SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature"

Transcription

1 SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what makes a good conductor. Learning Objectives Students will be able to: Distinguish between heat and temperature at the atomic level. Determine temperature is related to both the speed and the mass of atoms. Explain that temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules in a system. Experiment with the amount of energy and the size of a system and its relationship to a rise in temperature. Compare thermal radiation and heat conduction. Possible Student Pre/Misconceptions Heat and temperature are the same thing. Heat is a form of energy. Heat is a physical substance, such as steam. Heating a substance increases the motion of atoms only. Models to Highlight and Possible Discussion Questions After completion of Part 1 of the activity: Models to Highlight: Page 2 Bottom Model o Use this model to highlight the ways in which the mass of atoms and temperature of the system is related to the motion of the atoms. o Link to other SAM activities: Atoms and Energy. Review the concepts of heat increasing the energy in a system. Page 4 Equilibrium Model o Use this model to discuss the difference in the system from when the divider is present (for the first few seconds) and when the divider is removed. Discuss what happens to the temperature of the two containers once the separator is removed. o Link to other SAM activities: Atoms and Energy. Review the concepts of energy transfer.

2 Possible Discussion Questions: What is the difference between heat and temperature? How does the kinetic energy of a substance depend on temperature and mass? Hint: Refer to the equation KE = ½ mv 2 Have students share real world examples of systems reaching equilibrium and / or of substances that start out at different temperatures and end up the same temperature over time. Ask students to describe what is happening at the atomic level. After completion of Part 2 of the activity: Models to Highlight: Page 6 Heat Conduction o Take this opportunity to discuss the different shape of the conductors and their properties. Analyze the effect of the type of conductor used on the time it takes the two materials to reach a temperature equilibrium. Page 8 Thermal Radiation o Use this model to discuss the presence of photons emitted from vibrational energy and the difference between this and atom toatom contact. o Link to other SAM activities: Energetic States and Photons. Use this to preview the idea of quantized energy levels and photons. Possible Discussion Questions: What properties of a conductor will determine how effective it is at heat transfer? Have students share some examples of very efficient and inefficient conductors. Students can share ideas about why different materials could be used for varied purposes. Have students brainstorm examples of heat transfer and thermal radiation focusing on how they are different.

3 Connections to Other SAM Activities This activity helps students learn that temperature is the average kinetic energy of atoms whereas heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. Atoms and Energy supports this activity. Students learn what kinetic energy is and how energy is transferred between kinetic and potential forms. Heat and Temperature addresses the concept that atoms are in constant motion due to thermal energy. This is evident in almost all of the other SAM activities. However, there are some key lessons where this point is particularly highlighted. In Electricity, an electric current heating a filament causes a light bulb to glow. Understanding heat is essential to understanding this model. In Excited States and Photons, kinetic energy is

4 converted into the excited states of atoms and is released in the form of a photon. Phase Change explores what happens to substance as heat is added and/or removed. The Gas Laws activity explores the relationships between pressure, volume, and temperature within gases. Intermolecular Attractions are illustrated by how tightly or loosely atoms are attracted to one another. This is demonstrated by using heat to break bonds between different atoms. For solids, the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given solvent increases as the temperature is raised, and is shown in Solubility. When analyzing chemical reactions in Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry, it is evident that increases in temperature usually increase the reaction rate due to more frequent atomic collisions. In Chemical Reactions and Energy, an understanding of heat and temperature is necessary to analyze endothermic and exothermic reactions. Finally, in Four Levels of Protein Structure, the binding strength (strength of attraction) between proteins (or a protein ligand) is based on the ability they have to stay together given thermal motion.

