1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

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1 Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion 2. What is Brownian motion, and why does it happen in terms of kinetic theory? Small pieces of matter in a fluid flecks of dust, pieces of pollen, smoke particles, etc. seem to vibrate randomly because they are being constantly hit from all sides by the molecules of the fluid (water, air, etc.) 3. What is thermal expansion, and why does it happen in terms of kinetic theory? Thermal expansion is the property of most matter that matter expands as heated and contracts as cooled. All matter is in a constant state of motion, the faster they move, the more space they need to move in and push the other molecules away. Thus as solids and liquids (phases of matter with definite volumes) increase temperature, the molecules move more and take up more space, so the substance increases in size. 4. What is diffusion, and why does it happen in terms of kinetic theory? The quality of matter that substances in materials where atoms are free to flow (gases or liquids), small particles put into the fluid tend to spread out randomly until they are evenly mixed (go from areas of high concentration to low concentration). This happens because both the fluid and the particles are constantly moving, so will be pushed and dragged around by other molecules until they mix evenly. 5. According to the Kinetic Theory what does temperature measure? (don't say "heat") The average kinetic of the atoms and molecules of a substance 6. How does a thermometer work? When the molecules of the fluid change temperature, say upwards, they move more, this causes them to take up more space (thermal expansion). The fluid in the thermometer has nowhere else to go, so it rises up the tube. The reverse is true for falling temperatures 7. Why can nothing be cooled to below absolute zero? At absolute zero all molecular motion stops. Since temperature is the average kinetic of the atoms and molecules, if there is no motion, there is no kinetic. Something can t move at a slower speed than stopped. 8. How does the freezing point of a substance compare to the melting point of the same substance in the same atmospheric conditions? Why is that? The freezing point and melting point are the same. They are both changing between a solid and a liquid, so it s the same phase change in reverse. The temperature when the atoms have enough such that any added will just make them flow past each other (melting) must be the same as the temperature the just flowing liquid would need to such that any removed would just lock the atoms in place rather than change their temperature (freezing)

2 9. Consider the properties of solids, liquids, and gases we have covered in class. a) Fill in the following table for the the common states of matter in terms of relative intermolecular bond strength (small, medium, or large), particle movement (vibrating only, flowing fast, or flowing slowly), particle organization (random or orderly), particle spacing (in contact or not in contact), and type of shape and volume each has (variable or definite). State of mater Relative bond strength Particle movement Particle organization Particle spacing Type of shape Type of volume Solid Large Vibrate only Orderly In contact Definite Definite Liquid Medium Flow slowly Random In contact Variable Definite Gas Small Flowing fast Random Not in contact Variable Variable b) Explain using the kinetic theory of matter. Overview: The colder a particular substance is, the lower the speed it moves. The slower the movement, the easier it is for the intermolecular forces to hold onto neighboring atoms and molecules. The opposite is true for faster molecules, the faster they move the harder they are to hold onto. Detailed Explanation: Solids have slowed down enough that the neighboring molecules can pull harder, keep them in contact, lock them in position (only allowing vibration) and since they re locked in position they have an orderly arrangement, and thus cannot change shape or volume. Liquids have heated up enough to space a little further apart and partially break free of their neighboring molecules, but not enough to let them fully escape (they are still in contact like holding someone at arm s length), because of the further spacing and weaker hold, they are able to flow and thus take a random arrangement, but since they are still touching (essentially at arm s length) they remain in contact, so the volume doesn t change, but the shape can as the molecules flow. Gases have added enough to fully break the attractive bonds of neighboring molecules, thus the gases can go anywhere they want. Hence gases are spaced much further apart, so far in fact that the bond is very weak, considered nonresistant in ideal cases. Because of the not touching and much weaker hold, they are able to flow anywhere and are randomly arranged, ad can take any shape or 10. Draw the phase change triangle, listing the 3 common phases of matter, naming the transitions between them, if the changes are endothermic or exothermic changes and why that makes since. Dashed endo Solid exo Deposition Sublimation Gas Vaporization Condensation Makes since because solids have Freezing the least while gases have Solid Liquid the most, so to change from a solid Melting into either a liquid or gas, you need to add. Likewise, changing anything into a gas will also take. So the opposite is true for going into a solid or from a gas.

