2 What is an Operating System? The most important program that runs on your computer. It manages all other programs on the machine. Every PC has to have one to run other applications or programs. It s the first thing loaded.
3 Operating System It performs basic tasks, such as: Recognizing input from the keyboard or mouse, Sending output to the monitor,
4 Operating System Keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and Controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.
5 Is There More Than One Type of OS? Generally, there are four types, based on the type of computer they control and the sort of applications they support. 1.Single-user, single task This type manages the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time.
6 Types of Operating Systems 2. Multi-user, multi-task Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users.
7 Types of Operating Systems 3. Real Time Operating Systems RTOS are used to control machinery, scientific instruments, and industrial systems. There is typically very little userinterface capability. Resources are managed so that a particular operation executes precisely the same every time.
8 Types of Operating Systems 4. Single-user, Multi-tasking This is the type of operating system most desktops and laptops use today. Microsoft s Windows and Apple s MacOS are both examples of operating systems that will let a single user have several programs in operation at the same time.
9 OS s Manage Applications Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other application programs can run. The application programs must be written to run on a particular operating system. So, your choice of operating system determines what application software you can run.
10 Operating System Functions Besides managing hardware and software resources on the system, the OS must manage resources and memory. There are two broad tasks to be accomplished.
11 OS - Memory Storage and Management 1. Each process must have enough memory in which to execute, and It can neither run into the memory space of another process, Nor be run into by another process.
12 OS - Memory Storage and Management 1. The different types of memory in the system must be used properly so that each process can run most effectively.
13 Cache Memory Cache - A section of a computer's memory which temporarily retains recently accessed data in order to speed up repeated access to the same data. It provides rapid access without having to wait for systems to load.
14 RAM Memory Random access memory (RAM) is the best known form of computer memory. RAM is considered "random access" because you can access any memory cell directly if you know the row and column that intersect at that cell.
15 RAM Memory The more RAM your computer has, the faster programs can function. The two main types are called DRAM and SRAM. SRAM is faster than DRAM, but, more expensive. Remember, that if the power is turned off, then all data left in RAM, that has not been saved to the hard drive, is lost.
16 Virtual Memory Virtual Memory a method of using hard disk space to provide extra memory. It simulates additional RAM. In Windows, the amount of virtual memory available, equals the amount of free RAM plus the amount of disk space allocated to the swap file.
17 Virtual Memory Swap File A swap file is an area of your hard disk that is set aside for virtual memory. Swap files can be either temporary or permanent.
18 Okay So Now What?
19 OS - Wake up call When you turn on the power to a PC, the first program that runs is a set of instructions kept in the computer's read-only memory (ROM).
20 OS - Wake up Call It checks to make sure everything is functioning properly. It checks the CPU, memory, and basic input-output systems (BIOS) for errors.
21 OS Wake up Call Once successful, the software will begin to activate the computer's disk drives. It then finds the first piece of the operating system: the bootstrap loader.
22 OS - Booting the PC The bootstrap loader is a small program that has a single function: It loads the operating system into memory and allows it to begin operation.
23 OS - Booting the PC The bootstrap loader sets up the small driver programs that interface with and control the various hardware. It sets up the divisions of memory user information, and applications.
24 OS - Booting the PC It establishes the data structures needed to communicate within and between the subsystems and applications of the computer. Then it turns control of the computer over to the operating system.
25 Windows Desktop Your Desktop may look like this
26 Windows Desktop Or like this.
27 How Do I Tell The OS What I Want To Do? You must continue to give the operating system commands that are accepted and executed. The first command was pushing the ON button which started the boot process.
28 Enter Commands Commands can be entered several ways: Through a keyboard. Pointing or clicking on an object with a mouse. (Graphical User Interface or GUI) Sending a command from another program.
29 Windows and Mac are GUI s Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems are graphical user interfaces or GUI s. GUI is defined as: A picture used in place of a word or words to issue commands.
30 GUI Standards GUI interfaces have standards that are usually the same or similar in all systems and applications. Standards apply to: Pointers and pointing devices Icons, desktops, windows and menus
31 Windows - GUI Pointers GUI uses pictures, symbols, or icons rather than words to represent some object or function. For example: A pointer or mouse pointer is a small arrow or other symbol that moves on the screen as you move a mouse. An I-Beam pointer is used by many desktop publishing systems and word processors to mark blocks of text and move the insertion point.
32 GUI Cursors / Pointers The term cursor typically is used to show where your typing will appear. Otherwise, the term pointer is the better choice.
