# Fundamentals of Telecommunications

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1 Fundamentals of Telecommunications Professor of CIS Columbus, OH

2 Overview Time Division Multiplexing T1, T3, DS1, E1 T1 Framing Echo Cancellation Signaling 2

3 Time Division Multiplexing Voice signal has a bandwidth of 4 khz Nyquist sampling theorem: Sample at twice the highest signal frequency Sample at 8 khz Sample every 125 µsec 256 levels 8 bits per sample 8000 samples/sec = 64 kbps In 1962, telephone carrier (cable) between Bell System offices could carry approximately 1.5 Mbps over a mile = Distance between manholes in large cities = Distance between amplifiers 1500/64 24 Can multiplex approximately 24 voice channels on that carrier Telecommunication-1 carrier or T1 carrier. Named after the ANSI committee. 3

4 T1 Frame T1= 24 voice channels = Digital Service 1 = DS1 Used time-division multiplexing: Framing bit T1 Frame = 193 bits/125 µs Framing: Add (1 bit per frame) Frame 1 Frame 0 Frame 1 Frame 0 Frame 1 Any other sequence Resynchronize 4

5 T1 Signaling Initially, 8th bit of every channel was used for signaling Now, every 6th frame, the 8th bit of each channel is used for signaling Net rate = (8 5+7)/(125 6) = kbps For digital data service, 24th channel is used for sync byte which allows faster and more reliable frame resynchronization. 8th bit in each of the 23 channels indicates whether the data is user s or system control 8th bit is not reliable Use only 7 bits per frame 56 kbps For mixture of voice and data, all 24 channels can be used. No sync bytes. 5

6 Subrate Multiplexing Used for data rates lower than 56 kbps. One bit of the 7 bits is used to indicate data rate 6 bits per channel = 48 kbps Five 9.6 kbps subchannels Ten 4.8 kbps subchannels Twenty 2.4 kbps subchannels Five subchannels Subchannel 1 uses frames 1, 6, 11,... 6

7 Digital TDM Hierarchy North America European Japan DS0 64 kbps 64 kbps 64 kbps DS1 DS Mbps Mbps E1 E Mbps Mbps Mbps Mbps DS Mbps E Mbps Mbps DS Mbps E Mbps Mbps DS1C Mbps E Mbps Mbps 7

8 300 bps over Single Pair 300 bps modems (Bell 108 specification) Use frequency shift keying Hz, Hz in one direction Hz, Hz in the other direction Signal Strength Frequency 8

9 Echo Cancellation Problem: Full duplex transmission over a single pair Solution 1: Use different frequencies for the two directions. Only half of the bandwidth available for each direction Solution 2: Use digital signal Some part of the signal returns (echo). Near-end and far-end echoes Transmitter Receiver Near-end Far-end Receiver Transmitter Echo Cancellation: Estimate echo and subtract from received signal. Transmitted signal is known. Reflections from various distances along the path are estimated and subtracted from the received signal 144 kbps up to 4 km 9

10 Time-Compression Multiplexing Half-duplex transmission Central office and subscriber take turns for transmitting Some time is allowed for propagation delay and for the line to turn around Wire rate is more than twice the signal rate X1 Y1 X2 Y2 X1 Y1 X2 Y2 Propagation delay Guard time 10

11 Optical Fiber in the Local Loop Distribution network uses a star topology Feeder cables connect central office to remote nodes Initially, feeder cables can be replaced via fiber. May multiplex using TDM or WDM Active star Remote node It multiplexes/demultiplexes. Passive star remote node Subscriber equipment multiplexes/demultiplexes Bundles of TP Individual TP Central Office 11 Remote Node

12 Circuit Switching Three Phases: Circuit setup, Signal Transfer, Circuit Disconnect Hierarchical System: Subscribers are connected to local exchanges (or end offices), which are connected via trunks to other tandem or toll switching centers. Routing can be static or adaptive. Load independent or load dependent. 12

13 Signaling Signal = Control Signaling in telephone networks = Control messages in computer networks Examples: Connection setup request = Off-hook signal from telephone to switch Connection setup acknowledge = Dial tone Destination address = Pulse or tone dialing Destination busy = Busy tone Destination Available = Ringing tone 13

14 Other Signaling Functions Transmission of dialed number between switches Transmission of information between switches indicating that a call cannot be completed Transmission of billing information Transmission of information for diagnosing and isolating failures Control of satellite channels 14

15 Types of Signaling Functions Supervisory: To obtain resources to establish/hold/release a connection. Includes information sent back to the subscriber's switch about the status of the call. Address: Identify destination. Subscriber to switch. Between switches. Call information: Provide call status to the calling subscriber Network Management: Operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance of the network. Not directly involved in call establishment/termination. Signaling between a subscriber and the network is different (simple) from that inside the network. 15

16 Signaling Channel In-band signaling Signaling over the same channel as payload Out-of-band signaling Separate channels for signaling (but may be same physical circuits) Common Channel Signaling (CCS) Separate circuits for signaling Allows several new functions, such as 800 Payload Signaling 16

17 Signaling Modes Associated Mode: CCS follows the same path as payload Nonassociated Mode: CCS uses a separate network 17

18 Summary T1, DS1, DS3,... T1 Frames consist of 193 bits per 125 µs. Echo cancellation is required if sharing the same wire-pair for both directions. Optical fiber can be used to replace feeder cable. Signaling: In band vs Common Channel, associated vs nonassociated.. 18

19 Homework Read chapter 2 and sections of Stallings (ISDN and Broadband ISDN) Submit answer to exercise

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