5 Activity Answer Guide Page 1: 1. Compare the motion of the air molecules at high and low temperatures. The air molecules move faster at higher temperatures and slower at lower temperatures. Page 2: 1. The temperature of a substance is related to: (c) 2. A substance composed of atoms A and another composed of atoms B are at the same temperature, but atom A is ten times more massive. How does the speed of A compare to the speed of B, on average? The speed of atoms A will be slower than the average speed of atoms B. The more massive the atoms, the slower they will move when the temperature is held constant. 3. Which type of atom has the greater mass? (a) 4. The yellow and pink atoms in the container are the same temperature. Use what you know about kinetic energy to explain what you observe in the model. The total KE is the same for both the pink and yellow atoms. You can see that the less massive atoms (the yellow) are moving faster because they are affected more by the temperature than the more massive atoms (the pink). Page 3: 1. What did you observe about the kinetic energy (KE) of the atoms? (e) 2. If we add another box to the model, the average kinetic energy of atoms within the box will: (a, b and e) 3. Describe how changing the number of atoms in the box (by changing the size) affects the temperature. (c) 4. How is the average KE affected by adding or subtracting heat? Adding heat increases the average KE because the particles are moving faster and colliding more often. Subtracting heat lowers the average KE as the particles slow down and run into each other less. Page 4: 1. What will happen to the temperatures in the chambers if the temperature of the left one is higher than that of the right one? (d) 2. What do you think happens that causes both chambers to reach the same temperature in the above simulation? The particles are moving randomly and colliding. As they do, they transfer their KE to each other including to atoms in the other container. In an open system, these interactions will continue until the temperature is the same in both. Page 5: 1. Write down the temperatures of the large and small solids after you have hit the "Add energy" button 10 times. Describe the relationship between the readings and the size of the solids. For a large solid, the average temperature was about 400K after hitting the "Add Energy" button ten times. For a small solid, the average temperature was approximately 800K. As the size of the solid increases, it takes more energy to increase the temperature of the system. This is because there are more atoms that need to be "hit" or impacted by the transfer of energy. 2. How many times do you need to click the "Add energy" button on the small solid to reach approximately the same temperature of the large solid after you hit the "Add energy" button 10 times? (b) Page 6:

6 1. Which one in the above results in the fastest heat transfer between the hot and cold solid? (b) 2. A radiator heats a house by pumping a hot liquid through tubes folded as shown in the image on the left. What do you learn from the experiment on this page that can explain why the tube is made in such a shape? Heat conduction will be most efficient using this shape. The thin, short tubes that turn many times offer a lot of surface area for heat conduction with the colder surrounding air to take place. Page 7:. 1. How is thermal radiation different from heat conduction in transferring heat? (Check all that apply.) (b) (c) Page 8: 1. Take a snapshot of the model that shows thermal expansion, and then follow the instruction below to drag in the snapshot image. Sample snapshot: This snapshot of the graph shows an increase in energy when the solid is being heated. Page 9: 1. What is true of the kinetic energy of each individual atom when a substance has reached a certain temperature? (b) 2. Which of the following means of heat transfer explains why Jane's hand was burned after she touched the hot pot? (a) 3. When a hot and cold object are placed in contact, the hot one loses energy. Does this violate energy conservation? Why or why not? This does not violate the Law of Energy Conservation of a system. Although the hot object loses energy, the cooler object will gain energy. As a system, energy is conserved. Sample snapshot: Thermal expansion is shown here because the volume of the heated solid has increased. 2. Take a snapshot of the graph that shows the increasing of energy when heated, and then follow the instruction below to drag in the snapshot image. 4. When you place a hot cup of tea down, why does the cup of tea get cooler and the counter get warmer? Be sure to talk about kinetic energy and temperature in your explanation. Heat is being transferred from the cup of tea (the object with the higher temperature) to the countertop (the object with the lower temperature). The kinetic energy of the atoms in the cup of tea is being transferred to the atoms in the countertop. The temperature, therefore, decreases in the cup and increases in the countertop.

