# Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Module 2D - Energy and Metabolism Objective # 19 All living organisms require energy for survival. In this module we will examine some general principles about chemical reactions and energy usage within cells. Define the term energy and distinguish between potential and kinetic energy. 1 2 Objective 19 Energy is the ability to cause change. Any change in the universe requires energy. Energy comes in 2 forms: Potential energy is stored energy. No change is currently taking place Kinetic energy is currently causing change. This always involves some type of motion. Potential energy Objective 19 Two Forms of Energy Kinetic energy 3 4 Objective # 20 State the first and second laws of thermodynamics and explain how they apply to living i organisms. Thermodynamics is the study of energy changes. Two fundamental laws govern all energy changes in the universe. These 2 laws are simply called the first and second laws of thermodynamics: 5 6 1

2 First Law: Energy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The total amount of energy in a closed system remains constant. Second Law: Whenever an energy conversion takes place, some of the energy gets converted into a more dispersed and less useful form (usually random molecular motion = heat). 7 8 Free energy (G) is a measure of the amount of energy available to do useful work. It depends on: the total amount of energy present; this is called enthalpy (H) the amount of energy being used for non-useful work (random molecular motion); this is called entropy (S). 9 In general, ΔG G = ΔH -T ΔS, where T represents the temperature in degrees Kelvin and Δ represent the change in. This means the amount of energy available for useful work (G) equals the total energy present (H) minus the energy that is being wasted on random molecular motion (S). 10 In summary, whenever an energy change takes place in a closed system, the first law tells us the total energy remains constant the h second law tells us free energy decreases. How is this possible? entropy increases! So closed systems tend to become more disorganized. 11 Objective # 21 Explain what a chemical reaction is and discuss how chemical equations are used to describe the changes that take place during a chemical reaction. 12 2

3 Objective 21 Most of the changes that take place in living organisms are the result of chemical reactions. What is a chemical reaction? As atoms and molecules move around, they collide with each other. If they collide with enough force, existing chemical bonds can break and new bonds can form. 13 Objective 21 Chemical equations can be used to describe the changes that take place during a chemical reaction: CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O Reactants Products During a chemical reaction no atoms are created or destroyed. 14 Objective 21 Most reactions are reversible: reading from left to right is called the forward reaction reading g from right to left is called the reverse reaction At equilibrium, the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. 15 Objective # 22 Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reactions and explain how they are coupled in living organisms. Describe the roles of ATP and ADP in the coupling of chemical reactions. 16 Objective 22 Chemical reactions involve a change in free energy as well as a change in the types of molecules present. 17 Objective 22 All atoms and molecules have a certain amount of free energy: potential energy stored in the chemical bonds that hold them together. kinetic energy due to their constant random motion. Large, complex molecules have more free energy than small molecules. 18 3

4 Objective 22 Exergonic reactions: the reactants have more free energy than the products: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O more free energy less free energy involve a net release of energy and/or an increase in entropy occur spontaneously (without a net input of energy) 19 Objective 22 Endergonic reactions: the reactants have less free energy than the products: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 less free energy more free energy involve a net input of energy and/or a decrease in entropy do not occur spontaneously 20 Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions Energy supplied Energy released Reactant Endergonic Product Energy must be supplied. Reactant Exergonic Energy is released. Product 21 Objective 22 Living organisms have the ability to couple exergonic and endergonic reactions: energy g released by exergonic reactions is captured and used to make ATP from ADP and Pi ATP can be broken back down to ADP and Pi, releasing energy to power the cell s endergonic reactions. 22 ATP Adenosine triphosphate The energy currency for all cells Composed of Ribose 5 carbon sugar Adenine Chain of 3 phosphates Key to energy storage Bonds are unstable ADP 2 phosphates AMP 1 phosphate lowest energy form 23 Structure of ATP 24 4

5 The ATP Cycle Objective # 23 Explain the concepts of chemical equilibrium, transition state, and activation i energy Objective 23 All reactions, both endergonic and exergonic, require an input of energy to get started. This energy is called activation energy. Activation i energy is needed d to bring the reactants close together and weaken existing bonds. This produces an unstable state of maximum potential energy called the transition state. 27 Energy supplied Energy released Transition State Reactant Product Activation energy 28 Objective # 24 Describe some methods that can be used to speed up chemical reactions. Objective 24 In most cases, molecules do not have enough kinetic energy to reach the transition state when they collide. Therefore, most collisions are non- productive, and the reaction proceeds very slowly if at all. What can be done to speed up these reactions?