33 Windows - GUI Icons Icon - A small picture that represents a command, object, file, or window. Point and click with a mouse to execute a command or convert the icon into a window. Icons are moveable around the display screen, just like moving things around on your desk.
34 Object Icons & Shortcut Icons One type of icon is an object icon. It allows you to open applications and documents on your PC. You can create and use a shortcut icon to open any application quickly. You don t have to use the Start Menu to access a program or document.
35 Windows - GUI Windows & Desktop You can divide the screen into different areas. In each window, you can run a different program or display a different file. You can move windows around the display screen, and change their shape and size at will.
36 Windows - GUI Menus Menu - is an on-screen list of options for using a program. It can also be a list of categories with many other menu options under it. Menus can "pop up" or "pull down."
37 GUI Share Data Because the formats are well-defined, different programs that run under a common GUI can share data. This makes it possible, for example, to copy a graph created by a spreadsheet program into a document created by a word processor.
38 Parts of the Desktop
39 Windows - Taskbar Taskbar shows you the windows or programs that are currently open on the desktop. You can switch between windows by clicking on the applicable button.
40 Windows System Tray System Tray shows you running programs that were started automatically by the operating system, like anti-virus programs, the clock and volume controls. These programs are running in the background.
41 Windows - Quick Launch Toolbar Quick Launch Toolbar contains one-click buttons, or shortcuts, which open programs. You can customize this toolbar however you like.
42 Start Button The start button allows you to easily access your computer programs or configure Windows. By default the start button is located at the bottom left side of the screen.
43 Parts of a Window
44 Title Bar At the top edge of the window, inside its border, is the title bar which extends across the width of the window. It contains the title of the application or document. A small icon in the far left corner of the title bar represents the object being viewed in the window.
45 Minimize, Maximize and Resize Windows The title bar contains three little buttons in the upper right-corner of the window and are used to manage the window size or close it altogether.
46 Minimize - Maximize The first button is the minimize button and it will hide the window. The window can be opened again by clicking its button on the taskbar. The second button is maximize, which makes the window take up all the screen space. Clicking again turns the window back to the size it was. The double-box image is known as the restore button.
47 Close Window The last button will close a window. If it is the last window of a certain type of program, it will exit or quit that program.
48 Move a Window You can move a window to any location on the desktop by clicking and dragging the title bar with your mouse. This is also referred to as drag and drop. You can also drag and drop icons to move the location of files or shortcuts.
49 Menu Bar Menu bar - The horizontal bar near the top of a window that displays the names of menus from which you can access features and perform tasks for the current application.
50 Types of Menu Items Arrow: another menu will cascade from it. Three dots: a dialog box will open, containing choices for you to make.
51 Types of Menu Items Checkmark: clicking this item will toggle the feature on or off. If a keyboard shortcut is shown in the menu, you can use those keys to run the command without having to open the menu.
52 Scroll Bar Scroll bar - the narrow rectangular bar at the far right of windows. Clicking on the up or down arrow enables you to move up and down through a document. A movable square indicates your location in the document.
53 Windows Frame & Resizing You can also resize a window by a click and drag move. Put the mouse cursor on the edge of a window (that is not maximized) and when the pointer changes to a double arrow, click and drag for the new size. Some windows have a handle on them for resizing.
54 Status Bar Status bar is located at the bottom of a window and contains information about formatting options, errors, prompts, messages, or the status of an application.
55 Dialog Boxes 1. List box 2. Spin control box 3. Slide 4. Drop-down list 5. Radio button 6. Checkbox 7. Text box
56 Windows Start Menu Start Menu gives you access to all programs and functions on your PC, including help files and search capabilities.
57 Windows HELP Access Windows HELP through the Start menu. Windows 95 HELP menu
58 Windows HELP Windows 98 HELP menu
59 Windows HELP Windows XP HELP menu
60 Windows System Programs Windows has a number of internal programs as part of the operating system that help keep you organized and your PC healthy. Here are a few:
61 Windows - My Computer Al s the o k Ex Wi now plo nd n a rer ows s My Computer inside this icon you can find every folder and file that your PC has access to.
63 Windows Recycle Bin Recycle Bin Deleted files and folders go here first, where they wait to be permanently deleted by you, or by rules that you set up. This is a temporary storage area on your hard drive.
64 Windows My Docs My Documents a place to store the documents and files you create. Clicking on this opens an explorer window displaying the detail. It s wise to keep the files you create separate from the program files, so when you backup your data, it s all located in one location. You can then backup just this area of your storage.