7 5. A vacuum flask (sometimes called a Thermos bottle) is a double-wall container with a vacuum between the two walls. How does the flask keep its contents hotter than the outside air? A vacuum is an extremely poor conductor of heat. Placing a vacuum between the two walls keeps the contents hotter than outside air because the presence of the vacuum limits the transfer of heat. Heat will ultimately be transferred slowly through the cap (for example), but will keep the substance much hotter than another type of container. 6. A gas contains equal numbers of atoms of radon (atomic mass = 222) and helium (atomic mass = 4). In equilibrium, which kind of atom is a) going faster, b) has more average KE, and c) is hotter? Explain your answers. a) The helium atoms are moving faster because they are lighter, according to the equation KE = ½ mv 2. b) The average KE is the same for all of the atoms in the gas because KE is being transferred from atom to atom as they collide. c) The average temperature is the same for all of the atoms in the gas. If heat is added to the system, the KE of the atoms will increase.

8 SAM HOMEWORK QUESTIONS Heat and Temperature Directions: After completing the unit, answer the following questions to review. 1. What is the difference between the terms heat and temperature? 2. How is the movement of air molecules different in the summer than in the winter? 3. Explain the following statement: Temperature in a system is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in that system. 4. What happens to the kinetic energy of molecules in a system as they collide? 5. Explain how the snapshot to the right is an illustration of thermal expansion. 6. Heat conduction refers to heat flowing from a hot body to a cold body when they come into contact. Give an example of heat conduction that you have observed in everyday life. Then explain what is happening at the atomic level. Are all substances equally good at conducting heat? 7. Career Connection: Find a picture of a computer model that is modeling some form of heat transfer and give a brief description of the illustration. Examples might be home design to maximize energy efficiency, or new materials that help move heat away from electronics like computer chips.

9 SAM HOMEWORK QUESTIONS Heat and Temperature With Suggested Answers for Teachers Directions: After completing the unit, answer the following questions to review. 1. What is the difference between the terms heat and temperature? Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy while heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. 2. How is the movement of air molecules different in the summer than in the winter? Air molecules are in greater motion in the summer because the temperature is higher than in winter. Their increased kinetic energy causes more collisions between molecules. 3. Explain the following statement: Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of molecules in an isolated system. The average kinetic energy is the total kinetic energy divided by the number of atoms. Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of all the atoms in the isolated system. 4. What happens to the kinetic energy of molecules as they collide? Some atoms have higher kinetic energy and some have lower kinetic energy. When they collide energy from the atom with the higher kinetic energy is transferred to the molecule with lower kinetic energy. 5. Explain how the snapshot to the right is an illustration of thermal expansion. As a substance is heated, 1) the temperature increases and 2) atoms move apart, thus taking up more space. Thermal expansion, which is an increase in volume, is shown by the atoms over the original line. 6. Heat conduction refers to heat flowing from a hot body to a cold body when they come into contact. Give an example of heat conduction that you have observed in everyday life. Then explain what is happening at the atomic level. Are all substances equally good at conducting heat? If you put a hot cup of soup down on the counter, it gets cold over time. The kinetic energy of the atoms in the cup of soup is being transferred to the atoms in the countertop. No, all substances are not equally good at conducting heat. 7. Career Connection: Find an image of heat transfer modeling and give a brief description. There are many examples of modeling heat flow. One way to find them is to google modeling heat flow and take a look at the images link to show images matching that search phrase.

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

More information

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

More information

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer. Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work?

What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work? What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work? Compare kinetic and potential energy What are the different types of energy? What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Great, but

More information

A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences.

A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. I. MOLECULES IN MOTION: A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. 1) theory developed in the late 19 th century to

More information

Convection, Conduction & Radiation

Convection, Conduction & Radiation Convection, Conduction & Radiation There are three basic ways in which heat is transferred: convection, conduction and radiation. In gases and liquids, heat is usually transferred by convection, in which

More information

Chapter Test A. States of Matter MULTIPLE CHOICE. a fixed amount of STAs2 a. a solid. b. a liquid. c. a gas. d. any type of matter.

