# RC & RL Transient Response

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1 EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 1. Introduction R & R Transient Response The student will analyze series R and R circuits. A step input will excite these respective circuits, producing a transient voltage response across various circuit elements. These responses will be analyzed by theory, simulation and experimental results. The primary response properties of concern are time constant, initial value and final value. The equations that govern R and R circuit transient responses will be calculated by the student, both forward using theory and backwards after having observed experimental results. Methods to measure the time constant of an experimental system and produce a step input using a function generator will be shown. 2. Background 2.1. Equations for R ircuits Time onstant: τ = R apacitor Voltage Transient Equation: v ( t) = v ( ) + [ v (0) v ( )] e t /τ 2.2. Equations for R ircuits Time onstant: τ = /R Theoretical Inductor Instantaneous Voltage: Inductor urrent Transient Equation: Inductor Voltage Transient Equation: 2.3. Important Points to onsider i v v ( t) = i ( t) = v di dt ( ) + [ i = ( ) + [ v (0) i (0) v ( )] e ( )] e The order of components is arbitrary in a series circuit. apacitor voltage cannot change instantaneously. Inductor current cannot change instantaneously. An ideal unit step is zero volts until time zero whereas it instantaneously jumps to one volt and remains at one volt thereafter. A function generator has output impedance. A real inductor has both resistive and inductive components. Writing a voltage transient equation for a real inductor requires adding these two components together. Equations for v assume ideal inductor, thus the value of the inductor s resistance must be multiplied by the inductors current and must be added to v to find the real inductor s voltage transient equation. The voltage of an ideal inductor at t=0+ will not be 0. t /τ t /τ EE Department Page 1 March 26/28, 2007

2 EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 3. Prelab 3.1. Voltage Transient Response in R omponents Due to a Unit Step Suppose a unit step occurs at time t=0 in the R circuit displayed in Figure 1. alculate the initial voltage across the capacitor, v (t=0 + ), final voltage across the capacitor, v (t= ), initial voltage across the 680Ω resistor, v R (t=0 + ), final voltage Ω Ω across the 680 Ω resistor, v R (t= ), and the time constant, τ, of the circuit. Using nominal component values, calculate the voltage transient time response equation for the capacitor, v (t), Figure 1: R ircuit and voltage transient time response equation for the resistor, v R (t), both for t > 0. Fill in your values in Table Voltage Transient Response in R Elements Due to a Unit Step Suppose a unit step occurs at time t=0 in the R circuit displayed as Figure 2. alculate the initial voltage across the inductor, v (t=0+), final Ω Ω H voltage across the inductor, v (t= ), initial voltage across the 680Ω resistor, v R (t=0 + ), final voltage across the 680 Ω resistor, v R (t= ), and the Figure 2: R ircuit time constant, τ, of the circuit. Using nominal component values, calculate the voltage transient time response equation for the inductor, v (t), and voltage transient time response equation for the resistor, v R (t), both for t > 0. Record your results in Table 2. Have your lab instructor verify these values and obtain his/her signature at the beginning of lab. F Ω EE Department Page 2 March 26/28, 2007

3 EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 4. Experimental Preparation 4.1. Imitating a unit step We do not provide the equipment to produce and analyze the response of a single unit step. We model a unit step by generating a square wave with a period much greater than the time constant (τ) of the circuit (as was done in an earlier in lab). This provides enough time for the circuit to settle before another imitated unit step is initiated. The square wave generated should be 0 volts for 10τ and 1 Volt for another 10τ. Thus, the square wave period will be 20τ with a corresponding frequency of 1/(20τ). An amplitude of 1 Volt along with a D offset of 0.5 Volts must be set to ensure proper effect Measuring the Time onstant 1 The time constant is defined as the ratio1 e of the rise or fall to the final value. This corresponds to approximately 63% of the rise or fall to the final value. The voltage 1 corresponding to one time constant is v τ = [ v( ) v(0)] [1 e ] + v(0). The time constant can be computed by finding the time it takes to reach v τ. With one of the oscilloscope s vertical bars at the beginning of the unit step and one at v τ, the time difference will be displayed as T. A similar method can be used with the PSpice cursors. 5. Experimental Procedure 5.1. Equipment Tektronix TDS 3012B Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope Agilent 33120A Waveform Generator Resistors, Inductors, apacitors as Needed 5.2. Voltage Transient Response in R omponents Due to a Unit Step onstruct the circuit in Figure 1. The function generator should model a unit step as described in Subsection 4.1. Measure the voltage across the capacitor with one channel probe and the voltage across the function generator with the other channel probe. Enable the MATH function to display the voltage across the 680Ω resistor. Using the oscilloscope horizontal bars, measure the initial capacitor voltage, final capacitor voltage, initial 680Ω resistor voltage, final 680Ω resistor voltage and determine the time constant. astly, write the corresponding transient equations describing the voltages for t > 0 (for one unit step). Record these values in Table 3. EE Department Page 3 March 26/28, 2007