6 Objective 24 1) Add Heat molecules move faster so they collide more frequently and with greater force. 2) Add a catalyst a catalyst reduces the energy needed to reach the activation state, without being changed itself. Proteins that function as catalysts are called enzymes. Energy supplied Energy released Activation Energy and Catalysis Reactant Product Uncatalyzed Activation energy Reactant Catalyzed Activation energy Product Objective 24 Unlike heat, which speeds up all reactions indiscriminately, enzymes are highly specific. Each enzyme typically speeds up only one or a few similar chemical reactions. Therefore, by controlling which enzymes are made, a cell can control which reactions take place in the cell. Objective # 25 Describe the structure, function, and characteristics of enzymes Objective 25 Almost all enzymes are globular proteins with one or more pockets on their surface called active sites. Reactants bind to the active site to form an enzyme-substrate complex. The 3-D shape of the active site and the substrates must match, like a lock and key. Objective 25 Binding of the substrates causes the enzyme to adjust its shape slightly, leading to a better induced fit. When this happens, the substrates are brought close together and existing bonds are stressed. This reduces the amount of energy needed to reach the transition state

7 Binding of the substrates causes the enzyme to adjust its shape slightly, leading to a better induced fit Objective # 26 Explain how the following factors can affect enzyme activity: a) temperature b) ph c) inhibitors and activators d) cofactors Objective 26 The rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction is affected by the concentration of both the enzyme and its substrates. In addition, any physical or chemical factors that affect the enzyme s 3-D shape can affect the enzyme s ability to catalyze the reaction Objective 26a & b Temperature and ph: Most enzymes have an optimum temperature and an optimum ph. These are related to the environment where the enzyme normally functions. Enzyme activity decreases above or below the optimum

8 Relationship of Enzyme Activity to Temperature Relationship of Enzyme Activity to ph Rate of Reaction Optimum temperature for human enzyme Optimum temperature for enzyme from hotsprings prokaryote Temperature of Reaction ( o C) eaction Rate of Re Optimum ph for pepsin Optimum ph for trypsin ph of Reaction Objective 26c Inhibitors and activators are substances that bind to an enzyme and affect its ability to catalyze a reaction. Activators bind to a region of the enzyme called the allosteric site, thereby maintaining the enzyme s active configuration and its activity. 45 Objective 26c Inhibitors decrease enzyme activity in one of 2 ways: 1)competitive inhibitors bind to the active site, thereby preventing the substrates from binding. 2)noncompetitive inhibitors bind to an allosteric site, thereby altering the shape of the active site so that it cannot bind to the substrate. 46 Substrate Substrate Active site Inhibitor Active site Inhibitor Enzyme Enzyme Allosteric site When an inhibitor joins to an allosteric site and alters the shape of the active site so it cannot bind to the substrate, this is called Noncompetitive inhibition 47 When an inhibitor binds to the active site of an enzyme and blocks the substrate from binding, this is called Competitive inhibition 48 8

9 Objective 26d Cofactors are nonprotein substances required by enzymes in order to function. For example, the active site of many enzymes contain metal ions that help draw electrons away from the substrates. Organic molecules that function as cofactors are called coenzymes. Objective # 27 Define the terms metabolism and metabolic pathway (or biochemical i pathway ) and explain how metabolic pathways are regulated Objective 27 Metabolism refers to the sum of all chemical reactions carried out by an organism: reactions that join small molecules together to form larger, more complex molecules are called anabolic. reactions that break large molecules down into smaller subunits are called catabolic. 51 Objective 27 A sequence of chemical reactions, where the product of one reaction serves as a substrate for the next, is called a metabolic pathway (or biochemical pathway). Most metabolic pathways take place in specific regions of the cell Objective 27 The regulation of simple metabolic pathways often depends on feedback inhibition: the end product of the pathway binds to an allosteric site on the enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction and inactivates it. Why is the first reaction targeted? 54 9