Chapter Test A. States of Matter MULTIPLE CHOICE. a fixed amount of STAs2 a. a solid. b. a liquid. c. a gas. d. any type of matter. Assessment Chapter Test A States of Matter MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided. 1. Boyle s law explains the relationship between volume and pressure for a fixed

More information

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another

More information

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture 5.1 Temperature and Molecular Motion What is evaporative cooling? 5.2 Temperature and Phase Changes How much energy is required for a phase

More information

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Goals of Period 4 Section 4.1: To define temperature and thermal energy Section 4.2: To discuss three methods of thermal energy transfer. Section 4.3: To describe

More information

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7 Heat Energy This lesson is designed for 3rd 5th grade students in a variety of school settings (public, private, STEM schools, and home schools) in the seven states served

More information

Processes Within an Ecosystem

Processes Within an Ecosystem Grade 7 Science, Quarter 1, Unit 1.1 Processes Within an Ecosystem Overview Number of instructional days: 23 (1 day = 50 minutes) Content to be learned Identify which biotic and abiotic factors affect

More information

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Introduction We have learned that heat is the energy that makes molecules move. Molecules with more heat energy move faster, and molecules with less

More information

Chapter 6, Lesson 4: Temperature and the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Chapter 6, Lesson 4: Temperature and the Rate of a Chemical Reaction Chapter 6, Lesson 4: Temperature and the Rate of a Chemical Reaction Key Concepts Reactants must be moving fast enough and hit each other hard enough for a chemical reaction to take place. Increasing the

More information

Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb.

Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb. Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 13 Review Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. In all cooling

More information

Chapter 1 Student Reading

Chapter 1 Student Reading Chapter 1 Student Reading Chemistry is the study of matter You could say that chemistry is the science that studies all the stuff in the entire world. A more scientific term for stuff is matter. So chemistry

More information

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states. Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

More information

Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws

Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws I. Handout: Unit Notes II. Modeling at the Atomic Scale I. In another unit you learned about the history of the atom and the different models people had of what the

More information

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures

More information

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature: Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

More information

Chapter 5 Student Reading

Chapter 5 Student Reading Chapter 5 Student Reading THE POLARITY OF THE WATER MOLECULE Wonderful water Water is an amazing substance. We drink it, cook and wash with it, swim and play in it, and use it for lots of other purposes.

More information

Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar

Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar Forms of Energy Freshman Seminar Energy Energy The ability & capacity to do work Energy can take many different forms Energy can be quantified Law of Conservation of energy In any change from one form

More information

Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam

Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam Page 1 Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam Multiple Choice. Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Two gases with unequal masses are injected into opposite

More information

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

Preview of Period 2: Forms of Energy

Preview of Period 2: Forms of Energy Preview of Period 2: Forms of Energy 2.1 Forms of Energy How are forms of energy defined? 2.2 Energy Conversions What happens when energy is converted from one form into another form? 2.3 Efficiency of

More information

The Structure of Water Introductory Lesson

The Structure of Water Introductory Lesson Dana V. Middlemiss Fall 2002 The Structure of Water Introductory Lesson Abstract: This is an introduction to the chemical nature of water and its interactions. In particular, this lesson will explore evaporation,

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter

Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter What is matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space Chemical or Physical Property? Physical properties of matter: characteristics that can be observed or

More information

A n = 2 to n = 1. B n = 3 to n = 1. C n = 4 to n = 2. D n = 5 to n = 2

A n = 2 to n = 1. B n = 3 to n = 1. C n = 4 to n = 2. D n = 5 to n = 2 North arolina Testing Program EO hemistry Sample Items Goal 4 1. onsider the spectrum for the hydrogen atom. In which situation will light be produced? 3. Which color of light would a hydrogen atom emit

More information

Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas

Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas 1 of 6 Thermodynamics Summer 2006 Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas The study of thermodynamics usually starts with the concepts of temperature and heat, and most people feel that the temperature of an object

More information

Physics 1104 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions

Physics 1104 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions Physics 114 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions These review sheets cover only selected topics from the chemical and nuclear energy chapters and are not meant to be a comprehensive review. Topics covered in these

More information

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate.

