Fall Lecture 1. Operating Systems: Configuration & Use CIS345. Introduction to Operating Systems. Mostafa Z. Ali.

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1 Fall 2009 Lecture 1 Operating Systems: Configuration & Use CIS345 Introduction to Operating Systems Mostafa Z. Ali 1-1

2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Operating Systems An Overview of Microcomputers What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems Yesterday s Operating Systems Desktop OSs Available Today

3 Learning Objectives Describe the microcomputers in use today Identify common computer hardware components Describe the purpose and functions of microcomputer operating systems Describe major events in the evolution of microcomputer operating systems List and compare the common microcomputer operating systems 1-3

4 An Overview of Microcomputers What is a Microcomputer? A computer built around a microprocessor Microprocessor performs calculations or processing A personal computer (PC) is a microcomputer that complies with hardware standards set and supported by Microsoft and Intel 1-4

5 An Overview of Microcomputers What Types of Microcomputers Are Used Today? Desktops and laptops Servers provide services to other computers Handheld devices designed for a specific purpose 1-5

6 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Microprocessor Also known as the CPU or processor Central component of a microcomputer Performs calculations One or more per microcomputer 1-6

7 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Microprocessor (continued) Since the 386DX, Intel Microprocessors support three modes: Real mode 286 protected mode 386 protected mode 1-7

8 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Microprocessor (continued) Real mode Intel processors power up in this mode Total address space = 1MB 640KB limit for OS and application Single tasking 1-8

9 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Microprocessor (continued) 286 protected mode Total address space = 16 MB Can multitask certain applications Does not support virtual machines 1-9

10 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Microprocessor (continued) 386 protected mode Total address space = 4GB Supports the use of virtual machines Multitasking 1-10

11 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Microprocessor (continued) Processors can work with 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit, and 64 bit chunks of data The number of bits (binary digits) is the size of data that can be processed at one time 1-11

12 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Motherboard and Chipset Motherboard central circuit board Contains one or more CPU slots or sockets into which the processor is plugged Chipset, memory slots, voltage regulator module (VRM), ROM BIOS, and the expansion bus slots are components of a motherboard Chipset controls the flow of signals to and from the processor and other components 1-12

13 Memory What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Chips that store programs and data Random access memory (RAM) Read only memory (ROM) 1-13

14 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Memory (continued) RAM System, main, or physical memory Used by active programs One or more circuit cards with memory chips Volatile all is lost when the computer is powered off 1-14

15 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Memory (continued) ROM BIOS Stores programs permanently Called firmware since it is non volatile ROM BIOS contains: Code for starting the computer Code for controlling communications between the processor and other components A setup program for configuring system options Configuration information stored in a special kind of non volatile RAM called the CMOS RAM 1-15

16 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? ROM BIOS configuration information Disk drive types and capacity Disk boot order System memory Connectors (ports) Power management Other information determined by motherboard and ROM BIOS manufacturers 1-16

17 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Video Adapter and Display Video adapter circuitry that sends the controlling output signals to the display screen Display screen a monitor or a flat panel display (FPD) for visual output from the computer 1-17

18 Keyboard What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? An input device with a typewriter style layout of alphanumeric and punctuation keys Includes additional function, control, arrow, and editing keys 1-18

19 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Pointing Device Required to move a graphical pointer (cursor) around in a GUI Mouse is the most common pointing device connects via a physical cable or a wireless connection. Other pointing devices: touch pad, track ball, joystick, and light pen 1-19

20 Disk Drives What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Store data and programs Encoded on surface of small spinning platters Magnetic or optical technology Floppy drives and hard disk drives use magnetic technology Compact disk (CD) and digital versatile disk (DVD) drives use optical technologies 1-20

21 What s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Peripheral Devices Broad term for nonessential add on devices Includes printers, scanners, pointing devices, digital cameras, external modems, and disk drives 1-21

22 Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems What is an Operating System? An Operating System is: The central control program for a computer The intermediary between applications & hardware 1-22

23 Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems Operating System Functions User interface Job management Task management Memory Management File management Device management Security 1-23

