Think! Think! Data communications. Long-Distance. Modems: to analog and back. Transmission Media. The last mile is the hardest for digital information

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1 Data communications Think! Think!?? What makes it possible to communicate from point A to point B?? Long-Distance Transmission Media If you place a call outside the local transport area, an interchange carrier (IXC) a long-distance teleph company cos into play Transmission Media copper wire T1, 1.54 Mbps fiber-optics T3, 43 Mbps microwaves, 30 miles satellites Fiber optic cables consist of thin strands of glass that transmit data by ans of pulses of light. Modems: to analog and back er How modems work modulation demodulation internal modem external modem Teleph lines use analog transmission receiver Modem 1 Modem 2 A modem transforms the computer's digital signals into analog ts that can be conveyed through the teleph system. Synchronicity and Protocols Asynchronous Communication asynchronous: used by modems Synchronous: faster but less resilient Modulation Protocols data transfer rate asured in bps (bits per second) V.90 maximum rate of 56 Kbps V.34 maximum rate of bps (obsolete) modems automatically fall back to the highest speed that both modems can handle The last mile is the hardest for digital information o Bandwidth (amount of information that can be on the line) asured in Kbps, Mbps, or Gbps o Last mile technologies Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) These need an adapter ( modem ) BellSouth is of the first to offer ADSL service. Follow the links to FastAccess to learn more. 1

2 Digital Subscriber Line DSL vs.. Modem Internet and network at speeds up to 50 tis faster than a 28.8kbps modem on a standard ph line. 384Kbps - 1.5Mbps downstream and 8Kbps upstream 1.5Mbps - 6Mbps down/384kbps up Alternatives to ph system Direct Broadcast Satellite Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) needs ph line to upload Kbps down Cable Modems coaxial cable (TV cable) Kbps down Electrical Power Systems not very compatible with the US grid Introducing Computer Introducing Computer Network Fundantals Local Area (LANs) Wide Area (WANs) What is a computer network? 2 or more computers connected Types of computer networks: LANs & WANs local area network wide area network Networking advantages reduction of hardware costs enabling shared applications building massive information resources connecting people 2

3 stack Understanding the Works out of Packet vs. Circuit switching packets: multiple routes circuit: a single route Physical dia: T1, T3, wireless Technologies and Topologies Protocols Routing Domain Na Servers Network Physical Media Twisted pair Coaxial cable Fiber-optic cable Infrared Radio, microwave LAN Topologies LAN Technologies By far the most popular LAN standard is Ethernet Most networks use a bus, star, or ring topology. Like to know the latest news about LANs? Check out LAN Tis, the premiere LAN trade journal Like to learn more about the Ethernet? Check out Charles Spurgeon s Ethernet Web Site which covers all the Ethernet technologies used today and includes a practical guide for do-ityourselfers. LAN Protocols AppleTalk IPX/SPX NetBEUI TCP/IP Client TCP/IP TCP/IP Client Protocol stacks Protocol stacks package wrapping and opening protocol layers Like AppleTalk, TCP/IP can be used with a variety of lower-level protocols, such as Ethernet. A LAN that uses TCP/IP is called an intranet, a term that suggests that it s an Internet designed for internal use within an organization. A ssage starts at the "top" of a stack of layers and moves down through the various layers (protocol stack) until it reaches the "bottom" or physical dia. 3

4 Network Hardware and Software Networking hardware: Network Interface Cards (NICs) workstation node Networking software peer-to-peer networks client/server networks How WANs work Point of Presence (POP) backbs WANs are like long-distance teleph systems Wide Area How do hos and businesses establish a presence on the internet? 4

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