Computer Basics: Chapters 1 & 2

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1 Computer Basics: Chapters 1 & 2

2 Definition of a Computer What does IPOS stand for? Input Process Output Storage

3 Other types of Computers Name some examples of other types of computers, other than a typical personal computer or laptop:

4 History of Computers Computers were originally created for Government & business use Charles Babbage is known as the Father of Computers

5 History of Computers Steve Jobs created the first Apple computer in Bill Gates created the first MS-DOS computer for IBM in What does MS-DOS stand for? Microsoft Disk Operating System

6 Computer Classification Computers are classified three ways: Size Speed Application

7 Types of Computers Name the 6 different types of computers discussed in Lesson 1. Microcomputer Notebook/Laptop Computer Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Minicomputer Mainframe Computer SuperComputer

8 Name the type of computer being described below: Government agencies and large corporations use these types of computers for specialized applications. Are often used to conduct and test medical experiments. Can cost several million dollars. Supercomputer Sometimes has an on-screen touch sensitive keyboard. PDA Known as a server, used by small to medium-sized companies Minicomputer

9 Name the type of computer being described below: Larger and more powerful than a minicomputer. Capable of supporting hundreds or even thousands of users. Mainframe Computer Known as a personal computer or desktop computer Microcomputer Portable, has the same capabilities as a desktop computer Notebook/Laptop Computer

10 What are the four parts of a computer system? Hardware Software Data People

11 Hardware What is the definition of hardware? Tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and touched (keyboard, monitor, printer, mouse, scanner) What does tangible mean? Something you can physically touch

12 Software What is the definition of software? Intangible set of instructions that tell the computer what to do There are two types of software programs, System and Application. Name examples of each. System-example: Windows 7, XP, or Vista Application-example: Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office, games What does intangible mean? Something you cannot physically touch

13 Networks, Internet & What is the definition of a Network? A network connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices Why was the Internet originally developed? Government use What is the most commonly used feature on the Internet?

14 Motherboard A motherboard is a circuit board that contains many important electronic components, wires & adapters. The motherboard has 4 components: 1. Central Processing Unit 2. Memory 3. Basic Controllers 4. Expansion ports & Expansion slots

15 Motherboard s Components First component of the motherboard is the CPU. CPU stands for Central Processing Unit What is the CPU? Brains of the computer There are two primary sections of the CPU. Name and define below: 1. Arithmetic Logic Unit-performs mathematical computations & makes comparisons 2. Control Unit- retrieves instructions and helps process data

16 Motherboard s Components Second component of the motherboard is Memory. There are two types of memory, short term & long term. The short term memory is called RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY. This type of memory is considered to be VOLATILE, meaning it is not permanent. The information disappears when the computer is turned off. The long term memory is called READ ONLY MEMORY. This type of memory is considered to be NON- VOLATILE, meaning it is permanent. Information remains on the ROM chip regardless if computer is on or off.

17 Motherboard s Components Third component of the motherboard are Basic Controllers. Basic controllers allow the transfer of data between the computer to peripheral devices. Give some examples of peripheral devices:

18 Motherboard s Components Fourth component of the motherboard are Expansion ports & Expansion slots. Expansion ports connect peripheral devices to the computer. There are three types of Expansion Ports: 1. Serial Ports 2. Parallel Ports 3. USB Ports Expansion slots are an opening in the motherboard when an expansion board can be added (ex: video cards, sound cards, more memory, etc )

19 Bits, Bytes & Binary Code BINARY CODE is the language of the computer. A bit is the smallest unit of data. It is the binary digit zero OR one Binary code is made up of 8 bits of data called a BYTE. What is ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)? Most widely used standardized coding system

20 Storage Mediums How many MB can be stored on a floppy disk? 1.44 MB What does CD stand for? Compact Disc What does DVD stand for? Digital Versatile Disc Between a CD and DVD, which can store more information? DVD

21 Storage Mediums What is a CD-ROM? Information on the disk is permanent and cannot be added, edited or deleted. What is a CD-R? Information on the disk can be added, but once on the disk, it is permanent. What is a CD-RW? These discs can have files added, edited, and deleted from the disc over and over again. What are three nicknames for Flash Memory? 1. Flash Drive 2. Thumb Drive 3. USB Drive

22 Storage Mediums What year were hard drives or hard disks invented? 1950 s Which specific part of a computer does the hard drive relay information to? CPU What are three ways to measure performance of a hard disk? 1. Storage Capacity 2. Data Rate 3. Seek Time

23 MLA Guidelines What size margins are used in MLA? 1 inch What font size is used in MLA? 12 point What font style is used in MLA? Times New Roman What line spacing is used in MLA? Double

24 MLA Guidelines The first line of each paragraph should be Indented The title of the paper should be centered The Header should be right aligned and include two items: Last Name & Page #

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