# Reading: HH Sections , (pgs , )

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and differentiator circuits. This lab will require two days. Reading: HH Sections , (pgs , ) 6.1 Output Capacity The most significant practical limits to what you can do with an op amp derive from the fact that the output voltage and current are limited. You saw in the previous exercise that the output voltage is constrained by the supply voltages driving the op amp, and that the output cannot generally swing all the way from one supply voltage to the other. In addition, the current that the op amp can supply is limited. These effects can be observed with the circuit of Fig. 1. For any practical V in, the output voltage will be clamped at one of its limits. The voltmeter thus measures how large an output voltage is achievable. As the potentiometer resistance is lowered, the op amp must supply more current to maintain its output. Eventually, this causes the output voltage to decline, necessarily reaching zero when the load resistance is zero. By varying the potentiometer setting, measure and plot the output voltage vs. output current for both signs of the input voltage. Measure and record the power supply voltages, for comparison. Note that the LF411 is designed to withstand being shorted to ground indefinitely, so you shouldn t damage anything. Not all amplifiers have that property, however, so in general you should check before doing an experiment like this. You should see that at low current, the output should swing to within a volt or so of the supplies (or rails ). Some op amps are designed to minimize this offset, and are called rail-to-rail designs. One important application is to single-sided operation, where all the signals of interest are positive and V S- is set to ground. If you tried to do that with an LF411, the op amp would be unable to produce 0 V out. If you need more voltage or current than an LF411 can handle, higher power op amps are available or you can boost the output power using a discrete transistor amplifier. in Figure 1: Measuring limits on output voltage and current 6-1

2 6.2 Offset Voltage 6 OP AMPS II in out Figure 2: 60 db amplifier. Figure 3: Offset trimming circuit. 6.2 Offset Voltage Ideally, if you present the same voltage to both inputs of an op amp, the output voltage will be zero. However, a real op amp gives zero output for some small but nonzero input voltage difference, V OS. To observe this, construct the 1000 amplifier of Fig. 2. If you ground the input, you should observe a non-zero output, equal to V OS times the amplifier gain. Compare your measured value to the specification V OS < 2 mv. As seen here, the offset voltage is large enough to be significant in a high-gain circuit. When this is a problem, it can be handled using the offset adjustment inputs, pins 1 and 5. Fig. 3 shows the standard offset trimming network. Wire this into your circuit and adjust the pot until the output voltage is zero. As handy as this is, V OS unfortunately varies over time and with temperature. You should be able to observe this by warming the chip up with your finger for a few seconds. Record your observations. 6.3 Bias Current An ideal op amp allows no current to enter its inputs. For ac signals, this is subverted by capacitive coupling between the inputs. However, even at dc, a small bias current is present. The size of the current depends very much on the op amp construction; for the LF411 it is specified to be below 100 pa. It can can be observed with the same circuit of Fig. 2. First, convince yourself that with the input grounded, any bias current (on the V + input) makes a neglible contribution to the output signal. That s why we didn t need to worry about the bias current while we were measuring V OS. With the offset voltage nulled as well as possible, attach V in to ground through a 1 MΩ resistor. You should be able to see a shift in the output level when measured with your DMM. Use the measured voltage to determine the bias current. Is it consistent with the op amp specifications? 6.4 Johnson Noise If you observe the output voltage from the previous circuit on the oscilloscope, rather than a DMM, you will notice that it appears quite noisy when the 1 MΩ resistor is in place. This isn t a fault of the op amp, but it is a general problem that arises when you are trying 6-2