65 My Documents Explorer Window
66 Windows Network Neighborhood Network Neighborhood serves as a window into the network resources you have on your PC. If you are connected to a network you will see all the other PC s linked to your network and you can share files, printers or other hardware.
67 Network Neighborhood
68 Logoff If your have multiple users on a PC with separate profiles or user logons, use the logoff process to close out of your profile or to switch users.
69 Shutdown Windows There is a graceful way of shutting down your PC that will save your program settings and files. This shutdown process basically puts the operating system to bed.
70 Which Explorer? Tip: Don't confuse Windows Explorer with Internet Explorer. Windows Explorer is the program that lets you explore things "inside" your own computer. Internet Explorer lets you explore things "outside" your computer -- namely things on the Internet.
Introduction to MS WINDOWS XP Mouse Desktop Windows Applications File handling Introduction to MS Windows XP 2 Table of Contents What is Windows XP?... 3 Windows within Windows... 3 The Desktop... 3 The
Introduction to Windows XP Operating System Introduction to Windows XP Operating System Document Syllabus Course Description: This workshop will introduce basic Windows operating system concepts. Using
This handout was modified from materials supplied by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation through a grant to the Manchester City Library. Getting Started on the Computer With Mouseaerobics! Windows XP
Windows Basics Developed by: D. Cook User Interface Hardware and Software Monitor Keyboard Mouse User friendly vs. MS-DOS GUI (graphical user interface) Launching Windows 2000 (XP) CTRL-ALT-DEL Desktop
LESSON 13 Managing Devices OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Open System Properties. 2. Use Device Manager. 3. Understand hardware profiles. 4. Set performance options. Estimated
Computer Basics: Tackling the mouse, keyboard, and using Windows Class Description: Interested in learning how to use a computer? Come learn the computer basics at the Muhlenberg Community Library. This
Open Crystal Reports From the Windows Start menu choose Programs and then Crystal Reports. Creating a Blank Report Ohio University Computer Services Center August, 2002 Crystal Reports Introduction Quick
Introduction to Computers Parts of a computer Monitor CPU 3 Keyboard 3 4 4 Mouse 3 4 Monitor The monitor displays the content and operations of the computer. It is the visual display of what the computer
Windows 95: Features Windows Introduction Windows 95 is the much-anticipated update to Microsoft s popular Windows graphic user interface, or GUI. A GUI is designed to make computer tasks (such as file
User Tutorial on Changing Frame Size, Window Size, and Screen Resolution for The Original Version of The Cancer-Rates.Info/NJ Application Introduction The original version of Cancer-Rates.Info/NJ, like
We use a conversational and non-technical way to introduce the introductory skills that you will need to develop in order to become comfortable with accessing and using computer programs. We will concentrate
Unit 2 Using Microsoft Windows 7 Professional Unit Objectives This unit includes the knowledge and skills required to familiarize you with the most frequently used functions of an operating system. Elements
NDA-30141 ISSUE 1 STOCK # 200893 CallCenterWorX-Enterprise IMX MAT Quick Reference Guide MAY, 2000 NEC America, Inc. LIABILITY DISCLAIMER NEC America, Inc. reserves the right to change the specifications,
Windows 7 for beginners Hardware Hardware: the physical parts of a computer. What s in the computer? CPU: the central processing unit processes information (the brain) Hard drive: where all of your software
Windows 7 Tutorial GETTING STARTED An operating system, sometimes called an OS, is the main program the computer uses to function properly. Operating systems act as a link between you, the user, and the
Computer Basics ICT Training Updated: May 2002 Job Aid Created by the St. Dorothy s Project Team Updated by Oksana Maibroda Introduction to computer basics for Macintosh computers Welcome to this training
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Technology in Action Chapter 5 Using System Software: The Operating System, Utility Programs, and File Management Chapter Topics System software basics Types of operating systems What the
IT Quick Reference Guides Using Windows 7 Windows Guides This sheet covers many of the basic commands for using the Windows 7 operating system. WELCOME TO WINDOWS 7 After you log into your machine, the
V-1.1 PART V Presentations and PowerPoint V-1.2 Computer Fundamentals V-1.3 LESSON 1 Creating a Presentation After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Start Microsoft PowerPoint. Explore the PowerPoint
California State University, Fullerton Campus Information Technology Division Documentation and Training Services Handout Epson Brightlink Interactive Board and Pen Training Downloading Brightlink Drivers
Division of Administration (DOA) Desktop Support Computer Power Conservation Settings for XP & Vista Operating Systems XP Power Options Overview Using Power Options in Control Panel, you can reduce the
