ENCYCLOPAEDIA HYDROCARBONS

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1 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS ISTITUTO DELLA ENCICLOPEDIA ITALIANA FONDATA DA GIOVANNI TRECCANI

2 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Copyright by ISTITUTO DELLA ENCICLOPEDIA ITALIANA FONDATA DA GIOVANNI TRECCANI S.p.A Printed in Italy Photolith and printing by MARCHESI GRAFICHE EDITORIALI S.p.A. Via Flaminia, 995/ Roma

3 CHAIRMAN Roberto Poli CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER Paolo Scaroni DIRECTORS Alberto Clô, Renzo Costi, Dario Fruscio, Marco Pinto, Marco Reboa, Mario Resca, Pierluigi Scibetta

4 ISTITUTO DELLA ENCICLOPEDIA ITALIANA PRESIDENT Francesco Paolo Casavola BOARD OF DIRECTORS VICE PRESIDENT Cesare Geronzi Gian Mario Anselmi, Roberto Artoni, Pierluigi Ciocca, Marcello De Cecco, Giuseppe de Vergottini, Giovanni Fiori, Ademaro Lanzara, Federico Pepe, Giovanni Puglisi, Guido Rossi, Giuseppe Vacca MANAGING DIRECTOR Francesco Tatò SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, Francesco Cossiga, Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, Giovanni Conso, Rita Levi-Montalcini; Mario Agrimi, Adriano Alippi, Girolamo Arnaldi, Baccio Baccetti, Giuseppe Franco Bassani, Mario Beccari, Giuseppe Bedeschi, Giampio Bracchi, Pietro Calissano, Luciano Canfora, Mario Caravale, Sergio Carrà, Enrico Castelnuovo, Francesco Clementi, Piero Coda, Benedetta Craveri, Francesco D Agostino, Giuseppe Dalla Torre, Nino Dazzi, Antonio Fazio, Domenico Fisichella, Giuseppe Galasso, Paolo Galluzzi, Emma Giammattei, Antonio Giuliano, Gherardo Gnoli, Augusto Graziani, Tullio Gregory, Maurizio Iaccarino, Carlo Jean, Fiorella Kostoris Padoa Schioppa, Luigi Labruna, Lucio Lanfranchi, Carlo Maria Ossola, Giorgio Parisi, Sandro Petruccioli, Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, Gian Tommaso Scarascia Mugnozza, Pietro Scoppola, Salvatore Settis, Francesco Sicilia, Fulvio Tessitore, Edoardo Vesentini, Vera Zamagni, Ortensio Zecchino BOARD OF AUDITORS Gianfranco Graziadei, Chairman; Mario Perrone, Saverio Signori Luciano Pagliaro, Delegate of the State Auditor s Department

5 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS PROJECT DIRECTORS Mario Beccari, Ugo Romano SCIENTIFIC CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE Pier Federico Barnaba, Piero Bernardini, Giovanni Brighenti, Sergio Carrà, Alberto Clô, Carlo Giavarini, Renzo Mazzei, Ferruccio Trifirò EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT Chief Editor: Carlo Amadei Technical-Scientific Area. Supervisors: Fabio Sebastiani; Maria Teresa Amoroso. Chemistry: Andrea Ciccioli, Alessandro Di Menno Di Bucchianico, Antonio Di Meo - Physics: Maria Grazia Ianniello - Engineering: Lucilla Monteleone, Roberto Steindler - Biological, Geological and Natural Sciences: Francesca Beolchini, Simona Martullo, Francesca Ricci, Paola Vinesi Legal, Economics and Historical-Geographical Area. Supervisors: Giandomenico Patrizi; Pino Bongiorno. Law: Fabio Di Fonzo, Fabiana Di Porto, Bianca Maria Raganelli - Economics: Chiara d Auria, Giuseppe Smargiassi - Geography: Arianna Ballabene - History: Silvia Dionisi Italian language edition. Supervisor: Enrico Piccioni. Cristiana Baldazzi, Ilenia Romana Cassetta, Fabio Catino, Claudio Censori, Marina Chiarioni, Katia Furìa, Patrizia Greganti, Tomáš Kubíček (illustrations), Michela Mastroddi, Enza Milanesi, Stefano Petrocchi, Tiziana Provvidera, Laura Volpe English language edition. Co-ordination: Cosima Campagnolo. Donald Blair Bartlett, Janice Calf, Anne Colbeck, Johanna Erhardt, Helenka Dodge Kinnan, Patrick O Keeffe, Mary Anne Tafuri. Consultant: Peter Joseph Glendening. Translators: Andrea Baldi, Fabrizio Balsamo, Richard Bates, Massimo Benedetti, Anthony Martin Cafazzo, Fabio Catino, Paolo Del Giudice, Paul Michael Garwood, Peter Joseph Glendening, H.J. Michael Harris, Erika Louisa Milburn, Gian Mario Moggio, Stefano Salpietro, Maria Serena Scariolo, Ruth Patricia Williams Secretaries: Pasqualina Leone, Tiziana Pieretti