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. Q. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The student measured

More information

Forms of Energy Explain

Forms of Energy Explain Forms of Energy Explain DIRECTIONS 1. For the Explain portion of the section, work through each slide 2. For each form there are three slides: 1. Introduce the form of energy 2. Give examples of the form

More information

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

More information

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Completion: 1. Mass 13. Kinetic 2. Four 14. thermal 3. Kinetic 15. Thermal energy (heat) 4. Electromagnetic/Radiant 16. Thermal energy (heat) 5. Thermal 17.

More information

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics Some Important Topics First Law of Thermodynamics Internal Energy U ( or E) Enthalpy H Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy S Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute Entropy

More information

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

More information

States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS]

States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS] OpenStax-CNX module: m38210 1 States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS] Free High School Science Texts Project This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative

More information

Temperature. Temperature

Temperature. Temperature Chapter 8 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end Temperature

More information

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Thermal Energy) From Invitations to Science Inquiry 2 nd Edition by Tik L. Liem: Activity Page Number Concept Warm a Bottle by Shaking 184 Heat, Friction The Confused Bottles 206

More information

13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

More information

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson Thermochemistry r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc Ron Robertson I. What is Energy? A. Energy is a property of matter that allows work to be done B. Potential and Kinetic Potential energy

More information

Chapter 3 Student Reading

Chapter 3 Student Reading Chapter 3 Student Reading If you hold a solid piece of lead or iron in your hand, it feels heavy for its size. If you hold the same size piece of balsa wood or plastic, it feels light for its size. The

More information

Chapter 2, Lesson 5: Changing State Melting

Chapter 2, Lesson 5: Changing State Melting Chapter 2, Lesson 5: Changing State Melting Key Concepts Melting is a process that causes a substance to change from a solid to a liquid. Melting occurs when the molecules of a solid speed up enough that

More information

Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat 1. The temperature of a substance is A. proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. B. equal to the kinetic energy of the fastest moving

More information

Properties and Classifications of Matter

Properties and Classifications of Matter PS-3.1 Distinguish chemical properties of matter (including reactivity) from physical properties of matter (including boiling point, freezing/melting point, density [with density calculations], solubility,

More information

Chapter 2: Forms of Energy

Chapter 2: Forms of Energy Chapter 2: Forms of Energy Goals of Period 2 Section 2.1: To describe the forms of energy Section 2.2: To illustrate conversions from one form of energy to another Section 2.3 To describe energy storage

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 3 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 3 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 3. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Vacuum Evaporation Recap

Vacuum Evaporation Recap Sputtering Vacuum Evaporation Recap Use high temperatures at high vacuum to evaporate (eject) atoms or molecules off a material surface. Use ballistic flow to transport them to a substrate and deposit.

More information

AZ State Standards. Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred.

AZ State Standards. Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred. Forms of Energy AZ State Standards Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred. PO 1. Describe the following ways in which

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Introduction Heat transfer is the movement of heat energy from one place to another. Heat energy can be transferred by three different mechanisms: convection,

More information

5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Energy and States of Matter 5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 5.1 At the top of the hill, all of the energy of the car is in the form of potential energy. As it descends down the hill, potential

More information

Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms

Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms Module 2.2 Heat transfer mechanisms Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics. - Describe heat transfer mechanisms.

More information

PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other. PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,

More information

Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt.

Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt. Section 2: Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the parts of a chemical reaction?

More information

Watch as energy changes form when steel spheres are smashed together.

