Industrial Networks & Databases

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1 Industrial Networks & Databases LONWORKS KNX 1

2 HVAC and BEMS HVAC - Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning BEMS - Building & Energy Management Systems 2

3 3

4 4

5 LONWORKS (Local Operating Networks) Open solution for building and home automation, industrial, transportation, and public utility control networks. LONWORKS protocol = ANSI/EIA Control Networking Standard LONWORKS system basics: Control systems have many common requirements regardless of application. A networked control system is significantly more powerful, flexible, and scalable than a non-networked control system. Businesses can save and make more money with control networks over the long term than they can with non-networked control systems. 5

6 LONWORKS protocol LONWORKS protocol is a layered, packet-based, peer-to-peer communications protocol 7 6 APPLICATION PRESENTATION Standard Objects and Types; Configuration Properties; File Transfer; Network Services Network Variables; Application Messages; Foreign Frames SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK LINK PHYSICAL Request-Response; Authentication End-to-End Acknowledgement; Service Type; Packet Sequencing; Duplicate Detection Unicast & Multicast Addressing; Packet Routing Media access control (MAC) - predictive p-persistent CSMA protocol Media-Specific Interfaces and Modulation Schemes (twisted pair, power line, radio frequency, coaxial cable, infrared, fiber optic) 6

7 Physical Layer - Channel Types Channel Type Medium Bit Rate Compatible Transceivers Maximum Devices Maximum Distance TP/FT-10 TP/XF Twisted pair, free or bus topology, opt.link power Twisted pair,bus topology 78kbps PL-20 Power line 5.4kbps FTT-10, FTT- 10A, LPT Mbps TPT/XF m PLT-20, PLT- 21, PLT-22 Environment Dependent 500m (free topology) 2200m (bus topology) Environment Dependent IP-10 LonWorks over IP Determined by IP network Determined by IP network Determined by IP network Determined by IP network 7

8 Link Layer - Media Access The LONWORKS protocol uses a unique media access control (MAC) algorithm, called the predictive p-persistent CSMA protocol. In the LONWORKS protocol, devices randomize over a minimum of 16 different levels of delay called Beta 2 slots: number of available Beta 2 slots is dynamically adjusted by every device number of available Beta 2 slots varies from 16 to

9 Network Layer - Addressing Physical Address: the unique 48-bit identifier (Neuron ID) Device Address: domain ID (32385 devices in domain) subnet ID (collection of up to 127 devices on a channel, max. 255 subnets in a domain) node ID (device in a subnet) Group Address: max. 64 devices in a group, up to 256 groups in a domain Broadcast Address Every LONWORKS packet transmitted over the network contains the device address of the transmitting device (the source address) and the address of receiving devices (destination address) that can either be a physical address, a device address, a group address, or a broadcast address. 9

10 Transport Layer - Message Services Acknowledged Messaging (end-to-end acknowledgement) Repeated Messaging (sent to a device or group of any number of devices multiple times) Unacknowledged Messaging (sent once to a device or group of any number of devices and no response is expected) Authenticated Service (determine if the sender is authorized to send message) 10

11 Presentation Layer - Network Variables A network variable - any data item: an input network variable or an output network variable Virtual wire Created and changed with Network Tool Can be changed without reprogramming device Makes adds, moves, and changes easy 11

12 Limits Devices in a subnet 127 Subnets in a domain 255 Devices in a domain 32,385 Domains in a network 2 48 Maximum devices in system 32K x 2 48 Members in a group Unacknowledged or Repeated No Limit Acknowledged or Request Response 63 Groups in a domain 255 Channels in a network No Limit Bytes in a network variable 31 Bytes in an application or foreign frame message 228 Bytes in a data file

13 Neuron Chip The Neuron Chip provides the first 6 layers of the ISO/OSI model The Neuron Chip is a semiconductor device specifically designed for providing intelligence and networking capabilities to low-cost control devices. The Neuron Chip includes three processors that provide both communication and application processing capabilities 13

14 LONWORKS Protocol Standard Only available embedded in the Neuron Chip Protocol specification: global.ihs.com as a ANSI/EIA

15 LONWORKS Devices LONWORKS device components: 15

16 Application Layer - Objects and Functional Profiles Functional profiles implemented as LONMARK objects LONMARK objects defined as a set of one or more input and/or output network variables Configuration properties specify configuration data for the object Profiles standardize functions Standard Configuration Property Types (SCPTs) User-defined Configuration Property Types (UCPTs) Type of object Index on device Mandatory Network Variables Minimum implementation Use SNVTs Optional Network Variables Implemented in standardized manner Use SNVTs Configuration Properties Applies to device, object or network variable Manufacturer-defined section Manufacturer-defined network variables and types Proprietary, non-interoperable interface 16

17 Program IDs A unique identifier for a device application included in every LONWORKS device Format (4 bits) Manufacturer ID (20 bits) Device Class (16 bits) Device Subclass (16 bits) Model Number (8 bits) 17