6 ART DEPARTMENT Art Director: Gerardo Casale Graphics: Giuseppe De Gregori Illustration sourcing: Daniele Piselli; Claudio Cigognetti; Anna Maria Ciai, Bernardo Ruzicka, Angelo Zanni Drawings: Marina Paradisi; Giuseppina Elia, Marco Evangelista, Massimo Montelli, Anna Olivieri, Paola Salvatori (cartography) Graphics and layout: Giuseppe De Gregori (control) Quality control: Anna Rita De Nardis Secretaries: Aurora Corvesi, Carla Proietti Checchi LIBRARY Gabriella Miggiano; Elsa Adducci, Marina Battaglini, Massimo Menna, Giuliana Scudder Secretary: Gabriella Michetti PUBLISHING DEPARTMENT Publishing administration: Luisa Fusé; Cecilia Rucci, Mirella Aiello Planning: Luisa Cinquina; Alessia Pagnano, Tiziana Picconi Quality control: Rosalba Lanza; Simonetta Paoluzzi Industrial production: Maria Devrushian; Loreta Lucchetti Secretary: Eliana Naddeo PUBLISHING DIRECTOR Massimo Bray

7 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS volume iii NEW DEVELOPMENTS: ENERGY, TRANSPORT, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENTIFIC CO-ORDINATION Ugo Romano

8 INDEX OF VOLUME III NEW DEVELOPMENTS: ENERGY, TRANSPORT, SUSTAINABILITY 1 FROM PRIMARY SOURCES TO THE MARKET Dante Casati, Raffaella Turatto 1.1 EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES AND POSSIBLE SCENARIOS Scenarios and strategic decisions Scenarios and reference markets Factors for change and technological innovation The macroeconomic scenario Energy scenario Technological scenario The development scenario for the issue of environment and sustainability 15 2 HYDROCARBONS FROM NON-CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FOSSIL RESOURCES Maurice B. Dusseault 2.1 OIL FROM NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES Non-conventional fossil fuels Pressure-driven viscous oil technologies Gravity drainage technologies In situ combustion option Technology mixing and sequencing Reservoir screening criteria Oil shales and mineable oil sands Upgrading and transportation Environmental impact Predictions 52 Charles M. Boyer, Joseph H. Frantz, Creties D. Jenkins 2.2 NON-CONVENTIONAL GAS Introduction Reservoir fundamentals 60 XV

