# Introduction to Macroeconomics TOPIC 2: The Goods Market

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1 TOPIC 2: The Goods Market Annaïg Morin CBS - Department of Economics August 2013

2 Goods market Road map: 1. Demand for goods 1.1. Components Consumption Investment Government spending 2. Equilibrium in the goods market 3. Changes of the equilibrium

3 1.1. Demand for goods - Components What are the main component of the demand for domestically produced goods? Consumption C: all goods and services purchased by consumers Investment I: purchase of new capital goods by firms or households (machines, buildings, houses..) ( financial investment) Government spending G: all goods and services purchased by federal, state and local governments Exports X: all goods and services purchased by foreign agents - Imports M: demand for foreign goods and services should be subtracted from the 3 first elements

4 1.1. Demand for goods - Components Demand for goods = Z C + I + G + X M This equation is an identity. We have this relation by definition.

5 1.1. Demand for goods - Components Assumption 1: we are in closed economy: X=M=0 (we will relax it later on) Demand for goods = Z C + I + G

6 Demand for goods - Consumption Consumption: Consumption increases with the disposable income Y D = Y T Reasonable assumption: C = c 0 + c 1 Y D the parameter c 0 represents what people would consume if their disposable income were equal to zero. Changes in c 0 reflects changes in consumption for a given level of disposable income. the parameter c 1 is called the marginal propensity to consume. it gives the effect of an additional dollar of disposable income on consumption. Consumption is an endogenous variable. It depends on an other variable of the model (Y ).

7 Demand for goods - Consumption Figure: Consumption as a function of the disposable income.

8 Demand for goods - Investment I = I Investment is an exogenous variable. It depends on variables that are not included in the model. We take investment as given.

9 Demand for goods - Government spending Government spending is also an exogenous variable. It is chosen by the government, we won t try to explain it within the model.

10 2. Equilibrium in the goods market Demand for goods: c 0 + c 1 (Y T ) + I + G Supply of goods: Y Equilibrium in the goods market (production = demand): Y = c 0 + c 1 (Y T ) + I + G NB: Y is both output and income (remember Topic 1)

11 2. Equilibrium in the goods market To get the equilibrium output, lets rewrite the equilibrium equation: Y = c 0 + c 1 (Y T ) + I + G Y = 1 1 c 1 [c 0 + I + G c 1 T ] c 0 + I + G c 1 T is called autonomous spending 1 1 c 1 is the multiplier. It is called so because any increase in the autonomous spending will lead to an increase in output that is higher than the initial increase in autonomous spending.

12 2. Equilibrium in the goods market Intuition of the multiplier: An increase in autonomous spending leads to an increase in demand and therefore an increase in output. This increase in output reflects into an increase in income (the two are identically equal). This increase in income pushes demand up, and therefore increases output.... (successive rounds)

13 2. Equilibrium in the goods market Figure: Equilibrium in the goods market.

14 2. Equilibrium in the goods market Another way of thinking the equilibrium in the goods market: Lets denote private savings by S private and public savings by S public : S private = Y T C: the part of disposable income that is not consumed S public = T G: the part of government revenues that is not spent Lets rewrite the equilibrium equation in the goods market: Y = C + I + G Y T = C + I + G T I = S private + S public The equilibrium on the goods market requires that investment equals total saving. it is why it is called the IS relation.

15 3. Changes of the equilibrium How does an increase in c 0 affect the equilibrium? Demand increase, creating an upward shift of the demand curve. To satisfy the higher level of demand, production (output) increases. This increase in production leads to an increase in income and therefore in demand. This leads to a further increase in output... The increase in c 0 leads to an increase in output, and this increase in output is higher than the initial increase in c 0 because of the multiplier effect.

16 3. Changes of the equilibrium effect on equilibrium output of an increase in c 0..

17 3. Changes of the equilibrium Any change creating an increase in autonomous spending (for example, an increase in government spending) would lead to a similar effect.

18 Conclusion Before to analyze how the goods market behaves in interaction with the financial market, lets study the financial market separately.

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