# Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

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2 Another example of conduction is a pan on the stove. The stove is heated by gas or electricity. Then the pan gets hot. Substances that transfer heat better than others are conductors. Can you think of other examples of conductors? Insulators are substances that do not conduct heat easily. Glass, wood, plastic and rubber are all insulators. Pans have plastic or wood handles to keep the pan from conducting heat to your hand and burning it. Can you think of other examples of insulators? Convection is the heat transfer in liquids and gases as particles circulate in currents. This transfer of energy causes warm substances to rise and cool ones to sink. In heat transfer by convection, the particles in a liquid or gas speed up as they are heated. This causes the particles to move apart and the substance becomes lighter. As the heated substance rises, the cooler, heavier substance moves down. These currents exchange heat through this movement. You can observe convection in a simple experiment. Get two baby food jars. Fill one with hot water and a drop of red food color. Fill the other with cold water and a drop of blue food coloring. Place a card over the mouth of the cold water jar and turn it upside down on top of the warm water. Carefully pull out the card. You should see warm, red water rising and cold water sinking. Radiation is the transfer of heat through space in the form of waves. The heat we receive from the sun is radiant heat. Radiant heat travels as waves through space. Heat waves hit Earth and cause warming. Our atmosphere traps the warmth. Your house gets warm when the sunʼs waves or rays travel through a window and are trapped in your house, warming it. Heat waves are invisible. All warm objects radiate or give off heat waves. Some other examples of radiation are the heat surrounding a fire, the heat given off by an electric heater, and the heat near a hot oven

3 Light If you were asked to make a list of all the things that give us light, what would you write? Light bulbs, candles or campfires may be on your list. The sun is an important source, also. Light is energy that travels in waves and is produced by hot, energetic objects. Light bulbs are hot, energetic objects. If you have ever touched a lightbulb while it is on, you know it is hot. You know the light bulb needs energy because you have to turn the light switch on to provide electricity for it. The electricity flows through either a thin metal wire or a gas. The wire or gas glows and gives off light when heated. Sound If a tree falls in the forest and no one is there, does it make any sound? Sound is a form of energy that causes particles to vibrate back and forth. How would you answer the question about the tree falling in the forest? When the tree hits the ground it causes the particles in the air to vibrate. Vibration is a rapid movement back and forth. The tree creates vibrations in the air as it falls. The vibrations spread out in all directions. If the vibrations in the air reach you, your eardrum will vibrate and you will hear the sound of the tree falling. Have you ever placed your hands over your ears because someone was yelling? The loudness or intensity of a sound depends on the energy used. The more energy used, the louder the sound. You use a lot more energy to yell than you do to whisper. The same is true with all sounds: the more energy expended, the louder the sound. Do you sing or play a musical instrument? If you do, you understand pitch, how high or low a sound is. The pitch of an instrument changes by adjusting its length or width. A tromboneʼs sound changes from low to high as the slide is moved in. The pitch of musical instruments can also be changed by tightening the strings which increases the speed of vibration. The picture below shows glasses filled with water. The glass on the left will have the lowest pitch when tapped. It has the greatest length of air space to vibrate, thus creating a low sound. To keep areas quiet, such as libraries, there are materials placed in the rooms such as carpet and upholstered chairs to absorb noise. The absorption, the ability to take in or dampen, soaks up any noise so people can study in quiet surroundings

4 One way the three forms of energy are alike is that they can be reflected. Think back to the last time you looked in a mirror. You saw a reflection, the bouncing back of light waves from a surface. If light wasnʼt reflected, you wouldnʼt have seen anything. Light strikes the mirror at an angle of incidence. It bounces off at the same angle, the angle of reflection. We are very familiar with reflection when it comes to mirrors and other items that reflect images. Did you know that everything reflects light? When we look at things, the color that we see is light that is reflected from the object. For example, if we look at a red apple it reflects red and absorbs or takes in all the colors but red. What color is reflected when you look at a banana? What colors are absorbed when you look at a banana? All colors are reflected if an object appears white. All colors are absorbed if an object appears black. Most objects reflect more than one color, creating a vast number of color combinations. Sound waves are reflected from canyon walls if you shout loudly. You may have enjoyed hearing the echo of your voice. Heat waves are reflected from windows by aluminum foil placed over them. This keeps houses cooler in the summer. Energy waves can also be refracted, bent. Light is easiest to observe as it is refracted. Light always travels in a straight line when going through a single medium, any substance through which a light wave can travel. In some mediums, such as air, light travels quickly. In other mediums, such as water and glass, light travels more slowly. When light travels from one type of medium to another, the light changes speed and is refracted. Look at the picture of the pencil in the glass of water. The light rays bend as the light rays pass from the water to the air, making the pencil look bent. This is also seen in a rainbow. To get the same effect, shine a light through a prism, a medium that breaks up light. You will create the same rainbow spectrum as seen in a rainbow made by nature. As you can see in the picture below, white light is actually made up of seven different colors. Heat, light and sound are similar to each other. They are forms of energy and they travel in waves. A Prism Refracting Light

5 Science Language Students Need to Understand and Use 1. angle of incidence: the angle at which light strikes a surface 2. angle of reflection: the angle at which light bounces off a surface 3. absorption: taking in or swallowing up energy 4. conduction: heat transfer through a substance, or from a substance, to another substance,by direct contact of particles 5. conductor: a substance that allows heat, electricity or sound to travel through it 6. convection: heat transfer in liquids and gases as molecules circulate in currents 7. medium: any substance through which a wave is transmitted 8. pitch: how high or low a musical note sounds 9. prism: a clear glass or plastic shape that breaks light into the color spectrum 10. radiation: heat transfer through space in the form of waves 11. reflection: when rays of light or heat are reflected, or bounce off other objects 12. refraction: when light goes from one medium to another medium, (from air to water) and is bent 13. spectrum: the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet, arranged in the order of their wavelengths and seen when white light passes through a prism 14. vibration: a rapid back and forth movement

6 Bibliography 1. Elementary Science Teach Hands-On Science and Resource Book 6. Sandy: Jordan School District, Hurd, Dean et al. Prentice Hall Physical Science. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Merriam-Websterʼs Word Central. March 3, Scholastic Childrenʼs Dictionary. New York: Scholastic Inc.,

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