4 EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 Include an Oscilloscope Screenshot displaying both the capacitor and resistor voltage transient responses to a unit step in your write up Voltage transient response in R elements due to a unit step onstruct the circuit in Figure 2. The function generator should model a unit step as described in Subsection 4.2. As with the R circuit, place one channel probe across the unit step and the other across either the inductor or the 680Ω resistor utilizing the MATH function in a similar manner. The circuit components may be arranged in a different manner than that shown in Figure 2 for convenience. Measure the initial inductor voltage, final inductor voltage, initial 680Ω resistor voltage, final 680Ω resistor voltage, and determine the time constant. astly, write the corresponding transient equations describing the voltages for t > 0 (for one unit step). Record these values in Table 4. Include an Oscilloscope Screenshot displaying both the inductor and resistor voltage transient responses to a unit step in your write-up. 6. Simulated Procedure 6.1. Voltage Transient Response in R omponents Due to a Unit Step Generate a schematic modeling the R circuit s voltage transient response to a unit step. Using the PSpice cursor, measure the initial capacitor voltage, final capacitor voltage, initial 680Ω resistor voltage, final 680Ω resistor voltage and determine the time constant. astly, write the corresponding transient equations describing the voltages for t > 0 (for one unit step). Record these values in Table 5. Include a schematic screenshot and a screenshot of the transient analysis of the voltage across the function generator, the capacitor and the resistor. These three traces should be displayed on the same graph Voltage Transient Response in R Elements Due to a Unit Step Generate a computer simulation modeling the R circuit s voltage transient response to a unit step. Measure the initial inductor voltage, final inductor voltage, initial 680Ω resistor voltage, final 680Ω resistor voltage, and determine the time constant. astly, write the corresponding transient equations describing the voltages for t > 0 (for one unit step). Record these values in Table 6. Include a schematic screenshot and a screenshot of the transient analysis of the voltage across the function generator, the inductor and the resistor. These three traces should be displayed on the same graph. EE Department Page 4 March 26/28, 2007

5 EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 7. onclusions This concludes the lab. Make sure to return all components to their appropriate bins. This week you are not required to complete a full report. Instead, you will be writing a memo. The memo should include: The recipient (i.e. TA) and his/her general company (University) information The writer (you) and your general company (University) information The date The purpose of writing the memo (i.e. conveying your lab results) A brief discussion of your results in a clear manner Greeting and conclusion The discussion within the memo should include an explanation for the reasons for discrepancies between the theoretical, simulated and experimental values for v (t=0+), v (t= ),v (t=0+), v (t= ), v R (t=0+), v R (t= ) and τ. The memo should also include the following as attachment and refer to them in the body of the memo: The Data Entry and ab Instructor Signature Page with all recorded numbers. Any snapshots, circuit diagrams, and/or calculations requested in the procedure. EE Department Page 5 March 26/28, 2007

6 EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 Data Entry and ab Instructor Signature Page(s) Attach this/these page(s) to your write-up. Table 1: Theoretical R ircuit Values (Prelab) v c (t=0 + ) (V) v c (t= ) (V) v R (t=0 + ) (V) v R (t= ) (V) τ c (s) Transient Equation (apacitor): Table 2: Theoretical R ircuit Values (Prelab) v (t=0 + ) (V) v (t= ) (V) v R (t=0 + ) (V) v R (t= ) (V) τ (s) Transient Equation (Inductor): Prelab ompletion Signature Table 3: Measured R ircuit Values v c (t=0 + ) (V) v c (t= ) (V) v R (t=0 + ) (V) V R (t= ) (V) τ c (s) Transient Equation (apacitor): Table 4: Measured R ircuit Values v (t=0 + ) (V) v (t= ) (V) v R (t=0 + ) (V) V R (t= ) (V) τ (s) Transient Equation (Inductor): EE Department Page 6 March 26/28, 2007

7 EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 Table 5: Simulated R ircuit Values v c (t=0 + ) (V) v c (t= ) (V) v R (t=0 + ) (V) V R (t= ) (V) τ c (s) Transient Equation (apacitor): Table 6: Simulated R ircuit Values v (t=0 + ) (V) v (t= ) (V) v R (t=0 + ) (V) V R (t= ) (V) τ (s) Transient Equation (Inductor): EE Department Page 7 March 26/28, 2007

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