10 55 10

### Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism 1. Discuss energy conversions and the 1 st and 2 nd law of thermodynamics. Be sure to use the terms work, potential energy, kinetic energy, and entropy. 2. What are Joules

### 1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d.

1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d. Solar energy A. Answer a is incorrect. Kinetic energy is the energy of

### Energy & Enzymes. Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy.

Energy & Enzymes Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. 1 Energy exists in two forms - potential and kinetic. Potential

### MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Most components of energy conversion systems evolved very early; thus, the most fundamental aspects of energy metabolism tend to be: A. quite different among a diverse group

### Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism

Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Name Period Concept 8.1 An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics 1. Define metabolism. The totality of an organism

### Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzyme characteristics Made of protein Catalysts: reactions occur 1,000,000 times faster with enzymes Not part of reaction Not changed or affected by reaction Used over and

### 1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes

Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the

### CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM. Section B: Enzymes

CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM Section B: Enzymes 1. Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers 2. Enzymes are substrate specific 3. The active site in an enzyme s catalytic

### Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes. What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it?

Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it? Where does Energy come from? Ultimately, from the sun. It is transferred between organisms in the earth s lithosphere,

### Enzymes and Metabolism

Enzymes and Metabolism Enzymes and Metabolism Metabolism: Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions Chemical Reactions: Activation Every chemical reaction involves bond breaking and bond forming A chemical reaction

### What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme.

CH s 8-9 Respiration & Metabolism Metabolism A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. An enzyme is a catalytic protein. Hydrolysis of sucrose by

### What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

Enzymes Essential Questions: What is an enzyme? How do enzymes work? What are the properties of enzymes? How do they maintain homeostasis for the body? What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

### CHAPTER 4: Enzyme Structure ENZYMES

CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are about 40,000 different enzymes in human cells, each controlling a different chemical reaction. They increase the rate of reactions by a factor

### pencil. Vocabulary: 1. Reactant 2. Product 3. Activation energy 4. Catalyst 5. substrate 6. Chemical reaction Keep your textbooks when you are done

Objectives Students will explore the importance of chemical reactions in biology Students will discuss the role of enzymes as catalysts in biological reactions. Students will analyze graphs showing how

### Chemistry 20 Chapters 15 Enzymes

Chemistry 20 Chapters 15 Enzymes Enzymes: as a catalyst, an enzyme increases the rate of a reaction by changing the way a reaction takes place, but is itself not changed at the end of the reaction. An

### * Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy?

Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Metabolism Chs. 5, 6 and 7 energy - capacity to do work 5.10 kinetic energy - energy of motion : light, electrical, thermal, mechanical potential energy - energy of position or stored

### Catalysis by Enzymes. Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction.

Catalysis by Enzymes Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction. Enzymatic Reaction Specificity Enzyme Cofactors Many enzymes are conjugated proteins that require nonprotein portions

### Enzymes. OpenStax College

OpenStax-CNX module: m44429 1 Enzymes OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of this section, you will be able

### Enzymes. Enzymes are characterized by: Specificity - highly specific for substrates

Enzymes Enzymes are characterized by: Catalytic Power - rates are 10 6-10 12 greater than corresponding uncatalyzed reactions Specificity - highly specific for substrates Regulation - acheived in many

### 8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins

Proteins Rubisco monomer = amino acids 20 different amino acids polymer = polypeptide protein can be one or more polypeptide chains folded & bonded together large & complex 3-D shape hemoglobin Amino acids

### CHM333 LECTURE 13 14: 2/13 15/13 SPRING 2013 Professor Christine Hrycyna

INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES Enzymes are usually proteins (some RNA) In general, names end with suffix ase Enzymes are catalysts increase the rate of a reaction not consumed by the reaction act repeatedly to

### SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman An Introduction to Metabolism Most biochemical processes occur as biochemical pathways, each individual reaction of which is catalyzed

### Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme.