3 11. Consider evaporation and boiling. a) What are two main differences between evaporation and boiling? Evaporation only occurs at the surface of a liquid, whereas boiling occurs throughout the liquid. Evaporation occurs at temperatures below the boiling point of the substance, whereas boiling occurs at the boiling point. b) How is it similar to boiling? Both evaporation and boiling are forms of vaporization, where a liquid turns into a gas (the high particles leave to become gas, leaving the lower particles behind) 12. What is the first law of thermodynamics, and what would that limit about a bouncy ball that is dropped from a certain height? Why is that? Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only transfer forms. If you drop (not throw) a bouncy ball, the 1 st law would say the total when you drop it and when it comes back up to its highest point must be the same. So, the ball cannot bouncy higher than the distance it was dropped from.

4 Temperature (C) 13. What is the second law of thermodynamics, and what would that limit about a bouncy ball that is dropped from a certain height? Why is that? All things tend to progress more towards disorder than to order. As a consequence, some is always lost to thermal during an transformation. As such, the total of the ball and area system when dropped must equal the total at the highest point in the bounce. Because some of the is transferred to heat, there is less for gravitational potential, so the ball will never bounce as high as it was dropped from (and each subsequent bounce will be lower). 14. All forms of can be divided into one of two main categories of energies, what are those two main types. Give at least three examples of forms of in each of the two types. Kinetic Energy ( due to motion): Potential Energy (stored ): Transformational KE Elastic potential Solar (kinetic) Gravitational potential Sound (kinetic) Nuclear potential Electrical (kinetic) Chemical potential Thermal (kinetic) Electromagnetic potential 15. What happens to the temperature of a substance during a phase change? Why is that? The temperature doesn t change, because all the gained or lost by the substance just goes to changing the state of matter, not the temperature (the gained breaks bonds of attraction between neighboring molecules instead of changing their speed, or the lost goes to forming bonds of attraction between neighboring molecules instead of changing their speed) 16. Draw a sketch of the temperature vs. graph for ice at -20ºC being heated to steam at 120ºC. Label where the H 2 O is 1) a solid, liquid, or gas, 2) taking in or releasing, 3) going through a phase change and what change that is called Temperature vs Energy Melting & taking in Solid & taking in Vaporization & taking in Liquid & taking in Gas and taking in 17. What causes gas pressure (not what affects it, but what causes it in the first place)? Collisions between the gas particles and other particles, the sides of the container, and any objects inside the gas are what cause the gas pressure.

5 18. What happens to the pressure of a gas in a closed container if the volume decreases, but temperature remains the same? Why? Pressure increases (more collisions happen with walls of container if they are closer together) 19. What happens to the volume of a gas in a closed container if the temperature increases, but the pressure remains the same? Why? Volume increases (atoms hit the walls harder so push it outwards more until pressure is equalized)

6 20. What happens to the temperature of a gas in a closed container if the pressure decreases but the volume stays the same? Why? Temperature decreases (atoms are moving slower so they hit the walls not as hard) 21. What happens to the volume of a gas in a closed container if the pressure decreases but the temperature remains the same? Why? Volume increases (particles are moving the same speed but don t hit the walls as often when the volume increases) 22. What happens to the pressure of a gas in a closed container if the speed of the gas increases, but the volume and number of gas particles remains the same? Why? Pressure increases, this is because they hit each other and the walls of the container harder. 23. What happens to the pressure of a gas in a closed container if the original gas was replaced by a new gas that has more massive gas particles, but maintains the same number and speed of gas particles as the original? Why? Pressure increases, this is because since they are larger, they hit each other and the walls of the container with more force than lighter particles when hitting at the same speed (their KE is related to their mass and speed, with the same speed, a larger mass means more KE to give). 24. Consider 0 C water and the same mass of 0 C ice a) What has more internal, the water or the ice? Why is that? 0 C water has more internal because melting is an endothermic process (the molecules had to gain to partially break the attractive bonds) b) What has more average kinetic the water or the ice? Why is that? Temperature is related to the average kinetic, since they both have the same temperature they must also have the same average kinetic. c) What has more stored, the water or the ice? Why is that? Since the water has more overall, but the same amount of average KE, the stored (PE) must be greater for the water. Think of it as lifting a block up on Earth the further they are lifted against the gravitational force, the more is stored, the same goes for the further the molecules are moved away from each other against the forces of attraction between them. 25. How if at all would your answers to question 24 change if we were considering 100 C water and 100 C steam instead of ice and water. The only difference would be the words liquid would change to gas and solid would change to liquid, the idea is exactly the same Steam has more internal, the same average KE, and more PE than water at the boiling point.

