# Chapter 4: Computer Codes

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1 Slide 1/30

2 Learning Objectives In this chapter you will learn about: Computer data Computer codes: representation of data in binary Most commonly used computer codes Collating sequence 36 Slide 2/30

3 Data Types Numeric Data consists of only numbers 0, 1, 2,, 9 Alphabetic Data consists of only the letters A, B, C,, Z, in both uppercase and lowercase, and blank character Alphanumeric Data is a string of symbols where a symbol may be one of the letters A, B, C,, Z, in either uppercase or lowercase, or one of the digits 0, 1, 2,, 9, or a special character, such as + - * /,. ( ) = etc. 36 Slide 3/30

4 Computer Codes Computer codes are used for internal representation of data in computers As computers use binary numbers for internal data representation, computer codes use binary coding schemes In binary coding, every symbol that appears in the data is represented by a group of bits The group of bits used to represent a symbol is called a byte (Continued on next slide) 36 Slide 4/30

5 Computer Codes (Continued from previous slide..) As most modern coding schemes use 8 bits to represent a symbol, the term byte is often used to mean a group of 8 bits Commonly used computer codes are BCD, EBCDIC, and ASCII 36 Slide 5/30

6 BCD BCD stands for Binary Coded Decimal It is one of the early computer codes It uses 6 bits to represent a symbol It can represent 64 (2 6 ) different characters 36 Slide 6/30

7 Coding of Alphabetic and Numeric Characters in BCD Char BCD Code Zone Digit Octal Char BCD Code Zone Digit Octal A N B O C P D Q E R F S G T H U I V J W K X L Y M Z (Continued on next slide) 37 Slide 7/30

8 Coding of Alphabetic and Numeric Characters in BCD (Continued from previous slide..) Character BCD Code Zone Digit Octal Equivalent Slide 8/30

9 BCD Coding Scheme (Example 1) Example Show the binary digits used to record the word BASE in BCD Solution: B = in BCD binary notation A = in BCD binary notation S = 10 in BCD binary notation E = 11 in BCD binary notation So the binary digits B A S E will record the word BASE in BCD 38 Slide 9/30

10 BCD Coding Scheme (Example 2) Example Using octal notation, show BCD coding for the word DIGIT Solution: D = 64 in BCD octal notation I = 71 in BCD octal notation G = 67 in BCD octal notation I = 71 in BCD octal notation T = 23 in BCD octal notation Hence, BCD coding for the word DIGIT in octal notation will be D I G I T 38 Slide 10/30

11 EBCDIC EBCDIC stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code It uses 8 bits to represent a symbol It can represent 256 (2 8 ) different characters 38 Slide 11/30

12 Coding of Alphabetic and Numeric Characters in EBCDIC Char A B C D E EBCDIC Code Digit Zone Hex C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Char N O P Q R EBCDIC Code Digit Zone Hex D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 F C6 S E2 G C7 T 1110 E3 H C8 U 1110 E4 I C9 V 1110 E5 J K L M D1 D2 D3 D4 W X Y Z E6 E7 E8 E9 (Continued on next slide) 39 Slide 12/30

13 Coding of Alphabetic and Numeric Characters in EBCDIC (Continued from previous slide..) Character EBCDIC Code Digit Zone Hexadecima l Equivalent F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 39 Slide 13/30

14 Zoned Decimal Numbers Zoned decimal numbers are used to represent numeric values (positive, negative, or unsigned) in EBCDIC A sign indicator (C for plus, D for minus, and F for unsigned) is used in the zone position of the rightmost digit Zones for all other digits remain as F, the zone value for numeric characters in EBCDIC In zoned format, there is only one digit per byte 39 Slide 14/30

15 Examples Zoned Decimal Numbers Numeric Value EBCDIC Sign Indicator F3F4F5 F3F4C5 F3F4D5 F for unsigned C for positive D for negative 40 Slide 15/30

16 Packed Decimal Numbers Packed decimal numbers are formed from zoned decimal numbers in the following manner: Step 1: The zone half and the digit half of the rightmost byte are reversed Step 2: All remaining zones are dropped out Packed decimal format requires fewer number of bytes than zoned decimal format for representing a number Numbers represented in packed decimal format can be used for arithmetic operations 39 Slide 16/30

17 Examples of Conversion of Zoned Decimal Numbers to Packed Decimal Format Numeric Value EBCDIC F3F4F5 F3F4C5 F3F4D5 F3F4F5F6 Sign Indicator 345F 345C 345D 03456F 40 Slide 17/30