Biology 20 Laboratory ENZYMES & CELLULAR RESPIRATION OBJECTIVE To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate

### green B 1 ) into a single unit to model the substrate in this reaction. enzyme

Teacher Key Objectives You will use the model pieces in the kit to: Simulate enzymatic actions. Explain enzymatic specificity. Investigate two types of enzyme inhibitors used in regulating enzymatic activity.

### Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to:

and Work Metabolic Pathways Enzymes Features Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Membrane Transport Diffusion Osmosis Passive Transport Active Transport Bulk Transport Todays Outline -Releasing Pathways

### Enzymes reduce the activation energy

Enzymes reduce the activation energy Transition state is an unstable transitory combination of reactant molecules which occurs at the potential energy maximum (free energy maximum). Note - the ΔG of the

### Enzymes. Enzyme Structure. Enzyme Classification. CHEM464/Medh, J.D. Reaction Rate and Enzyme Activity

Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts They are not consumed or altered during the reaction They do not change the equilibrium, just reduce the time required to reach equilibrium. They increase the rate

### Lecture 4 Enzymes Catalytic proteins. Enzymes. Enzymes 10/21/10. What enzymes do therefore is:

Lecture 4 Catalytic proteins Are a type of protein that acts as a catalyst-speeding up chemical reactions A catalyst is defined as a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed

### Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A

Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A TEST 9 REVIEW Name Date Period Test Review # 9 Collision theory. In order for a reaction to occur, particles of the reactant must collide. Not all collisions cause reactions.

### Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt.

Section 2: Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the parts of a chemical reaction?

### Anabolic and Catabolic Reactions are Linked by ATP in Living Organisms

Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism Microbial Metabolism Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that occur within a living a living organism. These chemical reactions are generally of two types: Catabolic:

### General Properties Protein Nature of Enzymes Folded Shape of Enzymes H-bonds complementary

Proteins that function as biological catalysts are called enzymes. Enzymes speed up specific metabolic reactions. Low contamination, low temperature and fast metabolism are only possible with enzymes.

### Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

### CHM333 LECTURE 13 14: 2/13 15/12 SPRING 2012 Professor Christine Hrycyna

INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES Enzymes are usually proteins (some RNA) In general, names end with suffix ase Enzymes are catalysts increase the rate of a reaction not consumed by the reaction act repeatedly to

### BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004

BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004 Name: Section: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, A. the universe

### Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

### Enzymes: Practice Questions #1

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 1. Compound X increases the rate of the reaction below. Compound X is most likely A. an enzyme B. a lipid molecule C. an indicator D. an ADP molecule 2. The equation below

### The purpose of this lab is to investigate the impact of temperature, substrate concentration,

Lee 1 Jessica Lee AP Biology Mrs. Kingston 23 October 2013 Abstract: The purpose of this lab is to investigate the impact of temperature, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, and the presence

### I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í ENZYMES

= substances that... biological reactions 1. Provide an alternative reaction route which has a lower... energy 2. Reactions catalysed by enzymes occur under mild conditions + good yield + fast 3. Enzymes

### Biology 3A Laboratory: Enzyme Function

Biology 3A Laboratory: Enzyme Function Objectives To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate the effect

### ENZYMES - EXTRA QUESTIONS

ENZYMES - EXTRA QUESTIONS 1. A chemical reaction has a G o = -60 kj/mol. If this were an enzyme-catalyzed reaction what can you predict about the kinetics? A. It will exhibit very rapid kinetics. B. It

### Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Summary of Metabolism Mechanism of Enzyme Action 1. The substrate contacts the active site 2. The enzyme-substrate complex is formed. 3. The substrate molecule is altered (atoms are rearranged, or the

### Bioenergetics. Free Energy Change

Bioenergetics Energy is the capacity or ability to do work All organisms need a constant supply of energy for functions such as motion, transport across membrane barriers, synthesis of biomolecules, information

### Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

### Lecture 10 Enzymes: Introduction

Lecture 10 Enzymes: Introduction Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer, 6th ed., Chapter 8, pp. 205-217 (These pages in textbook are very important -- concepts of thermodynamics are fundamental to all of biochemistry.)