7 Temperature (degrees C) 26. Which is usually larger, the amount of to turn a solid into a liquid at the m.p., or the amount of to turn the same amount (in terms of mass) of a liquid into a gas at the b.p.? Why is that? Energy needed to change the liquid in to a gas at the m.p. is typically greater, because it takes way more to fully separate the molecules from each other to form a gas than it does just to get the molecules able to move past each other when going from a solid to a liquid. 27. Below is Temperature vs. Time graph of a certain substance being heated and then cooled. Assume the same amount of is added or removed each second Gas and taking in Gas and releasing Condensation & releasing Melting & taking in Vaporization & taking in Liquid & taking in liquid & releasing freezing & releasing Solid & taking in solid & releasing time (s) a) On the graph, label where, if anywhere, the substance is: 1) solid, liquid, or gas; 2) melting, freezing, vaporizing, or condensing; 3) taking in or releasing b) What are the melting, boiling, and freezing temperature of the substance. How do you know? i. Melting point = -20 C, because: temperature doesn t change during a phase change, s the temperature is constant there as all is going to turn the substance from a solid into a liquid ii. Freezing point = -20 C, because: : temperature doesn t change during a phase change, and the freezing point is the same temperature as the melting point. iii. Boiling point = 130 C, because: temperature doesn t change during a phase change, s the temperature is constant there as all is going to turn the substance from a liquid into a gas c) At what time was the substance removed from the heat? 450s How do you know? That s when the temperature starts to drop again, meaning it was releasing rather than gaining. d) What took a longer time, the object to melt or the object to vaporize? vaporize Assuming the same amount of is added each second, why is that? It takes more to fully separate the molecules rather than just to partially break the bonds.

8 28. Use the information below to answer questions A - H Substance Melting Point Boiling Point Water Iron Mercury Lead Ammonia Ethyl acetylene a) What temperature scale is being used here? How do you know? Celsius, because the melting point and boiling point of water match those of the Celsius scale. b) At what temperature would ammonia change from a gas to a liquid? How do you know? Gas to a liquid is condensation, which is the reverse of vaporization, so the highest temperature it will occur at is -33 C c) In what phase is iron at a temperature of 2600 C? How do you know? A liquid, because 2600 C is above the melting point (already melted) and below the boiling point (not yet boiled) d) At what temperature (in Kelvin) will lead melt? How do you know? Lead melts at 327 C and to convert to K, we need to add 273, so the melting point is 600K e) Is it possible to boil mercury in a lead container? Why? No, the melting point of lead is less than the boiling point of mercury, so the lead container will melt before boiling the mercury. f) What, if anything, happens to iron when the temperature drops from 1800 o to 1500? Why is that? The iron freezes into a solid, because it s a liquid at 1800 C (higher than the melting point of 1535 C) and lower than the boiling point, but 1500 C is less than the melting point of iron, so it will be a solid again. g) At what temperature does lead freeze? How do you know? 327 C because the freezing and melting points are the same temperature. h) Which of the substances would be a solid, which would be a liquid, and which would be a gas in a standard refrigerator (temp of about 3.3 C)? How do you know? Solids (3.3 C must be below the melting point): iron and lead Liquids (3.3 C must be more than melting point but less than boiling pt): water, mercury and Ethyl acetylene Gas (3.3 C must be above the boiling point): ammonia 29. Circle the two temperatures below that are not possible? 7,000,000 K - 25 K -400 F -279 C 5,000,000 C 30. Why are those temperatures circled in #29 not possible? The lowest temperature possible is absolute 0 (-273 C, 0K, or F), so there can be no temperatures less than those. 31. Why is it much better to understand a process or concept than to memorize different aspects? If you understand, you can figure things out based on your knowledge, if you memorize, you are depending on one of the answers always being something you memorized, and it is very easy to memorize things wrong.

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