# Fast and Easy Subnetting. Marc Khayat, Technical Advocacy Team May 2011

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1 Fast and Easy Subnetting Marc Khayat, Technical Advocacy Team May 2011

2 Number of required subnets Number of required hosts per subnet 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 2

3 Using the numerical calculations Using the graphical representation 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 3

4 Network size is the number of IP addresses in a subnet, including the network ID and the broadcast address Magic nb is the same as the network size if prefix > /24 Magic nb should always be between 1 and 255. If greater than 255, divide by 256. If smaller than 1, multiply by 256. Every time you divide by 256, you move 1 octet to the left Every time you multiply by 256, you move 1 octet to the right Everything is a multiple of the magic nb (therefore, the name ) Don t bother googling the term magic nb 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 4

5 Nb of required subnets should be an exponential multiple of 2 (so, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc.). If not, then round up. To get the magic nb, few easy steps: 1. Identify the first non-255 number in the mask 2. Subtract that number from Divide the outcome by the number of required subnets 4. That s your magic nb! 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 5

6 Required number of subnets 5 (should be really looking at 8) Mask: (/24) First non-255 number is = / 8 = 32 (that s the magic number) Mask: (/16) First non-255 number is = / 8 = 32 (that s the magic number) Mask: (/20) First non-255 number is = / 8 = 2 (that s the magic number) On the 4 th octet On the 3 rd octet On the 3 rd octet 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 6

7 Required number of subnets 12 (should be really looking at 16) Mask: (/25) First non-255 number is = / 16 = 8 (that s the magic number) Mask: (/20) First non-255 number is = / 16 = 1 (that s the magic number) On the 4 th octet On the 3 rd octet Mask: (/21) First non-255 number is 248 Started on the 3 rd but moved to the 4 th octet = 8 8 / 16 = 0.5 * 256 = 128 (that s the magic number) 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 7

8 Simply add the magic nb to the initial network. Example: subnetting (/22) into 2, 4 or 8 subnets: 2 Subnets 4 Subnets 8 Subnets Magic Nb = ( )/2 = 2 Magic Nb = ( )/4 = 1 Magic Nb = ( )/8 = 128 (multiplied by 256) Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 8

9 Subtract the magic number from 256. So to continue with the previous example of subnetting /22: 2 Subnets 4 Subnets 8 Subnets Magic Nb = 2 (3 rd octet) Magic Nb = 1 (3 rd octet) Magic Nb = 128 (4 th octet) = = = (/23) (/24) (/25) 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 9

10 With a subnet mask of , all network IDs would be a multiple of ( = 32), 4 th octet, so x.x.x.0,.32,.64,,.224 With a subnet mask of , all network IDs would be a multiple of ( = 128), 3 rd octet, so x.x.0.0, Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 10

11 Subnet /20 into networks of 4 subnets /20 => => = / 4 = 4 (magic number, on the 3 rd octet) Networks are: , , , Mask is = 252 => or / Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 11

12 1 st and foremost: add the 2 IPs of network ID and broadcast address Look for the closest exponentional multiple of 2 That s your network size. Continue as previously explained Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 12

13 Subnet /20 into networks of 700 hosts per subnet 700 => 702 => 1024 (network size) 1024 / 256 = 4 (magic number, on the 3 rd octet) Networks are: , , , Mask is = 252 => or / Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 13

15 It gets a little bit confusing when it is requested to subnet a network into several subnets, each with a different size. So, let s start with an example! 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 15

16 /24 to be subnetted into A (100 hosts), B (40 hosts), C (10 hosts), D (2 hosts). Subnet Nb of Hosts Net Size Magic Nb Mask (4 th octet) Prefix Subnet address A =128 / B =192 / (0+128=128) C =240 / (128+64=192) D =252 / (192+16=208) Remember to always start with the largest network first! 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 16

18 /19 to be subnetted into A (2000 hosts), B (500 hosts), C (100 hosts), D (4 hosts). Subnet Nb of Hosts Net Size Magic Nb Mask Prefix Subnet address A /256= =248 (3 rd octet) B /256= =254 (3 rd octet) C =128 (4 th octet) D =248 (4 th octet) / / (160+8=168).0 / (168+2=170).0 / (0+128) Free addresses: (128+8) Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 18

20 Graphical Representation Graphically map addresses of an octet Very easy to operate within one octet Rule of thumb: always divide in half Will ensure that you won t waste/forget networks Step 1: identify your magic numbers (already know how to do it) Step 2: Segment and reserve networks on the bargraph starting with the largest network first. Step 3: You re done! 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 20

21 Graphical Representation The bargraph shows a complete octet (from 0 till 255), so 256 values You are only allowed to split a segment in half Golden rule still applies: always start with the largest network first Choose the subnet locations according to needs Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 21

22 Graphical Representation 0 Subnet /24 into: A (100 hosts), B (20 hosts), C (10 hosts) A (128) Subnet Magic Nb Subnet ID A /25 B /27 C /28 FREE Width of 256 This represents the 4 th octet Width of 32 Width of 16 Width of 128 Width of B (32) C (16) FREE Addresses Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 22

24 Thank you.

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