### Transmembrane proteins span the bilayer. α-helix transmembrane domain. Multiple transmembrane helices in one polypeptide

Transmembrane proteins span the bilayer α-helix transmembrane domain Hydrophobic R groups of a.a. interact with fatty acid chains Multiple transmembrane helices in one polypeptide Polar a.a. Hydrophilic

### How To Understand Enzyme Kinetics

Chapter 12 - Reaction Kinetics In the last chapter we looked at enzyme mechanisms. In this chapter we ll see how enzyme kinetics, i.e., the study of enzyme reaction rates, can be useful in learning more

### Lecture 3: Enzyme kinetics

Computational Systems Biology Lecture 3: Enzyme kinetics Fri 19 Jan 2009 1 Images from: D. L. Nelson, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, IV Edition, W. H. Freeman ed. A. Cornish-Bowden Fundamentals

### Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following?

Cellular Energy 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? A. plants, but not animals B. animals, but not plants C. bacteria, but neither animals nor plants D. all living organisms 2.

### Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes

Name Date Period Keystone Review Enzymes 1. In order for cells to function properly, the enzymes that they contain must also function properly. What can be inferred using the above information? A. Cells

### Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral

Enzymes 1. All cells in multicellular organisms contain thousands of different kinds of enzymes that are specialized to catalyze different chemical reactions. Given this information, which of the following

### Cellular Respiration & Metabolism. Metabolism. Coupled Reactions: Bioenergetics. Cellular Respiration: ATP is the cell s rechargable battery

Cellular Respiration & Metabolism Metabolic Pathways: a summary Metabolism Bioenergetics Flow of energy in living systems obeys: 1 st law of thermodynamics: Energy can be transformed, but it cannot be

### Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

### 1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

### 2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage?

Energy Transport Study Island 1. During the process of photosynthesis, plants use energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. These products are, in turn, used by the

### Investigation 2- ENZYME ACTIVITY BACKGROUND catalase Learning Objectives

Investigation 2-13 ENZYME ACTIVITY How do abiotic or biotic factors influence the rates of enzymatic reactions? BACKGROUND Enzymes are the catalysts of biological systems. They speed up chemical reactions

### Regulation of enzyme activity

1 Regulation of enzyme activity Regulation of enzyme activity is important to coordinate the different metabolic processes. It is also important for homeostasis i.e. to maintain the internal environment

### Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

### AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

### Experiment 10 Enzymes

Experiment 10 Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for biological reactions. Enzymes, like all catalysts, speed up reactions without being used up themselves. They do this by lowering the

### Key Questions. What happens to chemical bonds during chemical reactions?

LESSON 2.4 Getting Started Objectives 2.4.1 Explain how chemical reactions affect chemical bonds. 2.4.2 Describe how energy changes affect how easily a chemical reaction will occur. 2.4.3 Explain why enzymes

### AP CHEMISTRY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES. Question 2

AP CHEMISTRY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 N 2 (g) + 3 F 2 (g) 2 NF 3 (g) ΔH 298 = 264 kj mol 1 ; ΔS 298 = 278 J K 1 mol 1 The following questions relate to the synthesis reaction represented by the

### pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C.

Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis

### LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES INTRODUCTION Enzymes are a special class of proteins that lower the activation energy of biological reactions. These biological catalysts change the rate of chemical

### 2(H 2 O 2 ) catalase 2H 2 O + O 2

Enzyme Model Catalase Student Guide Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions that otherwise proceed slowly. The enzyme called catalase is a catalyst. It exists in plant and animal cells and breaks down

### Previous lecture: Today:

Previous lecture: The energy requiring step from substrate to transition state is an energy barrier called the free energy of activation G Transition state is the unstable (10-13 seconds) highest energy

### 1. The graph below represents the potential energy changes that occur in a chemical reaction. Which letter represents the activated complex?

