Chapter 13 Solution Dynamics. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

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1 Chapter 13 Solution Dynamics An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

2 Chapter Map

3 Why Changes Happen Consider a system that can switch freely between two states, A and B. Probability helps us to predict that the system will shift to state B if state B has its particles and energy more dispersed, leading to more ways to arrange the particles and energy in the system.

4 9-Point Universe

5 Probability of Gas In 9-point universe, 96% of the arrangements of 4 particles are gas-like. In 16-point universe, 99.5% of the arrangements of 4 particles are gas-like. Therefore, an increase in the number of possible positions leads to an increase in the probability that the system will be in the more dispersed, gas-like state. In real systems, there are huge numbers of particles in huge numbers of positions, so there is an extremely high probability that the systems will be in the more dispersed, gas-like state.

6 General Statement Changes tend to take place to shift from less probable, less dispersed arrangements that have fewer ways to arrange the particles to more probable, more dispersed states that have more ways to arrange the particles.

7 Solids shift spontaneously to gases. Why does dry ice, CO 2 (s), sublime? Why does the change favor the gas? Internal kinetic energy is associated with the random movement of particles in a system. Internal kinetic energy makes it possible for CO 2 molecules to move back and forth between solid and gas. If the particles can move freely back and forth between solid and gas, they are more likely to be found in the more dispersed gas state, which has more equivalent ways to arrange the particles.

8 Solid to Gases CO 2 (s) Less dispersed Fewer ways to arrange particles Less probable CO 2 (g) More dispersed More ways to arrange particles More probable

9 Gases Expand When the barrier between the two chambers in the container shown in (a) is raised, it is possible that the gas will end up in one chamber, like in (b), but it is much more likely that it will expand to fill the total volume available to it, like in (c).

10 Matter gets dispersed (spread out). Gas in one chamber Gas in both chambers Fewer ways to arrange particles More ways to arrange particles Less probable Less dispersed More probable More dispersed

11 Substances tend to mix. When the barrier between the two gases in the container shown in (a) is raised, it is possible that the gases will stay separated, like in (b), but it is much more likely that they will mix, like in (c).

12 Ethanol and Water Mixing

14 Solubility If less than one gram of the substance will dissolve in 100 grams (or 100 ml) of solvent, the substance is considered insoluble. If more than ten grams of substance will dissolve in 100 grams (or 100 ml) of solvent, the substance is considered soluble. If between one and ten grams of a substance will dissolve in 100 grams (or 100 ml) of solvent, the substance is considered moderately soluble.

15 Like Dissolves Like Polar substances are expected to dissolve in polar solvents. For example, ionic compounds, which are very polar, are often soluble in the polar solvent water. Nonpolar substances are expected to dissolve in nonpolar solvents. For example, nonpolar molecular substances are expected to dissolve in hexane, a common nonpolar solvent.

16 Nonpolar substances are not expected to dissolve to a significant degree in polar solvents. For example, nonpolar molecular substances are expected to be insoluble in water. Polar substances are not expected to dissolve to a significant degree in nonpolar solvents. For example, ionic compounds are insoluble in hexane. Like Does Not Dissolve Unlike

17 Summary of Solubility Guidelines Ionic Compounds Often soluble in water Insoluble in hexane Molecular compounds with nonpolar molecules Insoluble in water Soluble in hexane Molecular Compounds with small polar molecules Usually soluble in water Often soluble in hexane

18 Water Solubility If we are comparing the water solubility of two similar molecules, the one with the higher percentage of the molecule that is polar (hydrophilic) is expected to have higher water solubility. We predict that the molecule with the higher percentage of its structure that is nonpolar (hydrophobic) to be less soluble in water.

19 Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic

20 Methamphetamine

21 Triglycerides (Fats and Oils)

22 Tristearin

23 Tristearin Line Drawing

24 Typical Liquid Triglyceride

25 Making Soap

26 Soap and Detergent

27 Cleaning Greasy Dishes

28 Oil Droplets and Soap or Detergent

29 Chapter 13 part 2

31 Concentration and Rate of Return

32 Rate of Solution Dependent on: Surface area of the solute Degree of agitation or stirring Temperature

33 Surface Area and Rate of Solution

34 Agitation and Rate of Solution

35 Agitation and Rate of Solution

36 Temperature and Rate of Solution

37 Dynamic Equilibrium and Saturated Solutions

38 Dynamic Equilibrium in a Saturated Solution

39 Dynamic Equilibrium for Gas Dissolved in Liquid

40 Gas Solubility

41 Partial Pressure and Gas Solubility

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