# Homework Assignment #1 Solutions

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1 Homework Assignment #1 Solutions EE122: Introduction to Communication Networks (Fall 2007) Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences College of Engineering University of California, Berkeley Vern Paxson / Jorge Ortiz / Lisa Fowler / Daniel Killebrew 1. Kurose & Ross Chapter 1, p. 71: P8, P18, and P24. Chapter 4, p. 422: P11, P14, and P16. Chapter 1, P8 (a) [5 points] With circuit switching you can support up to 10 4 users, since you need to allocate 100 kbps of capacity for each user, and 1 Gbps / 100 kbps = (b) [5 points] Given M total users, each using the network at a given point of time with probability p, then the probability that exactly K are using the network at a given time is: ( ) M p K (1 p) M K K Therefore, the probability that at least N + 1 users are active at the same time is given by: M i=n+1 ( ) M p i (1 p) M i. i Chapter 1, P18 (a) [2 points] The delay is: 10 4 km 10 3 m/km m/s Therefore the bandwidth-delay product is: = 0.04s. 1Mbps 0.04s = 40,000 bits. 1

4 (b) Same as (1), but after we finish transmitting a packet we must wait for one RTT before transmitting the next packet. Answer: [5 points] The number of packets we wish to send is the same as in part (a), except now we wait an RTT for each packet that we send. This leaves us with the following: } {{ } TotalFullPacket } 10 {{ 6 } LastP acket } {{ } RT T/packet }{{} = sec Handshake (c) Same as (1), but the link bandwidth is infinite (the transmission time is assumed to be zero). We start by sending one packet in the first RTT (2 0 ), during the second RTT we send two (2 1 ) packets, during the third RTT we send four (2 2 ), and so on. (Any idea why we might want to do something like this?) Answer: [5 points] The main idea here to count the minimum number of terms in the following n summation: 2 i that yields a sum i=0 When expanded we see that there are 11 terms. (We could also get this directly as log ) This means that the total amount of time to send the file is the initial handshake, plus the 11 RTTs to send the groups, plus a final one-way propagation for the last group to reach the destination: = 1.0 sec. (Note: we also accepted an answer of 0.96 sec which left out the final 40 ms of propagation time.) This scheme might be used when we want to maximize the number of packets in flight but we are trying to determine how much the network and receiving host(s) could handle (which it turns out TCP does when starting up). 3. Ping The ping program determines the round-trip-time (RTT) to any host on the Internet. Using a computer on campus, ping the following hosts: mit.edu (Cambridge, MA), cornell.edu (Ithaca, NY), princeton.edu (Princeton, NJ), cmu.edu (Pittsburgh, PA), wisc.edu (Madison, WI), uchicago.edu (Chicago, IL), utexas.edu (Austin, TX), utah.edu (Salt Lake City, UT). For each of these locations find the physical distance from Berkeley using google maps (maps.google.com). (a) Plot a graph (using your favorite plotting program like gnuplot or excel) where the X-axis represents the distance to each city, and the Y-axis represents the ratio between the RTT as measured by the ping program and the shortest possible time T along the driving route returned by Google maps. [3 points] Ping data [3 points] Ratio calculation and graph 4

5 Dest Google Distance (mi) Ping RTT (ms) Light T (ms) Ratio mit.edu cornell.edu princeton.edu cmu.edu wisc.edu uchicago.edu utexas.edu utah.edu (b) [4 points] 2 points per reason. Give two reasons why the Y-values you plot are larger than 2. Answer: At least two of the following: Packets might take routes that are longer (less direct) than the shortest path. Packets can be delayed due to queuing (waiting behind other packets for transmission). Packet can travel along links for which the propogation speed is slower than that of light in a vacuum. Packets will encounter store-and-forward delays. (They have to entirely arrive at a given hop before they can proceed with transmission to the next hop). Packets can traverse low-bandwidth links such that it takes considerable extra time for the full packet to transit the link. 4. RFCs The Request for Comments (RFC) documents define and standardize the bulk of the protocols used in the Internet. They are published on behalf of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which 5

6 forms the main standards body of the Internet. If you want to understand a protocol in full detail (especially to write your own implementation of it), these are the documents to refer to. (a) In Bellovin s April Fool s RFC, he describes a method for identifying malicious packets in the network and the actions that a system should take if this packet type is identified. Search to locate this document Once you find the document, read it and answering the following: i. [1 point] How many IP header bits does the mechanism require? Answer: The mechanism only requires 1 header bit. ii. [1 point] How does an end-system react to the settings? Answer: If the end-system is an attacker, it may use the given API to request that the Evil bit be set in outgoing packets. Multi-level insecure operating systems must set the Evil bit for all outgoing packets. Also, individual fragments that are malicious by themselves must have the Evil bit set. End-system hosts should process the packet with the evil bit set according to their nature. This behavior is operating-system dependent. When devices receive a packet with the Evil bit set, they must drop the packet. If the Evil bit is not set, the packet must not be dropped. (b) A great strength of the IP protocol is how it provides the glue to communicate data over a series of widely varying, lower-layer network ( link ) technologies. Using (or whatever search means you want to use, providing you work by yourself), locate RFCs that refer to transmitting IP over <XXXX>, where <XXXX> is some link technology. For example, RFC 201 is Transmitting IP traffic over ARCNET networks. List all the different lower-layer networking technologies for which you can find an RFC whose title indicates it defines how to send IP packets (or datagrams, or traffic) over that technology. Give both the name of the technology and the RFC defining the transmission. Can you find more than 20? [8 points] 6

7 RFC Title 877 A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams Over Public Data Networks 894 A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams Over Ethernet Networks 895 A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams Over Experimental Ethernet Networks 1042 A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams Over IEEE 802 Networks 1044 Internet Protocol on Network System s HYPERchannel Protocol Specification 1055 A NONSTANDARD FOR TRANSMISSION OF IP DATAQGRAMS OVER SERIAL LINES: SLIP 1088 A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over NetBIOS Networks 1209 The Transmission of IP Datagrams over the SMDS Service 1390 Transmission of IP and ARP over FDDI Networks 1577 Classical IP and ARP over ATM 2023 IP Version 6 over PPP 2067 IP over HIPPI 2470 Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Token Ring Networks 2491 IPv6 over Non-Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) networks 2590 Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Frame Relay Networks Specification 2625 IP and ARP over Fibre Channel 2734 IPv4 over IEEE Internet Protocol Version 6 over MAPOS (Multiple Access Protocol Over SONET/SDH) 3717 IP over Optical Networks: A Framework 4259 A Framework for Transmission of IP Datagrams over MPEG-2 Networks 4391 Transmission of IP over InfiniBand (IPoIB) 7

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