Chapter 8 Objectives. Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs. Operating Systems. Operating Systems. Operating Systems.

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1 Chapter 8 Objectives Chapter 8 s and Utility Programs Describe the two types of software Understand the startup process for a personal computer Describe the term user interface Explain features common to most s Know the difference between stand-alone s and network s Identify various stand-alone s Identify various network s Recognize devices that use embedded s Discuss the purpose of the following utilities: file viewer, file compression, diagnostic, uninstaller, disk scanner, disk defragmenter, backup, and screen saver p.8.2 p.8.3 s What is an (OS)? Set of programs that coordinates all activities among computer hardware resources Operating System s What are the functions of an? p.8.3 Fig. 8-1 start up the computer administer security control a network access the Web monitor performance and provide housekeeping services schedule jobs and configure devices manage memory manage programs provide user interface s Where is the located? s What is a cross-platform application? One that runs identically on multiple operating systems p.8.3 resides on ROM in handhelds resides on hard disk in most cases runs on Windows 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP p.8.4 Fig. 8-2

2 p.8. 4 What is booting? Process of starting or restarting a computer cold boot Process of turning on a computer after it has been powered off completely warm boot Process of restarting a computer that is already powered on What messages display on the screen when you boot the computer? version and copyright notice total amount of memory Windows message sound card and rs loaded p.8.4 Fig. 8-3 devices detected and tested How does a personal computer boot up? 1: Power supply sends signal to components in system unit 2: The accesses to start computer Step 1 Step 2 Processor Step 3: checks components such as mouse, keyboard connectors, and Step 3 Step 4: Results of POST are compared to data in the CMOS chip CMOS Step 4 Step 5: looks for system files in drive A (floppy disk drive) and then drive C (hard disk) floppy disk drive CMOS hard disk Drive that contains operating system is called boot drive Step 5

3 Step 6: Boot program loads kernel of operating system into RAM from boot drive Operating system in memory takes control of computer (RAM) memory modules floppy disk drive CMOS hard disk Step 6 Step 7: Operating system loads configuration information and displays desktop on screen Operating system executes programs in StartUp folder click Start to display list of applications you can run Step 7 What is an emergency recovery disk? Floppy disk that contains system files that will start computer when hard disk becomes damaged and computer cannot boot Also called repair disk, boot disk, or rescue disk What is a user interface? Controls how you enter data and instructions and how information displays on screen command-line (DOS) interface p.8.6 Fig. 8-5 Recovery Disk p.8.7 Fig. 8-6 graphical (Windows) interface What is multitasking? Allows single user to work on two or more applications that reside in memory at same time p.8.9 Fig. 8-8 Foreground contains active application - the one you currently are using Background contains inactive programs that are running but are not in use foreground foreground application application background background applications applications listed listed on on taskbar taskbar p.8.9 multiuser Operating system enables two or more users to run a program simultaneously What are other program management features of s? fault-tolerant computer multiprocessing Operating system can support two or more s running programs at same time Continues to operate even if one of its components fails Computer has duplicate components such as s, memory, and disk drives

4 What is memory management? Optimizes the use of random access memory (RAM) allocates, or assigns, data and instructions to area of memory while they are being processed monitors contents of memory clears items from memory when no longer requires them What is virtual memory (VM) management? Operating system allocates portion of hard disk to function like RAM Paging Thrashing page swapped out disk (virtual memory) RAM (physical memory) p.8.10 p.8.10 Fig. 8-9 page swapped in How does an schedule jobs? Adjusts schedule based on job s priority receiving data from an input device job An operation the manages transferring items from storage to memory and from memory to storage print queue What is spooling? Print jobs sent to buffer instead of directly to printer, where print jobs wait their turn print spooler application print job p.8.10 sending information to an output device processing instructions p.8.11 Fig server jobs to be printed disk jobs being printed laser printer What is a device driver? Small program that tells how to communicate with a device Each device requires its own specific driver device driver Use the Printers and Other Hardware link in Control Panel How do you install a device driver? Printers and and Other Other Hardware link link Control Panel Control Panel p.8.11 p.8.12 Fig. 8-11

5 How does an monitor performance? Provides a program, called performance monitor, that assesses and reports information about various system resources and devices How does an manage files? Includes a program called file manager, such as Windows Explorer Commands include Copy, Rename, Delete, Move, Format, and New Folder p.8.14 Fig p.8.14 Fig p What is a file allocation table (FAT)? A table of information that uses to locate files on a disk Reformatting disk usually erases only file allocation table and leaves actual files on disk What are features of a network operating system? Server is computer that controls access to network and provides centralized storage area Other computers on network are called clients p.8.15 Fig client server How do s administer security? What is Active Directory (AD)? p.8.16 Fig Most multiuser s allow each user to log on User name Password text box p Active Directory (AD) Allows network administrators to manage all network information including users, devices, settings, and connections from central environment

6 p.8.17 Types of Operating What are some characteristics of operating systems? device-dependent One that runs only on specific type of computer proprietary software Privately owned and limited to specific vendor or computer model downward-compatible Recognizes and works with application software written for earlier version of device-independent Runs on many manufacturers computers upward-compatible Written for earlier version of, but also runs with new version What are three categories of operating systems? p.8.17 Fig Types of Operating p.8.17 Stand-Alone Operating What is DOS (Disk )? Refers to several single user s developed in the early 1980s for personal computers commands commands entered entered by by user user p.8.18 Stand-Alone Operating What are features of most Windows operating systems? Active Desktop Windows Explorer has a Web browser look and feel Universal Serial Bus Taskbar/toolbars Tune-Up Wizard Registry Checker Increased speed Accessibility Settings Wizard Hardware support FAT32 Update Wizard Multiple display support Stand-Alone Operating What is Mac OS? Multitasking available only for computers manufactured by Apple Apple s Macintosh was first commercially successful GUI Network Operating What is UNIX? Command-line multitasking p.8.21 Fig p.8.23 Fig. 8-24

7 What is Linux? Network Operating Popular, free, open-source multitasking UNIX-type Open-source software means code is available to the public What is Solaris? Network Operating UNIX-type designed specifically for e-commerce applications Can manage high-traffic accounts Incorporates security necessary for Web transactions Developed by Sun Microsystems p.8.24 Fig p.8.25 p Embedded Operating What is an embedded? Operating system found on most handheld computers and small devices Resides on a ROM chip Palm OS Windows CE Pocket PC 2002 p.8.27 What is a utility program? Utility Programs System software that performs a specific task Examples include: File viewer File compression Diagnostic utility Uninstaller Disk scanner Disk defragmenter Backup utility Screen saver results of defragmenting a disk file 1 before defragmenting file 1 after defragmenting What is a screen saver? Causes monitor's screen to display a moving image or blank screen if there is no activity for a specified time period Prevents ghosting Popular for security, business, or entertainment purposes Utility Programs Summary of Operating and Utility Programs System software Operating systems Operating system functions Types of s Stand-alone s Network s Embedded s Utility programs Chapter 8 Complete p.8.31 Fig. 8-35

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click BIOS below Chapter 8 p. 395 Fig. 8-4.

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click BIOS below Chapter 8 p. 395 Fig. 8-4. Chapter 8 Objectives Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs Identify the the types types of of system software Summarize the the startup process on on a a personal computer Describe the the functions

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