1. The graph below represents the potential energy changes that occur in a chemical reaction. Which letter represents the activated complex? 4. According to the potential energy diagram shown above, the

### Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second

### Lecture 11 Enzymes: Kinetics

Lecture 11 Enzymes: Kinetics Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer, 6th ed., Chapter 8, pp. 216-225 Key Concepts Kinetics is the study of reaction rates (velocities). Study of enzyme kinetics is useful for

### Microbial Metabolism. Biochemical diversity

Microbial Metabolism Biochemical diversity Metabolism Define Requirements Energy Enzymes Rate Limiting step Reaction time Types Anabolic Endergonic Dehydration Catabolic Exergonic Hydrolytic Metabolism

### PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION

reflect Wind turbines shown in the photo on the right are large structures with blades that move in response to air movement. When the wind blows, the blades rotate. This motion generates energy that is

### ENZYME SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PROF. SUBHASH CHAND DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY IIT DELHI LECTURE 4 ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS

ENZYME SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PROF. SUBHASH CHAND DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY IIT DELHI LECTURE 4 ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS We will continue today our discussion on enzymatic catalysis

### The Citric Acid Cycle

The itric Acid ycle February 14, 2003 Bryant Miles I. itrate Synthase + 3 SoA The first reaction of the citric acid cycle is the condensation of acetyloa and oxaloacetate to form citrate and oas. The enzyme

### Lecture 15: Enzymes & Kinetics Mechanisms

ROLE OF THE TRANSITION STATE Lecture 15: Enzymes & Kinetics Mechanisms Consider the reaction: H-O-H + Cl - H-O δ- H Cl δ- HO - + H-Cl Reactants Transition state Products Margaret A. Daugherty Fall 2004

### Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose

Energy in a Cell Reinforcement and Study Guide Section.1 The Need for Energy In your textbook, read about cell energy. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. energy phosphate adenine

### Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1

Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics Some Important Topics First Law of Thermodynamics Internal Energy U ( or E) Enthalpy H Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy S Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute Entropy

### 1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture. Photosynthesis and cellular

### Chapter 6 An Overview of Organic Reactions

John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 6 An Overview of Organic Reactions Why this chapter? To understand organic and/or biochemistry, it is necessary to know: -What occurs -Why and

### Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K

1 Thermodynamics There always seems to be at least one free response question that involves thermodynamics. These types of question also show up in the multiple choice questions. G, S, and H. Know what

### Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Advanced Concepts What is the abbreviated name of this molecule? What is its purpose? What are the three parts of this molecule? Label each part with the

### Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A) Biotin participates in the decarboxylation.

### Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

### AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term used for the metabolic pathway in which

### Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Twenty Three 1

23.2 Glucose Metabolism: An Overview When glucose enters a cell from the bloodstream, it is immediately converted to glucose 6- phosphate. Once this phosphate is formed, glucose is trapped within the cell

### Enzymes: Introduction

Enzymes: Introduction Firefly bioluminescence is produced by an oxidation reaction catalyzed by the enzyme firefly luciferase. The oxidized substrate (product of the reaction) is in an electronically excited

### CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

### LAB TOPIC 4: ENZYMES. Enzyme catalyzed reactions can be expressed in the following way:

LAB TOPIC 4: ENZYMES Objectives Define enzyme and describe the activity of enzymes in cells. Discuss the effects of varying enzyme concentrations on the rate of enzyme activity. Discuss the effects of

### 008 Chapter 8. Student:

008 Chapter 8 Student: 1. Some bacteria are strict aerobes and others are strict anaerobes. Some bacteria, however, are facultative anaerobes and can live with or without oxygen. If given the choice of

### NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED

Biol 205 Exam 1 TEST FORM A Spring 2008 NAME Fill out both sides of the Scantron Sheet. On Side 2 be sure to indicate that you have TEST FORM A The answers to Part I should be placed on the SCANTRON SHEET.

### Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain.

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. 2. Where in the cell does the glycolysis part of cellular

### Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

AP bio fall 2014 final exam prep Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, a. the energy of a system

### Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

### The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

### Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III

Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III I. HOW IS ATP GENERATED IN THE FINAL STAGE CATABOLISM? A. OVERVIEW 1. At the end of the citric acid cycle, all six carbons of glucose have been oxidized

### 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

### Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

### AP BIOLOGY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins.

### Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Introduction Enzymes are proteins composed of amino acid building blocks. Enzymes catalyze or increase the rate of metabolic