# Network Performance: Networks must be fast. What are the essential network performance metrics: bandwidth and latency

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1 Network Performance: Networks must be fast What are the essential network performance metrics: bandwidth and latency

2 Transmission media AS systems Input'signal'f(t) Has'bandwidth'B System'with'H(-) Output'signal'g(t) An optical fiber: B = 100 GHz WiFi radio link Coaxial cable: B = 3 GHz Twisted Pair

3 Bandwidth is a property of every system The width of the accepted frequency band H(!) 1 Measured in Hz = 1/s 0,7 In networking bps means bits per second bits/s bits Hz Bs 3dB,bandwidth,(Normally,in,Hz)!=2πf Input,signal,f(t) Has,bandwidth,B System,with,H(!) Output,signal,g(t) An optical fiber: B = 100 GHz WiFi radio link Coaxial cable: B = 3 GHz Twisted Pair

4 Bandwidth and H(!) 1 0,7 transmission speed Bs 3dB,bandwidth,(Normally,in,Hz)!=2πf Input,signal,f(t) Has,bandwidth,B System,with,H(!) Output,signal,g(t) An optical fiber: B = 100 GHz WiFi radio link Coaxial cable: B = 3 GHz Twisted Pair If B > Bs => output will have big distortion If Bs > B => output will have little distortion If the band can hold the signal, it passes cleanly on to the output Bs in Hz is the inverse of the signaling SPEED in seconds High bps needs high bandwidth => high speed demands high bandwidth High bandwidth permits high speed transmission

5 Performance Bandwidth Width of the frequency band Number of bits per second that can be transmitted over a communication link in a given period of time The inverse of Bw is the time it takes to transmit one bit n 1Mbps = 1M bits/s = 10 6 bits/s à T transm 1 bit = 10-6 s/bit 1bit = 1μs Higher bandwidth (speed) means shorter transmission times Multipliers used in expressing speeds (ratios) 1Kbps = 1K bits/s = 10 3 bits/s 1Mbps = 1M bits/s = 10 6 bits/s 1Gbps = 1G bits/s = 10 9 bits/s

6 Bandwidth Bits transmitted at a particular bandwidth can be regarded as having some width: (a) bits transmitted at 1Mbps (each bit 1 μs wide); (b) bits transmitted at 2Mbps (each bit 0.5 μs wide).

7 Context for analyzing the components of performance in networks An IP router is a form of statistical multiplexer IP router IP router

8 Performance Latency = Propagation + transmit + queue Propagation = distance/speed of light Transmit = size/bandwidth One bit transmission => propagation is important Large bytes transmission => bandwidth is important

9 How much does a packet take to be transferred to its destination? Queuing time Transmission time Propagation time An IP router is a form of statistical multiplexer IP router IP router

10 Queuing time The router has to enqueue the packets received from the various sources Otherwise, they will be lost Output Queue Link An IP router is a form of statistical multiplexer Packets waiting to be transmitted QUEUING TIME (Little's Law) IP router IP router

11 Transmission time The packet on the first position in Queue is transmitted Packet bits are turned into signals (Electrical, Electromagnetic, Optical) 1 bit from packet -> 1 signal At which speed (bps = bits/s) can this be done? High Bw => High speed

12 Transmission time The packet on the first position in Queue is transmitted Packet bits are turned into signals (Electrical, Electromagnetic, Optical) 1 bit from packet -> 1 signal At which speed (bps = bits/s) can this be done? High Bw => High speed The FIRST packet is transmitted bit by bit Output Queue Link with Bandwidth B Max transmission time of 1/B bps

13 Propagation time (t prop ) Now, each signal must propagate over the wire until it reaches the receiver Speed of light in empty space c = 3 x 10 8 m/s Speed of light in other media n Copper: 2,3 x 10 8 m/s n Optical fibers: 2,0 x 10 8 m/s t0 t1 t3 t4 t5 tprop IP router

14 Latency = total time to transfer one packet Latency = Propagation + transmit + queue Propagation = distance/speed of light Transmit = size/bandwidth If only one bit is transmitted => propagation is important Or a small amount of bits If the amount of bits transmitted is large => bandwidth is important An IP router is a form of statistical multiplexer IP router IP router

15 Delay x Bandwidth We think of the channel between a pair of processes as a hollow pipe Latency (delay) length of the pipe and bandwidth the width of the pipe Delay of 50 ms and bandwidth of 45 Mbps 50 x 10-3 seconds x 45 x 10 6 bits/second 2.25 x 10 6 bits = 280 KB data. Network as a pipe

16 Delay X Bandwidth Relative importance of bandwidth and latency depends on application For large file transfer, bandwidth is critical For small messages (HTTP, NFS, etc.), latency is critical Variance in latency (jitter) can also affect some applications (e.g., audio/video conferencing)

17 Delay X Bandwidth How many bits the sender must transmit before the first bit arrives at the receiver if the sender keeps the pipe full Takes another one-way latency to receive a response from the receiver If the sender does not fill the pipe send a whole delay bandwidth product s worth of data before it stops to wait for a signal the sender will not fully utilize the network

18 Delay X Bandwidth Infinite bandwidth RTT dominates Throughput = TransferSize / TransferTime TransferTime = RTT + 1/Bandwidth x TransferSize It s all relative 1-MB file to 1-Gbps link looks like a 1-KB packet to 1-Mbps link

19 Relationship between bandwidth and latency A 1-MB file would fill the 1-Mbps link 80 times, but only fill the 1-Gbps link 1/12 of one time

20 Summary We have identified what we expect from a computer network We have defined a layered architecture for computer network that will serve as a blueprint for our design We have discussed the socket interface which will be used by applications for invoking the services of the network subsystem We have discussed two performance metrics using which we can analyze the performance of computer networks

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