Title: Simple Computer Backup (Win 7 and 8) Author: Nancy DeMarte Date Created: 11/10/13 Date(s) Revised: 1/20/15 Simple Computer Backup This tutorial includes these methods of backing up your PC files:
Apple imac When you first sit down to use an Apple Macintosh Computer, or Mac for short, you may seem intimidated by using something other than Microsoft Windows, but once you use a Mac, you might find
Cleaning your Windows 7, Windows XP and Macintosh OSX Computers A cleaning of your computer can help your computer run faster and make you more efficient. We have listed some tools and how to use these
Getting Started with Vision 6 Version 6.9 Notice Copyright 1981-2009 Netop Business Solutions A/S. All Rights Reserved. Portions used under license from third parties. Please send any comments to: Netop
In this chapter Learn how to get around in the Open File dialog box. See how to navigate through drives and folders and display the files in other folders. Learn how to search for a file when you can t
Basic File Management & Navigation Windows Explorer 1. Open Windows Explorer. (From the "Start-Programs" menu, or "Quick Launch" shortcut, or keyboard shortcut: "Microsoft flag symbol - E") 2. Within "Explorer",
Event Record Monitoring and Analysis Software Software Rev. 3.0 and Up User s Guide 2 Contents Contents Chapter 1: About ERMAWin 4 Chapter 2: Overview 5 About this Manual 5 System Requirements 5 Installing
Sharjah Higher Colleges of Technology SMART Board Training Outline Trainer: Basel Badran What is a SMART Board? o Concept & Technology SMART Board Components: o Smart Tools Start Center Recorder Keyboard
Windows XP Managing Your Files Objective 1: Understand your computer s filing system Your computer's filing system has three basic divisions: files, folders, and drives. 1. File- everything saved on your
Using Virtual PC 7.0 for Mac with GalleryPro Installing and Configuring What is Virtual PC for Mac? Virtual PC (VPC) is emulation software that simulates an actual (though virtual) Windows computer running
Recipes4Success Macintosh System OSX #1 2007. All Rights Reserved. This Material is copyrighted under United States copyright laws. Tech4Learning, Inc. is the exclusive owner of the copyright. Distribution
Hosting Users Guide 2011 eofficemgr technology support for small business Celebrating a decade of providing innovative cloud computing services to small business. Table of Contents Overview... 3 Configure
File Management With Windows Explorer Preamble: After you have created and saved numerous files using various programs, file management, the process of organizing and keeping track of all your files, can
User Guide for Windows 10 System requirements E10684 First Edition July 2015 To facilitate a smoother transition from your previous operating system, read the system requirements below before upgrading
QNS OSX instructions. CONTENTS 1 The Apple and Finder 2 The Dock 3 Navigating OS X 4 System Preferences 1 OS X tutorial: the apple The apple menu The apple menu is hidden under the apple at the top left
Nursery Inventory Software (EPLPPS) Frequently Asked Questions Eligible Plant List and Plant Price Schedule (EPLPPS) December, 2014 This document supplements the more thorough "Help" available within the
Guest PC for Mac OS X Version 1.6 User Guide Copyright 1996-2005 Lismore Software Systems, Ltd. All rights reserved. Table of Contents About Guest PC... 1 About your Virtual Computer... 1 Creating a Virtual
RDM+ Remote Desktop for Android Getting Started Guide RDM+ (Remote Desktop for Mobiles) is a remote control tool that offers you the ability to connect to your desktop or laptop computer from Android device
Windows XP Tweaks (Suggestions From RML Labs For Better SAC, SAWStudio and overall Windows Performance) (Follow any or all of these at your own discretion) 1) This is one recommended way of setting the
Centre for Learning and Academic Development IT Training File Management Windows Vista Version 1.0 www.skills.bham.ac.uk File Management Windows Vista Author: Phil Smith and Linda Clark Version: 1.0, August
Welcome to Bridgit @ CSU The Software Used To Data Conference. Overview SMART Bridgit software is a client/server application that lets you share programs and information with anyone, anywhere in the world.
18 :: Data Entry Operations 2 Operating System 2.1 INTRODUCTION The operating system in these days uses a graphical user interface (GUI). Here you do not have to remember all the commands by heart. The
Technology in Action Alan Evans Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy Eleventh Edition Technology in Action Chapter 4 System Software: The Operating System, Utility Programs, and File Management. Chapter Topics
OFFICE 1 File Management Files and Folders Most of your tasks in Windows XP will involve working with information stored on your computer. This material briefly explains how information is stored in Windows
M a r k B o o k C Y, M a r k B o o k A M, v e r s i o n, e d i t i o n MarkBook for Windows on a Mac 1 Installation/Use on an Apple Macintosh Computer Ordinarily, a Mac computer cannot run Windows software.