3 6.5 Slew Rate 6 OP AMPS II to make a very precise circuit: resistors are noisy. The effect is known as Johnson noise, and comes from thermal excitation of the electromagnetic field in the resistor. Consulting a statistical mechanics text will give you the formula: V rms = 4k B T R f where k B = J/K is Boltzmann s constant, T is the temperature of the resistor, R is the resistance, and f is the bandwidth of the noise detector (in Hz). (If it ever comes up, you should replace R with the real part of the impedance when you need to find the Johnson noise across a complex network.) Unfortunately, it is difficult to determine the root-mean square noise amplitude from the signal on your scope, and the bandwidth f is not clear. However, by replacing the 1 MΩ input resistor by a 100 kω you should see the noise level decrease by about a factor of 10. Include a rough estimate of the noise level for each resistor in your report. We can make a better measurement using ELVIS. Open up the spectrum analyzer instrument, which is labelled DSA in the toolbar. Make sure the source channel is set to SCOPE CH 0, and hook your circuit output (with the 1 MΩ resistor on the input) into the CH 0 input on the side of the ELVIS board. Set the frequency span to 20 khz, and the voltage range to ±500 mv. Then run the analyzer. It will display the noise spectrum, defined as the amount of noise present at each sampled frequency. The signal is the rms noise, which is what we need to compare to the Johnson noise formula. Here the bandwidth f is the frequency range corresponding to each point displayed. You can determine it by dividing the frequency span by the number of points, here somewhat unfortunately called the Resolution (lines). Compare the measured values to the calculation, using the noise level observed around 1 khz range. (At lower frequencies, you can be fooled by dc offsets, and at higher frequencies, the gain of the amplifier is reduced.) How well does your observation correspond to the Johnson formula? Note that the noise level in dbv rms is defined as 20 log(v rms /1 V). Here the 1 V appears as a sort of normalization constant specifying what 0 dbv rms means. 6.5 Slew Rate Another important limitation of real op amps is that they can only respond at a finite speed. One reflection of this is the op amp s slew rate, which measures the rate at which the output voltage can change, typically in V/µs. Measure the slew rate with a simple follower, Fig. 4. Observe the output on the scope, at drive amplitudes of both 2 Vpp and 10 Vpp. The datasheet gives a minimum specification of 8 V/µs and typical value of 15 V/µs. Are your observations consistent with this? 6.6 Frequency Response The slew rate is one limit on an op amp s frequency response, but it is mostly important for large-amplitude output signals. Even for small signals, the op amp can only respond at finite speed, which leads to phase delays and reduced gain at high frequencies. This behavior can be quantified using the Bode plots we introduced in Lab

4 6.7 Integrator 6 OP AMPS II 1k V in 100 LF411 V out out 1k 10k Figure 4: Follower for measuring slew rate Figure 5: Divider and non-inverting amplifier. Unfortunately, the ELVIS Bode instrument is too slow for what we want to see, so you will need to take the data by hand. Set up the non-inverting amplifier shown in Fig. 5. Note the divider on the input, which makes it easier to get a sufficiently small drive signal. Set the function generator amplitude to 1 Vpp, and monitor V in and V out on your scope. Measure the gain and phase shift from 50 Hz to 5 MHz. You can take steps of a factor of 10 in regions where the phase is approximately constant, but use factors of 2-3 where something interesting is occuring. Note that you can increase the input amplitude at the higher frequencies, but make sure to keep the output amplitude below 1 V or so. Also, you will need to be careful to keep the traces centered on the scope; the dc level may shift at high frequencies due to nonlinear effects. (Using the scope s ac coupling feature might be useful here.) Plot your data (both gain in db and phase in degrees vs. log f) in your report. The unity gain point is defined as the frequency where the op amp gain drops to 0 db. Find this point and compare to the op-amp specification of 4 MHz. Now replace the 10k feedback resistor by a 100k resistor, making it a 101 amplifier. To compensate, turn the function generator amplitude down to 0.1 V. Measure the gain and phase over the same range as before. Add the data to the same Bode plots as the 11 circuit for comparison. This should illustrate how the frequency response of an op-amp circuit depends on both the intrinsic op-amp gain and the feedback network. 6.7 Integrator Construct the integrator circuit of Fig. 6. Drive it with a 500 Hz square wave from your function generator, but get everything, including the drive and scope, set up before you turn the circuit power on. Observe what happens when you do apply power. Why does the level drift? The circuit is a true integrator, so the output will ramp in response to a dc input. Perhaps the function generator outputs a small dc component, or perhaps it is just the offset voltage we encountered in section 6.2. In any case, the integrator is doing what it is supposed to, but the dc drift makes it hard to look at the waveform that 6-4

