized Can become mutated 7. Provide an outline of the pathway of food, starting from when it enters the mouth cavity and when it exits through the anus. Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus 8. What are the 4 chambers of the heart? Explain the flow of blood starting from when blood enters the heart and ending when it left the heart through aorta. Right & Left Atria, Right & Left Ventricles. 9. What is alveoli? Where is it located? What is its function? Alveoli are tiny sacs with thin walls, surrounded by capillaries. Located in the lungs. Alveoli is where gas exchange occurs. 10. Explain the gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide) that occurs at the alveoli in the lungs. Oxygen will diffuse out of alveoli into the capillaries. The opposite occurs for carbon dioxide. CO 2 will diffuse out of the capillaries into alveoli

5 11. List 3 organs that can be donated by a living donor. What are some of the risks for both the donor and the patients in organ donation & transplantation process? Lobe of liver, lobe of lung, one kidney. Donor: surgery carries risks, decreased functioning due to removal of parts of organs. Patient: Immune rejection, surgery carries risks. 12. What is osteoporosis? What can individuals do to decrease their risk of osteoporosis? When bones become porous, making them brittle and easy to break. Mostly affecting older people, especially older women. Need to get sufficient intake of calcium & vitamin D in their diet, along with physical exercise. 13. What is the central nervous system? What is the peripheral nervous system? Nervous system senses the environment and coordinate responses. CNS consists of brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system consists of 3 categories of peripheral nerves: Nerves that control voluntary muscles Nerves that send signals from sensory organs to the brain Nerves that regulate involuntary functions, ex: breathing, heartbeat. 14. Explain the role of xylem and phloem with regards to transport in plants. 15. What are thylakoids? Where would you find thylakoids? Why are they important? 16. What are the 3 types of tissue system found in plants? 17. What is the difference between epidermal tissue and periderm tissue? 18. What is genetic engineering? 19. List the advantages of GMO plants. What are some of the concerns about GMO plants? 20. In our breathing lab - which gas act as a signal to the brain in order to get breathing rhythm back on? 21. What is the main function of leaves in plants? What are some secondary functions of leaves in certain plants? 22. What are the differences between animal cell and plant cell? 23. What is the function of mitochondria in the cell? 24. Show the reactants and products of photosynthesis reaction in plants. 25. What is tissue culture propagation? 26. Explain 2 methods of pollination that can be seen in plants. 27. List the 4 types of teeth found in humans and their functions. 28. What is coronary artery disease? Give 2 symptoms and 1 detection method. 29. What happens during exhalation? During inhalation? 30. Explain the functions of: a. Small intestine f. Pancreas b. Large intestine g. Liver c. Rectum h. Salivary glands d. Anus i. Epiglottis e. Mucus and cilia that lines the trachea 31. What is cancer? Explain the difference between normal cells and cancer cells. 32. What are some of the factors that will prevent cells from continuing on to mitosis?

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