9 2.2.3 Drilling, completion, and production Resources and reserves Technology and future trends Project summaries and comparisons of applied technologies International potential for coalbed methane and shale gas Conclusions 80 Gian Paolo Borghi 2.3 GAS HYDRATES Introduction The structure of hydrates Hydrates as a problem in the oil industry Hydrates as a future energy resource Research and development activities in the gas hydrates sector 107 Alberto Delbianco 2.4 HYDROCARBONS FROM THE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION OF SOLID FUELS Introduction Liquefaction technology New-generation processes Properties of coal liquids Further developments of the technology Integration with hydrogen production technologies Process economics and development potential of the technology 134 Alberto Delbianco, Romolo Montanari 2.5 EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CONVERSION OF RESIDUES Introduction Properties and chemical characteristics of non-conventional oils Chemistry of the conversion and upgrading processes Carbon rejection technologies Hydrogen addition technologies: hydrocracking Technologies for the exploitation of oil shale Main development projects 158 Giuseppe Bellussi, Roberto Zennaro 2.6 HYDROCARBONS FROM NATURAL GAS Introduction Gas to Liquids process by means of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction Products NEW UPSTREAM TECHNOLOGIES Ali Daneshy 3.1 UPSTREAM TECHNOLOGIES. NOVEL WELL AND PRODUCTION ARCHITECTURE Introduction Horizontal drilling Multilateral wells 190 XVI

10 3.1.4 Downhole flow regulators Novel well architectures Flow optimization ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY 209 Emilio Causin Processes 209 Steven L. Bryant Recovery factor optimization 214 Thomas Lockhart, Francesco Crescenzi 3.3 SOUR OIL AND GAS MANAGEMENT Introduction Origin of H 2 S in oil and gas accumulations H 2 S removal in small volume plants High volume sour gas treatment processes Sour gas re-injection Sulphur storage and disposal The sulphur market and new uses 264 Francesca de Ferra 3.4 BIOTECHNOLOGIES APPLIED TO OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION Microbiology associated with hydrocarbons Reactions Applications Biological activation of methane ENERGY CARRIERS Mario Marchionna 4.1 FROM SOURCES TO MARKET: ENERGY CARRIERS Introduction Life cycle of the energy carrier Conventional energy carriers Innovative energy carriers Conclusions 315 Marco Nicola Carcassi 4.2 THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY Introduction Characteristics of hydrogen Production, transportation and storage of hydrogen Advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen as an energy vector Research and development programmes Conclusions 333 XVII

11 John R. Benemann, Paola Pedroni 4.3 BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF H 2 : MECHANISMS AND PROCESSES Introduction Biological catalysts for H 2 production Bioreactors for H 2 production Photobiological H 2 production processes Dark fermentations Biohydrogen applications and potential 355 Ernesto Scafè 4.4 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF HYDROGEN Introduction Traditional transport and storage Innovative transport and storage POWER GENERATION FROM FOSSIL RESOURCES Ennio Macchi, Giovanni Lozza, Stefano Consonni 5.1 LARGE-SCALE ELECTRICAL GENERATION SYSTEMS Introduction Steam electric power stations Gas turbines Combined cycles Gasification and combined cycles (IGCC) 413 Ennio Macchi, Giovanni Lozza 5.2 INDUSTRIAL COGENERATION Introduction Plants with external combustion prime movers Plants with internal combustion prime movers 428 Ennio Macchi, Stefano Campanari 5.3 DISTRIBUTED GENERATION Introduction Microgeneration technologies Trigeneration 457 Ivano Miracca, Mario Molinari 5.4 POWER GENERATION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE SEGREGATION Introduction Technological development Future prospects 472 Francesco Pittalis, Vincenzo Antonucci 5.5 FUEL CELLS FOR STATIONARY GENERATION Historical outlines Introduction 477 XVIII

12 5.5.3 Fuels Low temperature fuel cells Medium and high temperature fuel cells 491 Maurizio Cumo 5.6 ADVANCED NUCLEAR SYSTEMS Introduction The six fourth-generation nuclear systems High-temperature reactors Reduction in the radiotoxicity of waste The III + generation reactors 510 Giovanni Battista Zorzoli 5.7 TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE OF ELECTRIC ENERGY Introduction Storage of electric energy The first steps Types of transmission networks and connected problems The North American network The European networks Problems posed by deregulation Examination of a typical case of blackout Distribution networks POWER GENERATION FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES 6.1 SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION 531 Mauro Vignolini Concentration systems 531 Francesca Ferrazza Photovoltaic technology 547 Jacques Ruer 6.2 WIND POWER GENERATION The wind resource Theory of wind turbines Wind turbine regulation systems Turbine equipment Typical characteristics of modern large turbines Other types of wind turbines Development of onshore wind energy Development of offshore wind energy 571 Wavegen 6.3 WAVE AND TIDAL POWER GENERATION Introduction Historical perspective 579 XIX