6 6.8 Differentiator 6 OP AMPS II R 100 pf V in C LF411 V out V in 1k 10 nf 100k LF411 V out Figure 7: (a) Ideal and (b) practical differentiator circuits. shown in Fig. 7(b). Here the extra components serve to roll off the gain at high frequencies. Given the component values shown, at what frequency should this circuit stop acting like a differentiator? Construct the circuit, and drive it with a 500 Hz triangle wave with 2 Vpp amplitude. Does the amplitude of the square wave output agree with what you calculate? Do the results for square wave and triangle wave inputs agree qualitatively with what you expect? Use ELVIS to measure the Bode plot for the differentiator, from 100 Hz to 100 khz. Again, set the op amp polarity to be negative, and think about what input voltage to use. (At what frequency will the gain be largest for this circuit?) Does the high frequency roll-off appear where you expect? Does the gain cross zero db where you expect? Plot the data in your report. 6-6

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

### Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A

### PIN CONFIGURATION FEATURES ORDERING INFORMATION ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS. D, F, N Packages

DESCRIPTION The µa71 is a high performance operational amplifier with high open-loop gain, internal compensation, high common mode range and exceptional temperature stability. The µa71 is short-circuit-protected

### Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

### Op Amp Circuit Collection

Op Amp Circuit Collection Note: National Semiconductor recommends replacing 2N2920 and 2N3728 matched pairs with LM394 in all application circuits. Section 1 Basic Circuits Inverting Amplifier Difference

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP Op-Amp Circuits: Bias, in an electronic circuit, describes the steady state operating characteristics with no signal being applied. In an op-amp circuit, the operating characteristic

### Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

### Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz

Author: Don LaFontaine Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz Abstract Making accurate voltage and current noise measurements on op amps in

### Precision Diode Rectifiers

by Kenneth A. Kuhn March 21, 2013 Precision half-wave rectifiers An operational amplifier can be used to linearize a non-linear function such as the transfer function of a semiconductor diode. The classic

### Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers The operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a basic building block of modern electronics. Op-amps date back to the early days of vacuum tubes, but they only became common

### LF442 Dual Low Power JFET Input Operational Amplifier

LF442 Dual Low Power JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description The LF442 dual low power operational amplifiers provide many of the same AC characteristics as the industry standard LM1458 while

### Fig. 1 :Block diagram symbol of the operational amplifier. Characteristics ideal op-amp real op-amp

Experiment: General Description An operational amplifier (op-amp) is defined to be a high gain differential amplifier. When using the op-amp with other mainly passive elements, op-amp circuits with various

### PowerAmp Design. PowerAmp Design PAD135 COMPACT HIGH VOLATGE OP AMP

PowerAmp Design COMPACT HIGH VOLTAGE OP AMP Rev G KEY FEATURES LOW COST SMALL SIZE 40mm SQUARE HIGH VOLTAGE 200 VOLTS HIGH OUTPUT CURRENT 10A PEAK 40 WATT DISSIPATION CAPABILITY 200V/µS SLEW RATE APPLICATIONS

### Technical Note #3. Error Amplifier Design and Applications. Introduction

Technical Note #3 Error Amplifier Design and Applications Introduction All regulating power supplies require some sort of closed-loop control to force the output to match the desired value. Both digital

### www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242

Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. LF411 Low Offset, Low Drift JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description

### Laboratory Manual. ELEN-325 Electronics

Laboratory Manual ELEN-325 Electronics Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Texas A&M University Prepared by: Dr. Jose Silva-Martinez (jsilva@ece.tamu.edu) Rida Assaad (rida@ece.tamu.edu) Raghavendra

### Operational Amplifiers

Module 6 Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers The Ideal Amplifier What you ll learn in Module 6. Section 6.0. Introduction to Operational Amplifiers. Understand Concept of the Ideal Amplifier and the Need

### Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers By: Gary A. Ybarra Christopher E. Cramer Duke University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Durham, NC. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to examine the properties

### Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

### 11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION The properties of an amplifying circuit using an op-amp depend primarily on the characteristics of the feedback network rather than on those of the op-amp itself. A

### Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

### High Speed, Low Power Monolithic Op Amp AD847

a FEATURES Superior Performance High Unity Gain BW: MHz Low Supply Current:.3 ma High Slew Rate: 3 V/ s Excellent Video Specifications.% Differential Gain (NTSC and PAL).9 Differential Phase (NTSC and

### Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

### Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

### 6.101 Final Project Report Class G Audio Amplifier

6.101 Final Project Report Class G Audio Amplifier Mark Spatz 4/3/2014 1 1 Introduction For my final project, I designed and built a 150 Watt audio amplifier to replace the underpowered and unreliable

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### Section 3. Sensor to ADC Design Example

Section 3 Sensor to ADC Design Example 3-1 This section describes the design of a sensor to ADC system. The sensor measures temperature, and the measurement is interfaced into an ADC selected by the systems

### WHY DIFFERENTIAL? instruments connected to the circuit under test and results in V COMMON.

WHY DIFFERENTIAL? Voltage, The Difference Whether aware of it or not, a person using an oscilloscope to make any voltage measurement is actually making a differential voltage measurement. By definition,

### TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier

TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description These devices are low cost high speed dual JFET input operational amplifiers with an internally trimmed input offset voltage

### Building the AMP Amplifier

Building the AMP Amplifier Introduction For about 80 years it has been possible to amplify voltage differences and to increase the associated power, first with vacuum tubes using electrons from a hot filament;

### Simple Op-Amp Circuits

ECE A Lab #4 Lab 4 Simple OpAmp Circuits Overview In this lab we introduce the operationalamplifier (opamp), an active circuit that is designed for certain characteristics (high input resistance, low output

### 30. Bode Plots. Introduction

0. Bode Plots Introduction Each of the circuits in this problem set is represented by a magnitude Bode plot. The network function provides a connection between the Bode plot and the circuit. To solve these

### DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b

DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,

### Physics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors - Ohmic region

Physics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors - Ohmic region The FET can be used in two extreme ways. One is as a voltage controlled resistance, in the so called "Ohmic" region, for which V DS < V GS - V

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

MODULE3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. Operational Amplifier Block Diagram... 3 3. Operational Amplifier Characteristics... 3 4. Operational Amplifier Package... 4 4.1 Op Amp Pins

### The Operational Amplfier Lab Guide

EECS 100 Lab Guide Bharathwaj Muthuswamy The Operational Amplfier Lab Guide 1. Introduction COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR THIS LAB : 1. LM741 op-amp integrated circuit (IC) 2. 1k resistors 3. 10k resistor 4.

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### AC 2012-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY

AC 212-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY Dr. Tooran Emami, U.S. Coast Guard Academy Tooran Emami received her M.S. and Ph.D.

### Four quadrant diode front end module for the Virgo Linear Alignment 3/ 30 mw, plus configuration

NI K HEF NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR AND HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS Four quadrant diode front end module for the Virgo Linear Alignment 3/ 30 mw, plus configuration Find the most recent files and related files

### LF412 Low Offset Low Drift Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier

LF412 Low Offset Low Drift Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description These devices are low cost high speed JFET input operational amplifiers with very low input offset voltage and guaranteed

### Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

### Step Response of RC Circuits

Step Response of RC Circuits 1. OBJECTIVES...2 2. REFERENCE...2 3. CIRCUITS...2 4. COMPONENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS...3 QUANTITY...3 DESCRIPTION...3 COMMENTS...3 5. DISCUSSION...3 5.1 SOURCE RESISTANCE...3

### Understanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling

Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,

### = V peak 2 = 0.707V peak

BASIC ELECTRONICS - RECTIFICATION AND FILTERING PURPOSE Suppose that you wanted to build a simple DC electronic power supply, which operated off of an AC input (e.g., something you might plug into a standard

### High Speed, Low Power Dual Op Amp AD827

a FEATURES High Speed 50 MHz Unity Gain Stable Operation 300 V/ms Slew Rate 120 ns Settling Time Drives Unlimited Capacitive Loads Excellent Video Performance 0.04% Differential Gain @ 4.4 MHz 0.198 Differential