Watch as energy changes form when steel spheres are smashed together. P h y s i c s Q u e s t A c t i v i t i e s Activity 4 1 Smashing Spheres Watch as energy changes form when steel spheres are smashed together. Safety: Be careful when smashing the spheres. Do not smash

More information

Introduction to Chapter 27

Introduction to Chapter 27 9 Heating and Cooling Introduction to Chapter 27 What process does a hot cup of coffee undergo as it cools? How does your bedroom become warm during the winter? How does the cooling system of a car work?

More information

Energy comes in many flavors!

Energy comes in many flavors! Forms of Energy Energy is Fun! Energy comes in many flavors! Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Thermal/heat Energy Chemical Energy Electrical Energy Electrochemical Energy Electromagnetic Radiation Energy

More information

Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions

Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions TEK 6.9C: Demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical

More information

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound Science Benchmark: 06:06 Heat, light, and sound are all forms of energy. Heat can be transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. Visible light can be produced, reflected, refracted, and separated

More information

Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

More information

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Radiation Radiation: Heat energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves Q t = εσat 4 emissivity

More information

In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an

In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an What is energy? In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. Energy is expressed in units of joules (J). A joule is calculated

More information

Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C

Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B

More information

Chapter 4 Practice Quiz

Chapter 4 Practice Quiz Chapter 4 Practice Quiz 1. Label each box with the appropriate state of matter. A) I: Gas II: Liquid III: Solid B) I: Liquid II: Solid III: Gas C) I: Solid II: Liquid III: Gas D) I: Gas II: Solid III:

More information

Learning outcomes. Students will be able to:

Learning outcomes. Students will be able to: Learning structure of the lesson The big picture This lesson is designed to exemplify an argumentation approach to practical work, using a predict-observe-explain framework. Students often think that some

More information

KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS 1. Basic ideas Kinetic theory based on experiments, which proved that a) matter contains particles and quite a lot of space between them b) these particles always move

More information

Melting ice Student sheet

Melting ice Student sheet Melting ice Student sheet Predict Which ice cube will melt first? Observe Describe what you saw happen. Why? (Give a scientific explanation) Questions to think about: Why does ice melt? Why might one ice

More information

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein

More information

Energy What is Energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Any object that has energy has the ability to create force. Energy is one of the fundamental building blocks of our universe. Energy appears in

More information

Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

More information

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389)

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) 13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

More information

Energy Test Study Guide

Energy Test Study Guide Name: Energy Test Study Guide (Test Dates: A Day May 5 th B Day May 6 th ) USE YOUR INTERACTIVE NOTEBOOK TO STUDY CLASSROOM ASSIGNMENTS, LABS, FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS, AND HOMEWORK. ENERGY AND THE TWO MAIN

More information

Provided by TryEngineering - www.tryengineering.org

Provided by TryEngineering - www.tryengineering.org Provided by TryEngineering - Lesson Focus Lesson focuses on the engineering behind keeping food and other items cool. Students work in teams to develop a system to make an insulated liquid container that

More information

Energetic Reactions: Ice Cream Experiment Teacher Guide

Energetic Reactions: Ice Cream Experiment Teacher Guide Module Overview Heat transfer is an important part of many chemical reactions, but it is often not directly observed. In this module students conduct an experiment making homemade ice cream that requires

More information

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below

More information

Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion.

Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion. Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion. Position: This means that matter can have energy even though it is not moving. If you knock something off of your kitchen counter,

More information

Bounce! Name. Be very careful with the balls. Do not throw them DROP the balls as instructed in the procedure.