13 6.3.3 Current status Estimation of wave energy resource and device performance Environmental impact of wave and tidal devices Global prospects for the energy industry 591 Mario Fanelli, Piero Manetti, Mary Hana Dickson, Leonardo Zan 6.4 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Introduction Nature of geothermal resources Geothermal exploration Utilization of geothermal resources Environmental impact 609 Vito Pignatelli, Andrea Robertiello 6.5 BIOMASS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY Introduction The role of biomass in the energy spectrum Fuels from biomass Technologies for the use of biomass energy Conclusions ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Alberto Tintinelli 7.1 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND ENERGY SYSTEMS Introduction Life cycle assessment method Applications of life cycle assessment in the field of energy systems 641 Teresa L. Hill, David H. Marks, Jefferson W. Tester 7.2 PATHWAYS TO A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FUTURE Introduction The future of fossil energy Alternatives to fossil Energy systems Choosing options for a sustainable energy future Conclusions TRANSPORT Alessandro Piccone, Giorgio Cornetti 8.1 RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Introduction Architecture Combustion, emissions and control system Evolution 695 XX

14 Jacopo D Andria 8.2 HYBRID DRIVE SYSTEMS Introduction Current environmental problems and potential solutions Hybrid-electric vehicles: historical outline and current situation Features of the hybrid systems in use Strengths and weaknesses of hybrid-electric vehicles Possible developments in components for hybrid-electric vehicles The future of the market for hybrid-electric vehicles Fulvio Giavazzi, Patrizia Buttini, Carlo Perego 8.3 POLLUTING EMISSIONS CAUSED BY TRANSPORT Pollutants emitted by motor vehicles Low-emission fuels 729 Riccardo Maione, Luigi D Elia 8.4 LUBRICATION AND LUBRICANTS Introduction Functions and performance of lubricants for heavy-duty vehicles Main components of lubricants for heavy-duty vehicles Lubricants for industry SUSTAINABILITY Andrea Robertiello, Alberto Tintinelli 9.1 THE OIL INDUSTRY TOWARDS ZERO IMPACT Introduction Oil cycle: upstream Oil cycle: downstream Natural gas cycle Operating instruments available for eliminating environmental impact 795 George J. Stosur 9.2 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Defining sustainable development The need for sustainable development The precautionary principle Industrial activities related to sustainable development Greenhouse gases and global warming Biodiversity and loss of habitat The role of technology and research and development Regulatory processes at corporate, country and global level 809 Paul Freund 9.3 CO 2 CAPTURE AND STORAGE FROM FOSSIL FUELS Introduction Sources of CO XXI

15 9.3.3 Methods of capturing CO Transportation of CO Storage of CO Costs and benefits Environmental impact, risks, legal aspects and public acceptance Monitoring, verification and commercial/regulatory requirements Conclusions 834 John R. Benemann, Paola Pedroni 9.4 BIOFIXATION OF FOSSIL CO 2 BY MICROALGAE FOR GREENHOUSE GAS ABATEMENT Introduction Photosynthesis, microalgae productivity and GHG abatement Microalgae cultivation systems and CO 2 capture Microalgae harvesting and conversion to fuels Microalgae multipurpose processes for GHG abatement Economics and R&D issues GHG abatement potential with microalgae processes 857 Abigail Entwistle, Timothy Reed, Paola Pedroni 9.5 BIODIVERSITY AND THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR Introduction Biodiversity and the oil and gas sector Operationalizing biodiversity awareness in the oil and gas sector 870 Ugo Romano, Franco Rivetti 9.6 CHEMICAL INDUSTRY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainability Sustainability in the chemical industry Innovation areas for sustainable chemistry Looking ahead ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES Ivo Allegrini 10.1 ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Introduction Atmospheric chemistry in the gas phase Atmospheric chemistry in the aqueous phase Depletion of stratospheric ozone 931 Ivo Allegrini, Patrizia Buttini 10.2 EMISSION AND CONTROL OF GREENHOUSE GASES Introduction Sources of greenhouse gas emissions Techniques for measuring greenhouse gases in ambient air Techniques for measuring greenhouse gases in emissions Strategies to control greenhouse gases 950 XXII