24 Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems User Interface AKA the shell A software layer for user interaction Includes the command processor Includes the visual components of the OS Character based command line GUI 1-24

25 Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems Job management Controls the order and time in which programs are run Task management Found in multitasking operating systems Controls the focus Allows user to switch between tasks 1-25

26 Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems Memory Management Manages placement of programs and data in memory Virtual memory manager moves code and data to virtual memory (file on hard drive) 1-26

27 Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems File Management AKA data management Allows the OS to read, write, and modify data Data is organized into files Allows users to organize their files into containers called folders or directories 1-27

28 Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems Device Management Controls hardware through device drivers A device driver is unique to a device Created by the manufacturer of the device to work with a specific operating system 1-28

29 Security Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems Provides password protected authentication of the user before allowing access Checks user name and password Restricts the actions that can be performed on a computer, customized for each user 1-29

30 Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems Categories of Operating Systems Single User/Single tasking Single User/Multitasking Multi User/Multitasking Real Time 1-30

31 Yesterday s Operating Systems First the machines Charles Babbage designed the first computer in the 1820s Apple II was the first microcomputer to combine critical elements like keyboard, monitor, operating system, and desirable and useful applications 1-31

32 Yesterday s Operating Systems Then the Operating Systems Early single purpose computers included system functions OSs did not exist as separate entity OSs evolved from need for multipurpose computers 1-32

33 Yesterday s Operating Systems DOS, CP/M, Apple, and the Killer App To be widely accepted a computer needed a killer app VisiCalc was the killer app of 1970 s microcomputers VisiCalc ran under the CP/M OS VisiCalc contributed to the success of the Apple II Both PC DOS and a version of CP/M were available for the IBM PC 1-33

34 Yesterday s Operating Systems The Second Wave (second killer app) Lotus a DOS spreadsheet application that is fast and provides added functionalities Lotus became the killer app for the IBM PC/PC DOS combination. 1-34

35 Yesterday s Operating Systems OS/2 (Operating System/2) Version 1.0 introduced in 1987 Developed by Microsoft and IBM 1.0 had costly memory and disk requirements IBM introduced OS/2 Warp in 1990 s IBM has ended development of new versions 1-35

36 Yesterday s Operating Systems Microsoft Windows 1985 first version GUI on top of DOS Windows 3.0, introduced in 1990, provided better support for legacy DOS applications Windows 3.x works in real mode, standard mode, and 386 enhanced mode 1992 Windows 3.1 successful with MS Office 1-36

37 Yesterday s Operating Systems Windows for Workgroups DOS and earlier versions of Windows had no networking Windows for Workgroups 3.1 and 3.11 enabled peer to peer networking 1-37

38 Desktop OSs Available Today DOS from Microsoft Windows NT Windows 98 Windows ME Windows 2000 Windows XP Macintosh OSs UNIX Linux 1-38

39 Desktop OSs Available Today DOS from Microsoft DOS provides support for interaction with disk drives Microsoft s first version of DOS, called PC DOS Introduced with the first IBM PC in 1981 Each major version of DOS supported new disk capacities DOS has a text mode command line interface 1-39

40 Desktop OSs Available Today Windows NT First Microsoft OS to take full advantage of the capabilities of the Intel s 386 protected mode Two main versions of NT one for servers and another for desktop computers Windows NT 4.0, introduced in 1996, has a GUI similar to Windows

41 Desktop OSs Available Today Windows 98 An evolutionary development compared to the earlier Windows operating system in terms of GUI and integrated components New options for customizing the GUI, including tighter integration with Microsoft s Web browser, Internet Explorer (IE) 1-41

42 Desktop OSs Available Today Windows 98 (continued) Comes with drivers and support for devices like DVD drives It was the choice for PCs with plug and play (PnP) hardware, not supported by Windows NT 1-42

43 Desktop OSs Available Today Windows Me Introduced in 2000 as an upgrade to Windows 98 Improved music, video, and home networking support Provides utilities as well as applications for dealing with PC software configuration, digital music, and video 1-43

44 Desktop OSs Available Today Windows 2000 Family of OS products, introduced in 2000 Combines the best of Windows 98 and Windows NT Windows 2000 Professional, Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, and Windows 2000 Enterprise Edition 1-44

