Computer Hardware HARDWARE. Computer Hardware. Mainboard (Motherboard) Instructor Özgür ZEYDAN

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1 Computer Hardware HARDWARE Hardware: the collection of physical elements that comprise a computer system. Bülent Ecevit University Department of Environmental Engineering 1. Case and inside 2. Peripherals 2 Computer Hardware Mainboard (Motherboard) Case and inside units Mainboard Central Processing Unit Random Access Memory Hard disc / Solid state disc Graphic card Sound card Network card CD / DVD driver / writer Power supply Floppy driver Fax / modem card Peripheral units Monitor Keyboard Mouse Speaker Microphone Printer Scanner Plotter Camera Removable storage units Others 3 The motherboard is a large rectangular board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots. 4

2 Mainboard Installing Mainboard on Case

3 Mainboard Peripheral Connections Printer Network Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPU performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function. It is made up of two components: Control Unit Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU) Mouse Monitor Keyboard USB Sound in Speaker Microphone 9 10 Central Processing Unit (CPU) Installing CPU Heat Sink (used to cool CPU) 11 12

4 Installing CPU Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPU speed is measured in megahertz. A 1MHz CPU can accomplish one million CPU cycles in one second. CPU Frequency = Multiplier X Front Side Bus (İşlemci Hızı = Güç Çarpanı X Veriyolu Hızı) Pentium III 733 MHz 733 = 5.5 X Pentium IV 2.66 GHz 2666 = 5.5 X AMD Phenom XII 3.4 GHz 3400 = 17 X Random Access Memory (RAM) Random Access Memory (RAM) Data stored on RAM temporarily and randomly. All data will be erased when the electricity is cut off

5 Random Access Memory (RAM) Motherboard Buses 17 Hard Disc Driver (HDD) Hard drive head and disc Used to store data permanently. It consists of one or more rigid (hence "hard") rapidly rotating discs coated with magnetic material, and with magnetic heads arranged to write data to the surfaces and read it from them. 19

6 Working Principle of HDD Solid State Drive (SSD) Disc rotation Head movement Head Disc Head HDD rotation temperature problems (end of technology!) New solution for data storage: Solid State Drives (SSD) Flash chip based SDRAM chip based No sound, less power requirements, high performance (with respect to HDD ) Solid State Drive Hybrid Disc Hybrid hard disk technology adds flash memory to a traditional hard disk drive

7 Graphic Card Graphic Card Graphic card generates a feed of output images to a display. Can be on-board. (No extra graphic card is required) Can be on CPU (AMD Fusion series processors contains graphical units) Graphic Card Connections AMD Crossfire VGA (D-Sub) Analog Output DVI Digital output HDMI Digital Output + Audio 27 28

8 NVIDIA SLI Video Cards Sound Card Sound card facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. Generally on-board on todays computers A TV tuner card is a kind of television tuner that allows television signals to be received by a computer. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards, allowing them to record television programs onto a hard disk. TV Tuner Card Network Card (Ethernet) Network Card connects a computer to a computer network. Generally on-board on todays computers

9 Floppy Driver Floppy driver is used to store data on floppy discs. Out-dated technology! 33 Optical Disc Drive An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Some drives can only read from discs, but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders, also called burners or writers. Compact discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. Optical drive is the generic name; drives are usually described as "CD" "DVD", or "Blu-ray", followed by "drive", "writer", etc. 34 CD-Rom - CD Writer DVD-Rom - DVD-Writer 35 36

10 IDE Cable IDE cable connects optical drives and discs (and floppy) to a mainboard. SATA cable connects optical drives and discs to a mainboard. SATA Cables Case Home of hardware. Protects unit from external impacts. Power supply converts 220 Volts alternative current to 5 and 12 volts direct current for computer hardware. Power Supply 39 40

11 Monitor Monitor is a screen that displays output from a computer. Keyboard A keyboard is a typewriter-style device, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) Cathode ray tube (CRT) Mouse A mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Speaker gives audio output that generated by computer. Speaker and Microphone Microphone is used to input audio data to a computer

12 Used to print data on a paper. Dot matrix Ink jet Laser jet Printer Scanner A scanner is an input device that scans documents such as photographs and pages of text. When a document is scanned, it is converted into a digital format A plotter is a device for printing vector graphics. Plotters are widely used in applications such as computer-aided design. Plotter Vestel - ALL IN ONE PC 48

13 Asus Eee Keyboard Asus Eee Keyboard Eee Keyboard contains QWERTY keyboard and 5 Inches screen. Weight: 900 gram USB and audio connections Wireless connections Ethernet port Intel Atom 1,6 GHz processor RAM 1 GB 32 or 64 GB SSD ( ) Other Peripheral Units Gamepad, web camera, flash disc, external HDD, mp3 player, etc. 51 Laptop Laptop computers, also known as notebooks, are portable computers that you can take with you and use in different environments. They include a screen, keyboard, and a trackpad or trackball, which serves as the mouse. Because laptops are meant to be used on the go, they have a battery which allows them to operate without being plugged into a power outlet. 52

14 Laptop Computer Types Notebook Netbook Ultrabook 53

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