### TS321 Low Power Single Operational Amplifier

SOT-25 Pin Definition: 1. Input + 2. Ground 3. Input - 4. Output 5. Vcc General Description The TS321 brings performance and economy to low power systems. With high unity gain frequency and a guaranteed

### Lecture 24. Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works)

Lecture 24 Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works) Copyright 2014 by Mark Horowitz 1 Roadmap: How Does This Work? 2 Processor Board 3 More Detailed Roadmap

### Lock - in Amplifier and Applications

Lock - in Amplifier and Applications What is a Lock in Amplifier? In a nut shell, what a lock-in amplifier does is measure the amplitude V o of a sinusoidal voltage, V in (t) = V o cos(ω o t) where ω o

### Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic op amp circuits,

### Dual Precision, Low Power BiFET Op Amp AD648 CONNECTION DIAGRAMS

a FEATURES DC Performance 400 A max Quiescent Current 10 pa max Bias Current, Warmed Up (AD648C) 300 V max Offset Voltage (AD648C) 3 V/ C max Drift (AD648C) 2 V p-p Noise, 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz AC Performance

### LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers

LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers General Description The LM118 series are precision high speed operational amplifiers designed for applications requiring wide bandwidth and high slew rate. They

### LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

### TESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin

TESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin (Updated 7/19/08 to delete sine wave output) I constructed the 1 MHz square wave generator shown in the Appendix. This

### LM741. Single Operational Amplifier. Features. Description. Internal Block Diagram. www.fairchildsemi.com

Single Operational Amplifier www.fairchildsemi.com Features Short circuit protection Excellent temperature stability Internal frequency compensation High Input voltage range Null of offset Description

### Supertex inc. HV256. 32-Channel High Voltage Amplifier Array HV256. Features. General Description. Applications. Typical Application Circuit

32-Channel High Voltage Amplifier Array Features 32 independent high voltage amplifiers 3V operating voltage 295V output voltage 2.2V/µs typical output slew rate Adjustable output current source limit

### Application of Rail-to-Rail Operational Amplifiers

Application Report SLOA039A - December 1999 Application of Rail-to-Rail Operational Amplifiers Andreas Hahn Mixed Signal Products ABSTRACT This application report assists design engineers to understand

### DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides

### Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Preliminary Data SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone, 2 tones, 3 tones

### TL084 TL084A - TL084B

A B GENERAL PURPOSE JFET QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS WIDE COMMONMODE (UP TO V + CC ) AND DIFFERENTIAL VOLTAGE RANGE LOW INPUT BIAS AND OFFSET CURRENT OUTPUT SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTION HIGH INPUT IMPEDANCE

### Wide Bandwidth, Fast Settling Difet OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

Wide Bandwidth, Fast Settling Difet OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER FEATURES HIGH GAIN-BANDWIDTH: 35MHz LOW INPUT NOISE: 1nV/ Hz HIGH SLEW RATE: V/µs FAST SETTLING: 24ns to.1% FET INPUT: I B = 5pA max HIGH OUTPUT

### HA-5104/883. Low Noise, High Performance, Quad Operational Amplifier. Features. Description. Applications. Ordering Information. Pinout.

HA5104/883 April 2002 Features This Circuit is Processed in Accordance to MILSTD 883 and is Fully Conformant Under the Provisions of Paragraph 1.2.1. Low Input Noise Voltage Density at 1kHz. 6nV/ Hz (Max)

### Description. Output Stage. 5k (10k) - + 5k (10k)

THAT Corporation Low Noise, High Performance Audio Preamplifier IC FEATURES Low Noise: 1 nv/hz input noise (60dB gain) 34 nv/hz input noise (0dB gain) (1512) Low THD+N (full audio bandwidth): 0.0005% 40dB

### Features. Ordering Information. * Underbar marking may not be to scale. Part Identification

MIC86 Teeny Ultra Low Power Op Amp General Description The MIC86 is a rail-to-rail output, input common-mode to ground, operational amplifier in Teeny SC7 packaging. The MIC86 provides 4kHz gain-bandwidth

### OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS IN ANALOG ELECTRONICS

1. The early effect in a bipolar junction transistor is caused by (a) fast turn-on (c) large collector-base reverse bias (b)fast turn-off (d) large emitter-base forward bias 2. MOSFET can be used as a

### High Common-Mode Rejection. Differential Line Receiver SSM2141. Fax: 781/461-3113 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM FEATURES. High Common-Mode Rejection

a FEATURES High Common-Mode Rejection DC: 00 db typ 60 Hz: 00 db typ 20 khz: 70 db typ 40 khz: 62 db typ Low Distortion: 0.00% typ Fast Slew Rate: 9.5 V/ s typ Wide Bandwidth: 3 MHz typ Low Cost Complements

### Description. 5k (10k) - + 5k (10k)

THAT Corporation Low Noise, High Performance Microphone Preamplifier IC FEATURES Excellent noise performance through the entire gain range Exceptionally low THD+N over the full audio bandwidth Low power

### Precision, Unity-Gain Differential Amplifier AMP03

a FEATURES High CMRR: db Typ Low Nonlinearity:.% Max Low Distortion:.% Typ Wide Bandwidth: MHz Typ Fast Slew Rate: 9.5 V/ s Typ Fast Settling (.%): s Typ Low Cost APPLICATIONS Summing Amplifiers Instrumentation

### Objectives The purpose of this lab is build and analyze Differential amplifiers based on NPN transistors (or NMOS transistors).

1 Lab 03: Differential Amplifiers (BJT) (20 points) NOTE: 1) Please use the basic current mirror from Lab01 for the second part of the lab (Fig. 3). 2) You can use the same chip as the basic current mirror;

### Scaling and Biasing Analog Signals

Scaling and Biasing Analog Signals November 2007 Introduction Scaling and biasing the range and offset of analog signals is a useful skill for working with a variety of electronics. Not only can it interface

### CAN Bus Transceivers Operate from 3.3V or 5V and Withstand ±60V Faults

CAN Bus Transceivers Operate from 3.3V or 5V and Withstand ±6 Faults Ciaran Brennan design features The LTC2875 is a robust CAN bus transceiver that features ±6 overvoltage and ±25kV ESD tolerance to reduce

### Programmable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifiers Maximize Dynamic Range in Spectroscopy Systems

Programmable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifiers Maximize Dynamic Range in Spectroscopy Systems PHOTODIODE VOLTAGE SHORT-CIRCUIT PHOTODIODE SHORT- CIRCUIT VOLTAGE 0mV DARK ark By Luis Orozco Introduction Precision

### DESCRIPTION FEATURES TYPICAL APPLICATION. LT1097 Low Cost, Low Power Precision Op Amp APPLICATIONS

LT97 Low Cost, Low Power Precision Op Amp FEATRES Offset Voltage µv Max Offset Voltage Drift µv/ C Max Bias Current pa Max Offset Current pa Max Bias and Offset Current Drift pa/ C Max Supply Current µa

### Karaoke Circuit Building Instructions

Karaoke Circuit Building Instructions Background Most popular and rock music recordings use multiple microphones and mixers to generate the left and right signals. Listening in stereo gives a broad presence

### isim ACTIVE FILTER DESIGNER NEW, VERY CAPABLE, MULTI-STAGE ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN TOOL

isim ACTIVE FILTER DESIGNER NEW, VERY CAPABLE, MULTI-STAGE ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN TOOL Michael Steffes Sr. Applications Manager 12/15/2010 SIMPLY SMARTER Introduction to the New Active Filter Designer Scope

### *For stability of the feedback loop, the differential gain must vary as

ECE137a Lab project 3 You will first be designing and building an op-amp. The op-amp will then be configured as a narrow-band amplifier for amplification of voice signals in a public address system. Part

### Inductors in AC Circuits

Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum

### AUDIO BALANCED LINE DRIVERS

DRV DRV DRV DRV DRV AUDIO BALAED LINE DRIVERS FEATURES BALAED OUTPUT LOW DISTORTION:.% at f = khz WIDE OUTPUT SWING: Vrms into Ω HIGH CAPACITIVE LOAD DRIVE HIGH SLEW RATE: V/µs WIDE SUPPLY RANGE: ±.V to