16 Giovanni Grillo, Paola Pedroni 10.3 POLLUTION PROCESSES IN SOIL AND WATER, MONITORING AND RISK ANALYSIS Introduction Migration and transformation of hydrocarbons in the environment Environmental characteristics of the principal groups of pollutants Characterization and monitoring of pollution at a site Modelling the movement of pollutants Evaluation of the pollution at a site: risk assessment 966 XXIII

17 NOTES UNITS OF MEASUREMENT The units of measurement generally adopted are those of the Système International (SI), with corresponding multiples and submultiples. Only in particular contexts, typically connected with the petroleum industry, certain non- SI units of current use have been maintained. Main units of measurement adopted ampere A angstrom Å atomic mass unit u bar bar barrel bbl becquerel Bq British thermal unit Btu calorie cal candela cd coulomb C darcy D day d decibel db degree Celsius C degree Fahrenheit F degree (sexagesimal) electron volt ev farad F foot ' (ft) gram g gray Gy hectare ha henry H hertz Hz horse-power hp hour h inch '' (in) joule J kelvin K kilogram kg kilowatt-hour kwh litre l lumen lm lux lx metre m square metre m 2 cubic metre m 3 minute (angle) minute (time) min mole mol newton N nit nt ohm Ω parts per million ppm pascal Pa poise P pound lb pounds per square inch psi radian rad second (angle) second (time) s siemens S sievert Sv standard cubic foot scf or SCF or sft 3 steradian sr stock tank barrel stb stokes St tesla T tonne t tonnes of oil equivalent toe volt V watt W weber Wb yard yd year yr TERMINOLOGY AND SPELLING In the sectors of petroleum engineering and chemistry, of the petrochemical industry and of the earth sciences, specific terms, acronyms and expressions are frequently used. The criterion adopted in this work is based on their frequency of use, i.e. given two possible terms, the more common one has been used. British spelling, according to the most authoritative reference works, has been adopted. XXV

18 CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE In the nomenclature of simple compounds, the rules of IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) have been adopted as far as possible, traditional names being limited to the cases admitted by IUPAC. When there are two or more names admitted, the commonest one is adopted. Two principal exceptions to the above rule have been applied in this work: For organic compounds used in the petrochemical industry, the name adopted is that listed in: Wells G.M. (1999) Handbook of petrochemicals and processes, Aldershot, Ashgate; Brookfield (VT), Gower. The British English spelling of sulphur and sulphur containing compounds is adopted. TRANSLITERATIONS In writing names belonging to other languages with an alphabet other than the Latin alphabet, the Romanization Tables compiled by the Library of Congress of Washington have been applied, introducing however certain modifications intended to reduce to a minimum the number of diacritical marks, and in particular in the case of Arabic and Persian adopting a number of transliterations by now accepted in local and international usage. Opposite page: The Val d Agri deposits, along with those in the Sauro Valley, make up the largest energy resource ever discovered in Italy. In the picture a drill in the drilling stage. In the subsequent production stage the drill is no longer in sight: the wellhead is lodged in an underground space, substantially reducing its visual effect while guaranteeing utmost safety. Technological advances in the energy industry allow the possibility to minimize the environmental impact and respect biodiversity. XXVI

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