OPERATING SYSTEMS Software in the Background. Chapter 2

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1 OPERATING SYSTEMS Software in the Background Chapter 2

2 Objectives Describe the functions of an Operating System Explain the basics of a personal computer operating system Describe the advantages of a graphical operating system Differentiate among different versions of Microsoft Windows Explain the need for network operating systems List several functions typically performed by utility programs

3 Contents Operating System: Hidden Software Systems Software Functions of OS Types of OS MS-DOS Microsoft Windows Mac OS UNIX LINUX Network Operating System NOS Utility Programs

4 Operating System Hidden Software Definition provides access to all resources Kernel Manages the operating system Memory resident Loads set of programs that lies between applications software and the hardware Fundamental software that controls non-resident portions of the OS as needed Booting Loads the kernel into memory

5 Systems Software Definition: All programs related to coordinating computer operations Components Operating System Utility programs Program language translators

6 Functions of OS Manage the computer s resources CPU Memory Disk drives Printers

7 User Interface Facilitates communication between the user and the operating system Two forms Command line Text-based Key commands Examples: MS-DOS, Unix Graphical user interface (GUI) Visual images Menus Examples: Windows, Mac OS, Linux UI Future

8 Platform Definition: Computer hardware and operating system software that dictate what other software can run

9 OS is Hidden User interested in application software to make the PC useful Application software is platform specific User must be aware of the type of OS User should be aware of the functions of OS

10 Types of OS Command line Single user PC Network Operating System (NOS)

11 MS-DOS Command-line interface Prompt system is waiting for you to do something Key a command Not user-friendly

12 Microsoft Windows Graphical user interface Eases access to the OS Most new computers come with Windows already installed

13 GUI On-screen pictures Icons Menus Pull down Pop up Click to activate a command or function Fast Easy Intuitive

14 Early Days of Windows Operating environment for MS-DOS Shell layer added between users and DOS

15 Windows Today Home/consumer market Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows Millennium Edition (ME) Corporate market Windows NT Windows 2000 Windows XP Pocket computers and Internet appliances Windows CE

16 Windows 95 and 98 Self-contained OS DOS commands still available Start programs by Start button Double clicking the icon Task bar permits movement between open programs Plug and play Object linking and embedding (OLE)

17 Windows 98 Additions Internet / intranet browsing Support for DVD and additional multimedia components Support for large hard drives TV viewer and broadcast ability Wizards

18 Windows ME Millennium Edition Multimedia support -- Windows Media Player 7 Jukebox Record music CDs as digital files Windows Movie Maker Basic video editing Windows Image Acquisition Scanner and digital camera

19 Windows ME Millennium Edition Reliability Features System File Protection AutoUpdate System Restore Help Center Home Network Support Wizard for connecting multiple computers and peripherals Multiple users can share a single Internet connection

20 Windows NT 1993 New Technology Engineered for stability Strong security Versions NT Workstation NT Server Drawbacks Lacks support for older Windows and MS-DOS software and hardware Complex to learn and use Requires more memory and processing power

21 Windows 2000 Security features Uses simple approach to hardware setup from Windows 98 Versions Windows 2000 Professional for individual users Windows 2000 for network servers

22 Windows 2000 Complex Heavy demand for computer resources Improvements over windows NT Maintains user preferences Self-healing applications software Supports Windows 98 file structure Uses plug and play Provides improved support for laptops

23 Windows XP 2001 Windows 7 Windows 8 Windows 9 Windows 10 Extends Windows ME and provides a more stable environment Two categories Network server 3 versions based upon network complexity Desktop computer 2 versions Professional Client Personal Client

24 Mac OS First commercially successful GUI (1984) Mac OS X: 2000 Served as a model to other GUI systems

25 UNIX 1969 Supports Multi-user Command-line interface Runs on various processors and many types of computers LINUX 1991 UNIX-like OS Open-source software Download it free Make changes Distribute copies PC Setup PC comes with Windows installed Install LINUX in a dual-boot configuration

26 LINUX Advantages over Windows Extremely stable Internet support Reinstallation is simpler Disadvantage Scarcity of applications

27 Network Operating System NOS Designed to permit computers on a network to share resources Examples Windows 2000 Server Novell Net Ware Provides Data security Troubleshooting Administrative control

28 Functions of Utility programs File manager provide access to lists of stored files Backup and Restore make duplicate copies of important files and return the copy to the hard drive if needed Disk defragmenter reorganize files so they are stored contiguously on disk providing for faster access

29

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