Chemistry 13: States of Matter

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1 Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties of gases. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know the random motion of molecules and their collisions with a surface create the observable pressure on that surface. b. Students know the random motion of molecules explains the diffusion of gases. c. Students know how to apply the gas laws to relations between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases. d. Students know the values and meanings of standard temperature and pressure (STP). e. Students know how to convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales. f. Students know there is no temperature lower than 0 Kelvin. g. * Students know the kinetic theory of gases relates the absolute temperature of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules or atoms. h. * Students know how to solve problems by using the ideal gas law in the form PV = nrt. i. * Students know how to apply Dalton's law of partial pressures to describe the composition of gases and Graham's law to predict diffusion of gases The Nature of Gases I. Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases A. Kinetic - 1. Kinetic energy - 2. According to the kinetic theory, all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion. B. Kinetic theory C. All gases share some general characteristics

2 3. II. Gas pressure A. Pressure 1. Gas pressure - 2. An empty space with no particles and no pressure is called a. 3. Atmospheric pressure - B. Barometer - C. Units - The SI unit of pressure is the. 1. Standard atmosphere (atm) - 2

3 III. Kinetic Energy and Temperature A. The particles in any collection of atoms or molecules at a given temperature have a wide range of kinetic energies. Most of the particles have kinetic energies somewhere in the middle of this range. 1. Absolute zero - 2. It is the temperature at which the motion of particles theoretically. a. Particles would have no at absolute zero. b. Absolute zero has never been produced in the laboratory. B. Kinetic Energy and Temperature the of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substance The Nature of Liquids I. Model for Liquids A. Fluids - 1. Both and are fluids. B. Vaporization - C. Evaporation 1. In a closed container, the molecules cannot escape. They collect as a vapor above the liquid. Some molecules back into a liquid. D. Vapor Pressure - E. Boiling Point - 1. Because a liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the external pressure, liquids don t always boil at the same temperature. 2. At a lower external pressure, the boiling point. At a higher external pressure, the boiling point. 3. Normal Boiling Point - 4. Higher the, higher the boiling point. 3

4 13.3 The Nature of Solids I. The properties of solids reflect the orderly arrangement of their particles and the fixed locations of their particles. A. All solids have a shape and a volume. B. The melting point (mp) - C. Sublimation - 1. Sublimation occurs in solids with vapor pressures that exceed atmospheric pressure at or near room temperature. 4

5 Check Your Understanding. 1. According to the kinetic theory, the particles in a gas a. are attracted to each other. b. are in constant random motion. c. have the same kinetic energy. d. have a significant volume. 2. The pressure a gas exerts on another object is caused by a. the physical size of the gas particles. b. collisions between gas particles and the object. c. collisions between gas particles. d. the chemical composition of the gas. 3. The average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance is directly proportional to the a. Fahrenheit temperature. b. Kelvin temperature. c. molar mass of the substance. d. Celsius temperature. 4. In liquids, the attractive forces are a. very weak compared with the kinetic energies of the particles. b. strong enough to keep the particles confined to fixed locations in the liquid. c. strong enough to keep the particles from evaporating. d. strong enough to keep particles relatively close together. 5. Which one of the following is a process that absorbs energy? a. freezing b. condensation c. evaporation d. solidifying 6. In a sealed gas-liquid system at constant temperature eventually a. there will be no more evaporation. b. the rate of condensation decreases to zero. c. the rate of condensation exceeds the rate of evaporation. d. the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. 7. Where must particles have enough kinetic energy to vaporize for boiling to occur? a. at the surface of the liquid b. at the bottom of the container c. along the sides of the container d. throughout the liquid 8. The boiling point of a liquid a. increases at higher altitudes. b. decreases at higher altitudes. c. is the same at all altitudes. d. decreases as the pressure increases. 5

6 9. A solid will melt when a. all the particles have the same kinetic energy. b. bonds form between the particles. c. disruptive vibrations overcome attractive forces. d. attractions overcome disruptive vibrations. 10. Allotropes have different properties because a. their atoms are arranged in different patterns. b. they are composed of different elements. c. they are in different states. d. they consist of different isotopes of the same element. 11. Identify the change of state that occurs when solid CO 2 changes to CO 2 gas as it is heated. a. condensation b. freezing c. vaporization d. sublimation 12. Sublimation occurs in solids if the vapor pressure at or near room temperature a. exceeds atmospheric pressure. b. equals atmospheric pressure. c. is less than atmospheric pressure. d. is less than half the atmospheric pressure. 6

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