Chapter 15. Sympathetic Nervous System

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1 Chapter 15 Sympathetic Nervous System

2 Somatic versus Autonomic Pathways Somatic efferent innervation ACh Myelinated fiber Somatic effectors (skeletal muscles) Autonomic efferent innervation ACh ACh or NE Myelinated preic fiber Unmyelinated postic fiber Visceral effectors (cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands) Autonomic ANS two neurons from CNS to effectors preic neuron whose cell body is in CNS (myelinated) postic neuron cell body in peripheral (unmyelinated)

3 Sympathetic Nervous System also called the thoracolumbar division because it arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord relatively short preic and long postic fibers preic neurosomas in lateral horns and nearby regions of the gray matter of spinal cord fibers exit spinal cord by way of spinal nerves T1 to L2 lead to nearby sympathetic chain of ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) series of longitudinal ganglia adjacent to both sides of the vertebral column from cervical to coccygeal levels usually 3 cervical, 11 thoracic, 4 lumbar, 4 sacral, and 1 coccygeal sympathetic nerve fibers are distributed to every level of the body

4 Sympathetic Nervous System each paravertebral is connected to a spinal nerve by two branches communicating rami preic fibers are small myelinated fibers that travel form spinal nerve to the by way of the white communicating ramus (myelinated) postic fibers leave the by way of the gray communicating ramus (unmyelinated) forms a bridge back to the spinal nerve postic fibers extend the rest of the way to the target organ

5 Sympathetic Chain Ganglia Cardiac n. Thoracic Communicating ramus Sympathetic chain Bronchi Superior vena cava Rib Splanchnic n. Phrenic n. Heart Vagus n. Diaphragm From A Stereoscopic Atlas of Anatomy by David L. Basett. Courtesy of Dr. Robert A. Chase, MD

6 Sympathetic Nervous System after entering the sympathetic chain, the postic fibers may follow any of three possible courses some end in ganglia which they enter and synapse immediately with a postic neuron some travel up or down the chain and synapse in ganglia at other levels these fibers link the paravertebral ganglia into a chain only route by which ganglia at the cervical, sacral, and coccygeal levels receive input some pass through the chain without synapsing and continue as splanchnic nerves

7 Sympathetic Nervous System nerve fibers leave the sympathetic chain by spinal, sympathetic, and splanchnic nerves spinal nerve route some postic fibers exit a by way of the gray ramus returns to the spinal nerve and travels the rest of the way to the target organ most sweat glands, piloerector muscles, and blood vessels of the skin and skeletal muscles sympathetic nerve route other nerves leave by way of sympathetic nerves that extend to the heart, lungs, esophagus and thoracic blood vessels these nerves form carotid plexus around each carotid artery of the neck issue fibers from there to the effectors in the head sweat, salivary, nasal glands, piloerector muscles, blood vessels, dilators of iris some fibers of superior and middle cervical ganglia form cardiac nerves to the heart splanchnic nerve route some fibers that arise from spinal nerves T5 to T12 pass through the sympathetic ganglia without synapsing continue on as the splanchnic nerves lead to second set of ganglia collateral (prevertebral) ganglia and synapse there

8 Preic Pathways Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Soma of preic neuron To iris, salivary glands, lungs, heart, thoracic blood vessels, esophagus Somatic motor fiber 2 Sympathetic nerve Spinal nerve Preic sympathetic fiber Postic sympathetic fiber To somatic effector (skeletal muscle) Preic neuron Postic neuron Somatic neuron Soma of somatic motor neuron Splanchnic nerve Collateral Postic sympathetic fibers 3 1 White ramus Gray ramus To sweat glands, piloerector muscles, and blood vessels of skin and skeletal muscles Soma of postic neuron Sympathetic trunk Communicating rami To liver, spleen, adrenal glands, stomach, intestines, kidneys, urinary bladder, reproductive organs 2 Sympathetic

9 Sympathetic Nervous System collateral ganglia contribute to a network called the abdominal aortic plexus wraps around abdominal aorta three major collateral ganglia in this plexus celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric postic fibers accompany these arteries and their branches to their target organs solar plexus collective name for the celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia nerves radiate from ganglia like rays of the sun neuronal divergence predominates each preic cell branches and synapses on 10 to 20 postic cells one preic neuron can excite multiple postic fibers leading to different target organs have relatively widespread effects

10 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Efferent Eye Pathways Pons Salivary glands Preic neurons Postic neurons Regions of spinal cord Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Cardiac and pulmonary plexuses Celiac Heart Lung Superior mesenteric Liver and gallbladder Stomach Spleen Pancreas Postic fibers to skin, blood vessels, adipose tissue Inferior mesenteric Small intestine Large intestine Sympathetic chain ganglia Rectum Adrenal medulla Kidney Ovary Uterus Penis Scrotum Bladder

11 Preic Pathways Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Soma of preic neuron To iris, salivary glands, lungs, heart, thoracic blood vessels, esophagus Somatic motor fiber 2 Sympathetic nerve Spinal nerve Preic sympathetic fiber Postic sympathetic fiber To somatic effector (skeletal muscle) Preic neuron Postic neuron Somatic neuron Soma of somatic motor neuron Splanchnic nerve Collateral Postic sympathetic fibers 3 1 White ramus Gray ramus To sweat glands, piloerector muscles, and blood vessels of skin and skeletal muscles Soma of postic neuron Sympathetic trunk Communicating rami To liver, spleen, adrenal glands, stomach, intestines, kidneys, urinary bladder, reproductive organs 2 Sympathetic

12 Ganglia and Abdominal Aortic Plexus Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Diaphragm Esophagus Adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex Celiac ganglia Adrenal gland Celiac trunk Renal plexus First lumbar sympathetic Aortic plexus Aorta (b) Superior mesenteric Superior mesenteric artery Kidney Inferior mesenteric artery Inferior mesenteric Pelvic sympathetic chain (a)

13 Summary of Sympathetic Innervation effectors in body wall are innervated by sympathetic fibers in spinal nerves effectors in head and thoracic cavity are innervated by sympathetic fibers in sympathetic nerves effectors in abdominal cavity are innervated by sympathetic fibers in splanchnic nerves

14 Adrenal Glands paired adrenal (suprarenal) glands on superior poles of the kidneys each is two glands with different functions adrenal cortex (outer layer) secretes steroid hormones adrenal medulla (inner core) essentially a sympathetic consists of modified postic neurons without dendrites or axons stimulated by preic sympathetic neurons that terminate on these cells secretes a mixture of hormones into bloodstream catecholamines - 85% epinephrine (adrenaline) and 15% norepinephrine (noradrenaline) also function as neurotransmitters sympathoadrenal system is the closely related functioning adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system

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