45 Desktop OSs Available Today Windows XP Several products, but no server version Most common are Windows XP Home Edition and Windows XP Professional Improved GUI as well as several network and security related features Default desktop only contains the Recycle Bin 1-45

46 Desktop OSs Available Today Macintosh Operating Systems Designed to run on Apple Macintosh computers, but can be installed on a regular PC (Intel based) Mac OS X Leopard, and Mac OS X Snow Leopard are common today 1-46

47 Desktop OSs Available Today Macintosh Operating Systems (continued) Macintosh computers generally use the PowerPC chip with an architecture that is enhanced for graphics and multimedia 1-47

48 Desktop OSs Available Today UNIX Introduced by Bell Labs Computing Science Research Center (Bell Labs) as UNIX Version 6 in 1975 A portable operating system for mini computers and mainframe computers Supports timesharing and multi user systems An excellent server operating system as it utilizes resources carefully, allowing only the required services to be loaded 1-48

49 Desktop OSs Available Today UNIX (continued) The current commercial versions of UNIX include Sun Microsystems Solaris, Hewlett Packard s HP UX, IBM s AIX, and Compaq s Tru64 UNIX Many open source versions of UNIX are also available, which can be changed according to requirements 1-49

50 Desktop OSs Available Today Linux Modeled on UNIX Named for original developer, Linus Benedict Torvalds Begun in 1991 by Torvalds and others as opensource for modern computers. Written in the C language using GNU C Compiler (GCC) 1-50

51 Desktop OSs Available Today Linux (continued) Distributed free Vendors sell bundles with extras (utilities, GUIs, manuals) Novell, Red Hat, and others distribute such bundles Fastest growing computer server OS Making inroads on desktop computers 1-51

52 Chapter Summary Microcomputers Today A computer consists of hardware, applications software, and operating system software The operating system allows the user to interact with the computer hardware 1-52

53 Chapter Summary Common Microcomputer Hardware The basic components of a microcomputer are processor, motherboard, memory, video adapter and display, keyboard, pointing device, disk drives, and peripheral devices You can identify hardware components by a visual inspection, by observing information displayed during the boot up process, and by accessing a ROM BIOS setup program 1-53

54 Chapter Summary Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems Certain functions are provided by most, if not all, current operating systems. These functions include a user interface, job management, task management, memory management, file management, device management, and security. The operating system makes everything work together 1-54

55 Chapter Summary Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems You can identify most of the functions provided by your operating system by careful observation. For instance, evidence of support of the security function includes a required logon procedure when you start your computer, and the need for authorization to access resources on your local computer. 1-55

56 Chapter Summary Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems There are four categories of operating systems: Single User/single tasking Single User/multitasking Multi User/multitasking Real Time A Single User/single tasking operating system is one that allows only a single user to perform a single task at a time 1-56

57 Chapter Summary Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems An operating system that allows a single user to perform two or more functions at once is a Single User/multitasking operating system A Multi User/multitasking operating system is an operating system that allows multiple users to run programs simultaneously on a single network server, called a terminal server 1-57

58 Chapter Summary Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems Real time operating systems are defined by their speed and ability to work with special real time applications programs. A Real time operating system is a very fast, relatively small OS that is often embedded, meaning it is built into the circuitry of a device and not normally loaded from a disk drive 1-58

59 Chapter Summary Major Events in the Evolution of Microcomputer Operating Systems The history of current microcomputers and their OSs involved many technical advances and the imagination of a multitude of innovative people You can find many accounts of the history of computers and operating systems by searching the Internet 1-59

60 Chapter Summary What OSs Are Available Today? The microcomputer operating systems common today include MS DOS, several versions of Windows (Windows 98, Windows 2000, and Windows XP), Mac OS X, and several versions of UNIX and Linux Each of today s common operating systems is best suited for certain uses 1-60

61 Chapter Summary What OSs Are Available Today? Microsoft desktop OSs are common in the business environment Both UNIX and Linux can be found on highend servers and on desktop computers. The use of Linux is growing on all types of systems The Mac OSs are commonly used in education and in graphic workstations 1-61

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