# 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 3

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1 Chapter 3

2 3.1 Decimal System

3 The radix or base of a number system determines the total number of different symbols or digits used by that system. The decimal system has a base of 10 with the digits 0 through 9 being used. The value of a decimal number depends on the digits that make up the number and the place value of each digit.

4 3.2 Binary System

5 The binary system has a base of 2 and the only allowable digits are 0 and 1. With digital circuits it is easy to distinguish between two voltage levels, which can be related to the binary digits 1 and 0.

6 Since the binary system uses only two digits, each position of a binary number can go through only two changes, and then a 1 is carried to the immediate left position. All numbering systems start at zero.

7 NUMBER SYSTEMS Decimal (base 10) Binary (base 2) Octal (base 8) Hexadecimal (base 16)

8 Converting a binary number to a decimal number.

9 Each digit of a binary number is known as a bit. Each word is capable of storing data in the form of bits. A group of 8 bits is a byte. The least significant bit (LSB) represents the smallest value and the most significant bit (MSB) represents the largest value.

10 PLC memory is organized using bytes, single words, or double words. If the memory size is 1 K word, it can store 1024 words or 16,384 (1024 x 16) bits of information using 16-bit words,

11 Converting a decimal number to a binary number.

12 Computer memory is a series of binary 1s and 0s. Output status file made up of single bits grouped into 16-bit words. One 16-bit output file word is reserved for each slot in the chassis. Each bit represents the ON or OFF state of one output point.

13 3.3 Negative Numbers

14 Binary systems can not use positive and negative symbols to represent the polarity of a number. Signed Binary Numbers In signed binary numbers, the left-most bit is the equivalent of a +/- sign. "0" indicates that the number is positive, "1" indicates negative.

15 Another method of expressing a negative number is by using the complement of a binary number. To complement a binary number, change all the 1s to 0s and all the 0s to 1s. This is known as the 1 s complement form of a binary number.

16 2 s complement is the binary number that results when 1 is added to the 1 s complement. 0 sign bit indicates a positive number. 1 sign bit indicates a negative number.

17 3.4 Octal System

18 The octal numbering system is a base 8 system Numbers 8 and 9 not allowed

19 The octal numbering system is used because 8 data bits make up a byte of information that can be addressed. PLC-5 controllers use octal-based I/O addressing.

20 Octal is a convenient means of handling large binary numbers. One octal digit can be used to express three binary digits. Converting an octal number to a decimal number.

21 Octal converts easily to binary equivalents. The octal number 462 is converted to its binary equivalent by assembling the 3-bit groups.

23 The hexadecimal (hex) system is a base 16 system. Letters A to F are used to represent decimal numbers 10 to 15.

24 The hex numbering system is used in PLCs because a word of data consists of 16 data bits. Converting hexadecimal to decimal. Hexadecimal digits in the columns are multiplied by the base 16 weight, depending on digit significance.

25 Converting decimal to hexadecimal. Conversion is accomplished by writing the 4-bit binary equivalent of the hex digit for each position.

26 3.6 Binary Coded Decimal System

27 The binary coded decimal (BCD) system uses 4 bits to represent each decimal digit. The 4 bits used are the binary equivalents of the numbers from 0 to 9.

28 The BCD representation of a decimal number is obtained by replacing each decimal digit by its BCD equivalent.

29 To distinguish the BCD numbering system from a binary system, a BCD designation is placed to the right of the units digit. Decimal expressed is binary is Decimal expressed in BCD is BCD

30 A thumbwheel switch is an input device that makes use of the BCD numbering system. The input module attached to the thumbwheel has one connection for each bit s weighted value. Selected digit of decimal 8 outputs the equivalent 4 bits of BCD data 1000 BCD

31 Single Digit Thumbwheel Switch Simulation Decimal Settings Binary Input

32 Double Digit Thumbwheel Switch Simulation Decimal Settings Binary Input

33 PLCs contain number conversion functions. The Convert-to-BCD instruction will convert the binary bit pattern at the source address, N7:23, into a BCD bit pattern of the same decimal value and store it at the destination address, O:20.

34 Many PLCs allow you to change the format of the data that the data monitor displays. The change radix function found on Allen-Bradley controllers allows you to change the display format of data to binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal.

36 3.7 Gray Code

37 The Gray code is set up so that as we progress from one number to the next, only one bit changes. Each position does not have a definite weight. This can be quite confusing for counting circuits, but it is ideal for encoder circuits.

38 Gray codes are used with position encoders for accurate control of the motion of robots, machine tools, and servomechanisms. Since only one bit changes at a time, the Gray code is considered to be an error-minimizing code.

39 Optical encoder disk that uses a 4-bit Gray code. The encoder disk is attached to a rotating shaft and outputs a digital Gray code signal that is used to determine the position of the shaft.

40 3.8 ASCII Code

41 ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is an alphanumeric code because it includes letters as well as numbers.

42 The keystrokes on the keyboard of a computer are converted directly into ASCII for processing by the computer. The communication interfacing is done through either an RS-232 or RS-422 protocol. ASCII input modules convert ASCII code input information from an external device to alphanumeric information that the PLC can process.

43 3.9 Parity Bit

44 Some PLC communication systems use a binary bit to check the accuracy of data transmission. When data are transferred between PLCs, one of the binary digits may be accidentally changed from a 1 to a 0. A parity bit is used to detect errors that may occur while a word is moved.

45 Parity is a system in which each character transmitted contains one additional parity bit. The parity bit may be a 0 or 1, depending on the number of 1s and 0s in the character itself. Odd parity means that the total number of binary 1 bits in the character, including the parity bit, is odd. Even parity means that the number of binary 1 bits in the character, including the parity bit, is even.

46 3.10 Binary Arithmetic

47 When adding with binary numbers, there are only four conditions that can occur:

48

49

50 To subtract from larger binary numbers, subtract column by column, borrowing from the adjacent column when necessary. When borrowing from the adjacent column, there are now two digits, i.e., 0 borrow 1 gives 10.

51 Binary numbers can also be negative. The procedure for this calculation is identical to that of decimal numbers because the smaller value is subtracted from the larger value and a negative sign is placed in front of the result.

52 There are other methods available for doing subtraction: 1 s complement and 2 s complement. Using the 1 s complement When there is a carry at the end of the result, the result is positive. When there is no carry, then the result is negative and a minus sign has to be placed in front of it.

53 When there is a carry at the end of the result, the result is positive. When there is no carry, then the result is negative and a minus sign has to be placed in front of it.

54 For subtraction using the 2 s complement, the 2 s complement is added instead of subtracting the numbers. In the result, if the carry is a 1, then the result is positive; if the carry is a 0, then the result is negative and requires a minus sign.

55

56 When multiplying binary numbers, there are only four conditions that can occur:

57 The process for dividing one binary number by another is the same for both binary and decimal numbers.

58 PLC data comparison instructions are used to compare the data stored in two words. At times, devices may need to be controlled when they are less than, equal to, or greater than other data values or set points.

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