Chapter 3. Operating Systems

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1 Christian Jacob Chapter 3 Operating Systems 3.1 Evolution of Operating Systems 3.2 Booting an Operating System 3.3 Operating System Architecture 3.4 References Chapter Overview

2 Page 2 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Operating system (OS): A collection of programs that manages resources of a computer, such as - processors - memory - input/output devices... like the conductor of an orchestra. A virtual machine that lets a user accomplish tasks that would be difficult to perform directly with the underlying actual machine. - graphical user interface - virtual memory: provide more memory than in RAM - multiprogramming: seemingly run more than one program at a time First Back TOC Prev Next Last

3 Page 3 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob 3.1 Evolution of Operating Systems First Generation OS ( ) The only operating system was a person. All machine operation was hands on. Second Generation OS ( ) Batch operating systems: - A computer operator takes care of the system administration. - The operator collects a batch of programs from several programmers, feeds the programs into the computer, and hands out the printed results back to the programmers. - Today, batch operations are performed automatically. - Compute jobs line up in a FIFO job queue (first in, first out). First Back TOC Prev Next Last

4 Page 4 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Multiprogramming OS Switching between many different programs in memory (RAM) Operating System Job 1 (waiting for input) Job 2 (running) Job 3 (ready) First Back TOC Prev Next Last

5 Page 5 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Multiprogramming enables time sharing: - divides processor time up into slices - the slices are divided fairly among competing jobs Job 6 Job 5 Job 1 Job 2 Job 3 Job 4 interactive processing: - the user does not have to wait for one process to be finished until the next process (program, action) can be started First Back TOC Prev Next Last

6 Page 6 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Multiuser Operating Systems Many different users can share the same machine through time sharing and multiprogramming (e.g., UNIX, MacOS X, Windows NT). The OS divides its system time into time slices (milliseconds). This gives each user the illusion to have his/her own machine. The efficiency of a time-sharing system depends on - the speed of the processor - the length of the time slices - how many users perform operations that require a full time slice. Multiuser OSs are mainly used in distributed, rather than centralized, environments, where several machines share resources over a network. First Back TOC Prev Next Last

7 Page 7 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Single-User OS and Multiprogramming Cooperative multitasking: Switching between programs only if those programs explicitly cooperate. Preemptive multitasking: Lets the OS switch between the tasks at its own discretion. Perform different tasks at the same time (printing, compiling, searching on the web,...) First Back TOC Prev Next Last

8 Page 8 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Network Operating Systems Sharing of more expensive peripheral devices (in a LAN or WAN): - laser printers - 3D plotters - tape backup units - fast number-crunching machines - special-purpose software packages High-speed bus PC or workstation... PC or workstation Mail server Compute server File server Print server Clients Internet NCrunch. Files Printers First Back TOC Prev Next Last

9 Page 9 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob 3.2 Booting an Operating System Main memory ROM (permanent) Bootstrap program Read OS Disk storage Operating system Load OS Operating system Start device drivers RAM (volatile) Devices First Back TOC Booting an Operating System Prev Next Last

10 Page 10 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Starting up an operating system Read boot strap program from ROM: enables access to floppy and hard drives look for the core OS (DOS: COMMAND.COM) Load the core OS into RAM. Run a sequence of jobs in batch mode. - DOS: CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT - Windows: WIN.INI - MacOS: selected extensions - UNIX:.login,.profile,.cshrc Start a graphical user interface (GUI) Loop forever waiting for input / interaction with the GUI. First Back TOC Booting an Operating System Prev Next Last

11 Page 11 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob 3.3 Operating System Architecture User Memory manager I/O system manager User Command processor Scheduler Resource allocator File manager User Dispatcher Interrupt Hardware execution First Back TOC Operating System Architecture Prev Next Last

12 Page 12 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Command processor: The interface that interacts with one or more users, watching the keyboard, mouse, and any other input devices attached to the machine. Receives commands whenever an input device notifies it about an event, for example, when a user enters a new line in a shell or clicks on a mouse button. First Back TOC Operating System Architecture Prev Next Last

13 Page 13 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Scheduler: If the event turns out to be a request to run a program, the command processor asks the scheduler to arrange for the execution of programs. - Place the program in a job queue. - Create a process to execute the program. A process is an active copy of a program - that has been loaded into memory (RAM) - with its own program counter indicating the next instruction to execute. Each process creates its own context (= process state). There may be more than one process for the same program (e.g., start two different editor programs). First Back TOC Operating System Architecture Prev Next Last

14 Page 14 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Resource Allocator The scheduler invokes a resource allocator, which makes sure that each process has secondary resources that it may need memory, files, peripheral devices. Memory Manager The memory manager coordinates the use of the machine s memory. It keeps track of which areas of memory are being used by which processes. It may anticipate how much memory each process will need. It may provide virtual memory, where swap files on a harddrive are used to extend the RAM. First Back TOC Operating System Architecture Prev Next Last

15 Page 15 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob I/O System Manager The I/O system manager coordinates the assignment of peripheral devices to processes, through specific device drivers. File Manager The file manager keeps track of information about files on the disks: - protects against unauthorized file access - supports sharing of file resources - helps organizing files into folders First Back TOC Operating System Architecture Prev Next Last

16 Page 16 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob Dispatcher The dispatcher monitors processes and decides when to switch execution from one process to another. Interrupt Interrupt Interrupt Process A Process B Process A Dispatcher Dispatcher Dispatcher Disp. Time When a process completes... the dispatcher reports back to the scheduler, the scheduler notifies the resource allocator, the resource allocator releases any resources held by that process, the scheduler then reports completion of the process to the command processor, the command processor informs the user. First Back TOC Operating System Architecture Prev Next Last

17 Page 17 Chapter 3: Operating Systems Christian Jacob 3.4 References G. Blank and R. Barnes, The Universal Machine, Boston, MA: WCB/ McGraw-Hill, Chapters 10.1 through First Back TOC References Prev Next Last

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