18 Summary The LONWORKS protocol: Supports a broad range of communication media, including twisted-pair wiring, power lines, and communication over IP networks. Supports networks constructed with a mix of media types and communication speeds. Supports efficient delivery of small messages, optimizing network usage for control applications. Supports reliable communication, including defence against unauthorized system use. Eliminates single points of failure, further increasing system reliability. Offers predictable response times independent of network size. Supports low-cost implementation of devices, tools, and applications. Minimizes installation and maintenance costs Supports tens of thousands of devices. Permits flexible and easily reconfigurable connectivity among devices. Allows peer-to-peer communication thus allowing its use in both centralized and distributed control systems. Provides an effective mechanism for product interoperability 18

19 KNX (Konnex) One Organisation, one standard KNX: EIB, EHS and Batibus CENELEC EN the only European Standard for Home and Building Electronic Systems (HBES) based on KNX. CEN EN the European Standard forbuilding Automation based on KNX. ISO / IEC ISO/IEC the World`s only Standard for Home Electronic Systems (HES) based on KNX. 19

20 KNX standard - main assets Certification: The KNX / EIB certification guarantees a high level of product quality and interoperability. Training: The training courses at different levels are given in KNX certified training centres. Software: ETS is the common software-tool for project planning, engineering, and configuration of all KNX / EIB certified products Interoperability; Between different products and different applications of different manufacturers Product quality; The Association surveys regularly the production sites of the manufacturers Standardised functionality; Profiles of Home & Building applications are integrated in the Standard 20

21 KNX standard Standardised Application Profiles for: Lighting Sun blinds and stores HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Airconditioning) Energy management Security (Alarm/intrusion systems) Household appliances, in cooperation with Ceced Metering in cooperation with CEN

22 KNX OSI Model 7 6 APPLICATION PRESENTATION services depending on the type of communication used at transport layer; network management, runtime operation EMPTY 5 SESSION EMPTY 4 TRANSPORT Multicast, broadcast 3 NETWORK routing functionality 2 1 LINK PHYSICAL CSMA/CA TP 0, TP 1, PL 110, PL 132, RF, IR, Ethernet, Bluetooth, WiFi /Wireless LAN (IEEE ), FireWire (IEEE 1394) 22

23 KNX Communication Media Twisted Pairs (TP) Power Lines (PL) Radio Frequency (RF) All media transporting TCP/IP (KNX-Anubis) 23

24 KNX: Physical layers TP 0 (BatiBUS), TP 1 (EIB) data and power transmission with one pair, asynchronous character oriented data transfer, half duplex bi-directional communication, transmission rate 4.8kbits/s (TP 0 ), 9.6 kbits/s (TP 1 ), CSMA/CA, mixed topology PL 110 (EIB), PL 132 (EHS) Spread frequency shift keying signalling, asynchronous transmission of data packets, half duplex bi-directional communication, frequency 110 and 132 khz, PL110 =1200 bits/sec; PL132 = 2400 bits/sec, CSMA. RF (KNX) 868 MHz IR (EIB) Ethernet (IEEE 802.2), Bluetooth, WiFi /Wireless LAN (IEEE ), FireWire (IEEE 1394) 24

25 KNX: Free topology Bus Tree Star 25

26 KNX: Structure of the bus-line All lines have their own power supply. Max participants per line: 64. Max distance between power supply and participants: 350 m. 350 m Participants Power supply 350 m Max distance between two participants: 700 m. 300 m Max length of bus-line: 1000 m/line.

27 Structure of the KNX system Power supply Main line Area Line coupler 1 Line coupler 2 Line coupler 15 Line 15 Sensor Sensor Power supply Power supply Line 1 Line 2 Actuator Actuator

28 System structure 15 areas Area coupler Line coupler Line Area 15 lines per area 1000 m bus cable per line 64 participants per line participants Bus participants

29 Physical addresses Bit 15 O O O O O L L L L D D D D D D D D Area 1-15 Line 1-15 Bus Device 1-64 (255) Physical addresses are only used for the identification of Bus Devices using ETS for parameterizing, fault finding and diagnostics

30 Group addresses Bit 15 M M M M S(M) S(M) S(M) S S S S S S S S Main Group 0-15 (Middle Group 0-7) /10 1/5 Sub Group (0-255) 1/3 1/10 The Telegrams which are sent on the bus are identified by a Group Address. The Group Address is divided into two parts; Main Group and Sub Group or into three parts with an additional Middle Group. 16 Main Groups and 2048 Sub Groups or 16 main, 8 middle and 256 Sub Groups can be defined. This results in a total of Group Addresses. 1/5 1/10

31 The KNX Model 31

32 Applications, interworking and binding idea of data-points inputs, outputs, parameters, diagnostic data Group Objects, Interface Object Properties a reduced instruction set to set and get data-point values Standardised Data-point Types grouped into Functional Blocks Uni-cast or multi-cast mechanisms underlying binding schemes - for free, for structured, for tagged binding. 32

33 Basic configuration schemes two levels at which an installation has to be configured network topology individual nodes or devices KNX Configuration Mode : picks out a certain scheme for configuration and binding maps it to a particular choice of address scheme completes all this with a choice of management procedures and matching resource realisations. 33

34 Network management and resources network management initial set-up, integration of multi-mode installations, subsequent diagnostics and maintenance later extension and reconfiguration procedures (message sequences) to access values of the different network resources within the devices: addresses, communication parameters, application parameters, or complex sets of data (binding tables, executable application program) services offered by the application layer 34

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