### VCO Phase noise. Characterizing Phase Noise

VCO Phase noise Characterizing Phase Noise The term phase noise is widely used for describing short term random frequency fluctuations of a signal. Frequency stability is a measure of the degree to which

### Pressure Transducer to ADC Application

Application Report SLOA05 October 2000 Pressure Transducer to ADC Application John Bishop ABSTRACT Advanced Analog Products/OpAmp Applications A range of bridgetype transducers can measure numerous process

### More Op-Amp Circuits; Temperature Sensing

ECE 2A Lab #5 Lab 5 More OpAmp Circuits; Temperature Sensing Overview In this lab we will continue our exploration of opamps but this time in the context of a specific application: temperature sensing.

### Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits

E1.1 Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits The purpose of the this lab is to introduce you to some basic instrumentation used in electrical circuits. You will learn to use a DC power supply, a digital multimeter

### MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES

200 WOOD AVENUE, MIDDLESEX, NJ 08846 PHONE (732) 469-9510 FAX (732) 469-0418 MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES MTN-107 TEST SETUP FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF X-MOD, CTB, AND CSO USING A MEAN SQUARE CIRCUIT AS A DETECTOR

### Low Cost Instrumentation Amplifier AD622

Data Sheet FEATURES Easy to use Low cost solution Higher performance than two or three op amp design Unity gain with no external resistor Optional gains with one external resistor (Gain range: 2 to 000)

### QUICK START GUIDE FOR DEMONSTRATION CIRCUIT 956 24-BIT DIFFERENTIAL ADC WITH I2C LTC2485 DESCRIPTION

LTC2485 DESCRIPTION Demonstration circuit 956 features the LTC2485, a 24-Bit high performance Σ analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The LTC2485 features 2ppm linearity, 0.5µV offset, and 600nV RMS noise.

### MATERIALS. Multisim screen shots sent to TA.

Page 1/8 Revision 0 9-Jun-10 OBJECTIVES Learn new Multisim components and instruments. Conduct a Multisim transient analysis. Gain proficiency in the function generator and oscilloscope. MATERIALS Multisim

### A Low-Cost VCA Limiter

The circuits within this application note feature THAT218x to provide the essential function of voltage-controlled amplifier (VCA). Since writing this note, THAT has introduced a new dual VCA, as well

### Experiment # (4) AM Demodulator

Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (4) AM Demodulator Communications Engineering I (Lab.) Prepared by: Eng. Omar A. Qarmout Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment

### Analog Signal Conditioning

Analog Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Electronics Electronics Digital Electronics Analog Electronics 2 Analog Electronics Analog Electronics Operational Amplifiers Transistors TRIAC 741 LF351 TL084

### LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Bridge Rectifier

LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER Full-wave Rectification: Bridge Rectifier For many electronic circuits, DC supply voltages are required but only AC voltages are available.

### LM2902. Low-power quad operational amplifier. Features. Description

Low-power quad operational amplifier Datasheet production data Features Wide gain bandwidth: 1.3 MHz Input common-mode voltage range includes negative rail Large voltage gain: 100 db Very low supply current

### Homework Assignment 03

Question 1 (2 points each unless noted otherwise) Homework Assignment 03 1. A 9-V dc power supply generates 10 W in a resistor. What peak-to-peak amplitude should an ac source have to generate the same

### Isolated AC Sine Wave Input 3B42 / 3B43 / 3B44 FEATURES APPLICATIONS PRODUCT OVERVIEW FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM

Isolated AC Sine Wave Input 3B42 / 3B43 / 3B44 FEATURES AC averaging technique used to rectify, amplify, and filter 50 Hz to 400 Hz sine-wave signals. Accepts inputs of between 20 mv to 550 V rms to give

### Current Loop Tuning Procedure. Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) General Procedure AN-015

Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) The standard tuning values used in ADVANCED Motion Controls drives are conservative and work well in over 90%