Using the Remote Desktop Connection for Mac In order to use the RDC Client for Macs, you first need to download the client http://www.microsoft.com/mac/remote-desktop-client. Run the installation package,
PA Payroll Exercise for Intermediate Excel Follow the directions below to create a payroll exercise. Read through each individual direction before performing it, like you are following recipe instructions.
Introduction to Microsoft Access 2003 Zhi Liu School of Information Fall/2006 Introduction and Objectives Microsoft Access 2003 is a powerful, yet easy to learn, relational database application for Microsoft
MICROSOFT WINDOWS NAVIGATION MARGARET E. HEGGAN FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY This walkthrough assumes you have a computer with Microsoft Windows 7 installed. Versions of Microsoft Windows are similar, but different
warpct.com courseware by WARP! Computer Training Basic Computer Skills MS Windows XP Workbook Welcome! Thank you for evaluating a portion of this workbook. If you have any questions or comments regarding
File Management Windows : Explorer Navigating the Windows File Structure 1. The Windows Explorer can be opened from the Start Button, Programs menu and clicking on the Windows Explorer application OR by
EZClaim Appointment Scheduler User Guide Last Update: 11/19/2008 Copyright 2008 EZClaim This page intentionally left blank Contents Contents... iii Getting Started... 5 System Requirements... 5 Installing
Windows Files and Folders Overview Before I get into Windows XP's method of file management, let's spend a little space on a files and folder refresher course. (Just in case you forgot, of course.) The
IMPORTANT Please Read Me First 3/02/2006 Table of Contents Table of Contents Part 1 Mac Single User Installation 1 Part 2 Windows Single User Installation 2 Part 3 Mac Server Installation 3 Part 4 Windows
Intro to Excel spreadsheets What are the objectives of this document? The objectives of document are: 1. Familiarize you with what a spreadsheet is, how it works, and what its capabilities are; 2. Using
Software User's Guide Brother QL-series The contents of this guide and the specifications of this product are subject to change without notice. Brother reserves the right to make changes without notice
Windows 10: A Beginner s Guide Copyright 2014 Conceptual Kings. All are rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written
Access 2007 Essentials PART ONE Mobile MOUSe Access 2007 Essentials Version # 1.1 Part One 08/08/2010 11:20 About this Course Microsoft Access is the database application included with Microsoft Office.
What is File Management As described earlier, file management is basically the process of designing new folders and assigning files to those folders. The main goal in file management is to have a system
Module B Key Applications Using Microsoft Office 2010 Unit 3: Common Elements Key Applications The Key Applications exam includes questions covering three applications (word processing, spreadsheet and
Mouse and Pointer Settings Technical Brief Avocent, the Avocent logo, DSView, AutoView, SwitchView, DSR, OSCAR and AVWorks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Avocent Corporation or its affiliates.
Excel basics Excel is a powerful spreadsheet and data analysis application, but to use it most effectively, you first have to understand the basics. This tutorial introduces some of the tasks and features
Task Force on Technology EXCEL Basic terminology Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is an electronic document that stores various types of data. There are vertical columns and horizontal rows. A cell is where the
Integrated Accounting System for Mac OS X and Windows Program version: 6.2 110111 2011 HansaWorld Ireland Limited, Dublin, Ireland Preface Books by HansaWorld is a powerful accounting system for the Mac
65 2. More Use of the Mouse in Windows 7 The mouse has become an essential part of the computer. But it is actually a relatively new addition. The mouse did not become a standard part of the PC until Windows
Microsoft Office -Windows 7 File Management Location: Central Library, Technology Room Visit Schenectady County Public Library at http://www.scpl.org (The following document adapted from http://windows.microsft.com/en-us/windows7/help
Getting to know Windows 8 Queen Mary student desktop Sign In & Sign Out Sign in: Please enter your Queen Mary username and password when prompted. Sign out: There are two easy ways to sign out: From the
vtcommander vtcommander provides a local graphical user interface (GUI) to manage Hyper-V R2 server. It supports Hyper-V technology on full and core installations of Windows Server 2008 R2 as well as on
NETWORK PRINT MONITOR User Guide Legal Notes Unauthorized reproduction of all or part of this guide is prohibited. The information in this guide is subject to change without notice. We cannot be held liable