Bounce! Name. Be very careful with the balls. Do not throw them DROP the balls as instructed in the procedure. Bounce 1 Name Bounce! Be very careful with the balls. Do not throw them DROP the balls as instructed in the procedure. Background information: Energy causes things to happen. During the day, the sun gives

More information

9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE

9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE 9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 6 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE The purpose of this lab is to investigate how properties of gases pressure, temperature, and volume are related. Also, you will

More information

CHAPTER 13: SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 13: SOLUTIONS CHAPTER 13: SOLUTIONS Problems: 1-8, 11-15, 20-30, 37-88, 107-110, 131-132 13.2 SOLUTIONS: HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES solution: homogeneous mixture of substances present as atoms, ions, and/or molecules solute:

More information

Surface Tension. the surface tension of a liquid is the energy required to increase the surface area a given amount

Surface Tension. the surface tension of a liquid is the energy required to increase the surface area a given amount Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 Surface Tension surface tension is a property of liquids that results from the tendency of liquids to minimize their surface area in order to minimize their surface

More information

Solubility Curve of Sugar in Water

Solubility Curve of Sugar in Water Solubility Curve of Sugar in Water INTRODUCTION Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of solvents (the larger volume of the mixture) and solutes (the smaller volume of the mixture). For example, a hot chocolate

More information

Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator

Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator SHPE Jr. Chapter May 2015 STEM Activity Instructor Resource Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator Students learn about the three ways heat can be transferred from one object to another. They also learn what

More information

Temperature. PJ Brucat

Temperature. PJ Brucat PJ Brucat Temperature - the measure of average kinetic energy (KE) of a gas, liquid, or solid. KE is energy of motion. KE = ½ mv 2 where m=mass and v=velocity (speed) 1 All molecules have KE whether solid,

More information

KINDERGARTEN WATER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN WATER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES KINDERGARTEN WATER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN WEEK 1. PRE: Defining the states of matter. LAB: Discovering the properties of water. POST: Analyzing the water

More information

Online Changing States of Matter Lab Solids What is a Solid? 1. How are solids different then a gas or a liquid?

Online Changing States of Matter Lab Solids What is a Solid? 1. How are solids different then a gas or a liquid? Name: Period: Online Changing States of Matter Lab Solids What is a Solid? 1. How are solids different then a gas or a liquid? 2. What are the atoms doing in a solid? 3. What are the characteristics of

More information

CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8

CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8 CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8 Kinetic Theory Information concerning the initial motions of each of the atoms of macroscopic systems is not accessible, nor do we have the computational capability even with

More information

HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

More information

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A TEST 9 REVIEW Name Date Period Test Review # 9 Collision theory. In order for a reaction to occur, particles of the reactant must collide. Not all collisions cause reactions.

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy Module 2D - Energy and Metabolism Objective # 19 All living organisms require energy for survival. In this module we will examine some general principles about chemical reactions and energy usage within

More information

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

More information

Energy Transfer in a Flash-Light. (Teacher Copy)

Energy Transfer in a Flash-Light. (Teacher Copy) Energy Transfer in a Flash-Light (Teacher Copy) Florida Sunshine State Standards Benchmark: SC.B. 1.3.1 AA The student identifies forms of energy and explains that they can be measured and compared. (Also

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

More information

Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document.

Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document. Name: Period: Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document. 1. Which of the following is a NOT a physical property of hydrogen? A. It is gas C. It is

More information

What Is Energy? Energy and Work: Working Together. 124 Chapter 5 Energy and Energy Resources

What Is Energy? Energy and Work: Working Together. 124 Chapter 5 Energy and Energy Resources 1 What You Will Learn Explain the relationship between energy and work. Compare kinetic and potential energy. Describe the different forms of energy. Vocabulary energy kinetic energy potential energy mechanical

More information

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

More information

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

More information

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 1. Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid

More information

) and mass of each particle is m. We make an extremely small

) and mass of each particle is m. We make an extremely small Umeå Universitet, Fysik Vitaly Bychkov Prov i fysik, Thermodynamics, --6, kl 9.-5. Hjälpmedel: Students may use any book including the textbook Thermal physics. Present your solutions in details: it will

More information

Chapter 13 Solution Dynamics. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 13 Solution Dynamics. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 13 Solution Dynamics An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Why Changes Happen Consider a system that can switch freely between two states, A and B. Probability helps us to predict

More information