18 EBCDIC Coding Scheme Example Using binary notation, write EBCDIC coding for the word BIT. many bytes are required for this representation? How Solution: B = in EBCDIC binary notation I = in EBCDIC binary notation T = 1110 in EBCDIC binary notation Hence, EBCDIC coding for the word BIT in binary notation will be B I T 3 bytes will be required for this representation because each letter requires 1 byte (or 8 bits) 40 Slide 18/30

19 ASCII ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII is of two types ASCII-7 and ASCII-8 ASCII-7 uses 7 bits to represent a symbol and can represent 128 (2 7 ) different characters ASCII-8 uses 8 bits to represent a symbol and can represent 256 (2 8 ) different characters First 128 characters in ASCII-7 and ASCII-8 are same 40 Slide 19/30

20 Coding of Numeric and Alphabetic Characters in ASCII Character ASCII-7 / ASCII-8 Zone Digit Hexadecimal Equivalent (Continued on next slide) 42 Slide 20/30

21 Coding of Numeric and Alphabetic Characters in ASCII (Continued from previous slide..) Character A B C D E F G H I J K L M ASCII-7 / ASCII-8 Zone Digit Hexadecimal Equivalent A 4B 4C 4D (Continued on next slide) 42 Slide 21/30

22 Coding of Numeric and Alphabetic Characters in ASCII (Continued from previous slide..) Character N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ASCII-7 / ASCII-8 Zone Digit Hexadecimal Equivalent 4E 4F A 42 Slide 22/30

23 ASCII-7 Coding Scheme Example Write binary coding for the word BOY in ASCII-7. How many bytes are required for this representation? Solution: B = in ASCII-7 binary notation O = 111 in ASCII-7 binary notation Y = in ASCII-7 binary notation Hence, binary coding for the word BOY in ASCII-7 will be B O Y Since each character in ASCII-7 requires one byte for its representation and there are 3 characters in the word BOY, 3 bytes will be required for this representation 43 Slide 23/30

24 ASCII-8 Coding Scheme Example Write binary coding for the word SKY in ASCII-8. How many bytes are required for this representation? Solution: S = 0111 in ASCII-8 binary notation K = 1011 in ASCII-8 binary notation Y = 1001 in ASCII-8 binary notation Hence, binary coding for the word SKY in ASCII-8 will be S K Y Since each character in ASCII-8 requires one byte for its representation and there are 3 characters in the word SKY, 3 bytes will be required for this representation 43 Slide 24/30

25 Unicode Why Unicode: No single encoding system supports all languages Different encoding systems conflict Unicode features: Provides a consistent way of encoding multilingual plain text Defines codes for characters used in all major languages of the world Defines codes for special characters, mathematical symbols, technical symbols, and diacritics 44 Slide 25/30

26 Unicode Unicode features (continued): Capacity to encode as many as a million characters Assigns each character a unique numeric value and name Reserves a part of the code space for private use Affords simplicity and consistency of ASCII, even corresponding characters have same code Specifies an algorithm for the presentation of text with bi-directional behavior Encoding Forms UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF Slide 26/30

27 Collating Sequence Collating sequence defines the assigned ordering among the characters used by a computer Collating sequence may vary, depending on the type of computer code used by a particular computer In most computers, collating sequences follow the following rules: 1. Letters are considered in alphabetic order (A < B < C < Z) 2. Digits are considered in numeric order (0 < 1 < 2 < 9) 46 Slide 27/30

28 Sorting in EBCDIC Example Suppose a computer uses EBCDIC as its internal representation of characters. In which order will this computer sort the strings 23, A1, 1A? Solution: In EBCDIC, numeric characters are treated to be greater than alphabetic characters. Hence, in the said computer, numeric characters will be placed after alphabetic characters and the given string will be treated as: A1 < 1A < 23 Therefore, the sorted sequence will be: A1, 1A, Slide 28/30

29 Sorting in ASCII Example Suppose a computer uses ASCII for its internal representation of characters. In which order will this computer sort the strings 23, A1, 1A, a2, 2a, aa, and Aa? Solution: In ASCII, numeric characters are treated to be less than alphabetic characters. Hence, in the said computer, numeric characters will be placed before alphabetic characters and the given string will be treated as: 1A < 23 < 2a < A1 < Aa < a2 < aa Therefore, the sorted sequence will be: 1A, 23, 2a, A1, Aa, a2, and aa 47 Slide 29/30

30 Key Words/Phrases Alphabetic data Alphanumeric data American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) code Byte Collating sequence Computer codes Control characters Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) Hexadecimal equivalent Numeric data Octal equivalent Packed decimal numbers Unicode Zoned decimal numbers 47 Slide 30/30

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