# Computer Network Foundation. Chun-Jen (James) Chung. Arizona State University

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1 Computer Network Foundation Chun-Jen (James) Chung 1

2 Outline Network Addressing Subnetting Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Route Aggregation

3 Network Addressing How does the network decide where to send a packet??? All Hosts on the network have an address that can be used to route the packet.

4 IP Address (As Originally Specified) Two levels IP address (32-bits) Network Number (Net ID) Host Number (Node ID) Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E Network Number Host Number Network Number Host Number Network Number (21 bits) Host Number Multicast group ID (28 bits) Reserved for future use (27 bits)

5 IP Address Dot Notation Binary presentation: (N-network, n-node). Class A -- NNNNNNNN.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn. Class B -- NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn. Class C -- NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.nnnnnnnn. Decimal presentation: Class A (0xxx), 1 ~ 126 in decimal. 2^7-2 nets and 2^24-2 (=16M) hosts/net Class B (10xx), 128 ~ 191 in decimal. 2^14 nets and 2^16-2 (=64K) hosts/net Class C (110x), 192 ~ 223 in decimal. 2^21 nets and 2^8-2 (=254) hosts/net Class D (1110), 224 ~ 239 in decimal (for multicast). Class E (1111), 240 ~ 254 in decimal (reserved for future use).

6 Private IP Address (RFC 1918) There are three IP network addresses reserved for private networks. The addresses are /8 One Class A address /12 16 Class B addresses / Class C addresses

7 Limitations of Classful IP Addressing Designed almost 40 years later Only 3 classes of networks Address space used inefficiently For example, if a network needs to support 260 hosts, which class of address it requires? How many addresses waste?

8 Subnetting IETF RFC 950: Create multiple logical networks that exist within a single class. Two levels classful hierarchy Network Prefix Host Number Three levels subnet hierarchy Network Prefix Subnet Number Host Number Extended Network Pre-fix (network Identifier) Network Prefix Subnet Number Host Number

10 Subnetting Presentation: Binary Presentation: Class A Class B Class C Decimal Presentation: Class A Class B Class C / or Length presentation (CIDR notation) Class A - /8 Class B - /16 Class C - /24

11 Extended Network Prefix Subnet Masks A subnet address cannot be all "0"s or all "1"s. This also implies that a 1 bit subnet mask is not allowed Example: Extended Network Prefix Network Prefix IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Address Broadcast Address /19 How many subnets do we have from above example?

12 An Example: x/28

13 Subnet Design Considerations 1) How many total subnets does the organization need today? 2) How many total subnets will the organization need in the future? 3) How many hosts are there on the organization's largest subnet today? 4) How many hosts will there be on the organization's largest subnet in the future?

14 Design Examples Subnet Example #1 Given An organization has been assigned the network number /24 and it needs to define 6 subnets. The largest subnet is required to support 25 hosts.

15 Design Examples - Continued Base Net: = /24 Subnet #0: = /27 Subnet #1: = /27 Subnet #2: = /27 Subnet #3: = /27 Subnet #4: = /27 Subnet #5: = /27 Subnet #6: = /27 Subnet #7: = /27

16 Defining Host Address for Each Subnet The all-1s host-number and all 0s host-number are both reserved. In our current example, there are 5 bits in the host-number field of each subnet address. This means that each subnet represents a block of 30 host addresses. The hosts on each subnet are numbered 1 through 30.

17 Defining Host Address for Each Subnet Subnet #2: = /27 Host #1: = /27 Host #2: = /27 Host #3: = /27 Host #4: = /27 Host #5: = /27.. Host #15: = /27 Host #16: = /27.. Host #27: = /27 Host #28: = /27 Host #29: = /27 Host #30: = /27 Defining the Broadcast Address for Subnet #2 The broadcast address for Subnet #2 is the all 1's host address or: =

18 Design Examples Subnet Example #2 Given An organization has been assigned the network number /16 and it needs to create a set of subnets that supports up to 60 hosts on each subnet / /16 How many subnets can be created?

19 Design Examples - Continued Subnet Example #2 Given An organization has been assigned the network number /16 and it needs to create a set of subnets that supports up to 60 hosts on each subnet / /26 subnet #1, host /26 etc. How many hosts for each subnet?

20 An Example / / / / / / / / / / /19

21 Pros and Cons of Subnetting Advantages Assign IP address more efficiently Speeds up the network (reduce the size of broadcast domain) Easy to organize the network resources Improve security Disadvantages Added layer of complexity (more routers) Difficult to change once hierarchy is established. 21

22 Internet Scaling Problem 1 The eventual depletion of the IP address space.

23 Internet Scaling Problem 2 The rapid growth in the size of the Internet routing This makes the routers both slower (in terms of identifying routes) and more expensive (because of the increased routing table capacity)

24 CIDR -- Classless InterDomain Routing CIDR was officially documented in September 1993 in RFC 1517, 1518, 1519, and CIDR : Breaks the rigid boundaries between class A, B, C Allocate IPv4 address more efficiently Supports Route Aggregation Single routing entry in the routing table to specify how to route traffic to many individual network addresses.

25 CIDR -- Classless InterDomain Routing Superneting Example: /24 ( ) Class C address /24 ( ) Class C address /24 ( ) Class C address /24 ( ) Class C address /22 ( ) Supernet ( ) Supernet Mask ( ) Broadcast address So classful addresses can easily be written in CIDR notation (Class A = /8, Class B = /16, and Class C = /24)

26 CIDR Address Blocks Example CIDR Dotted-Decimal mask # of addresses # of Classful Networks / K 8 Bs or 2048 Cs / K 4 Bs or 1024 Cs / K 2 Bs or 512 Cs / K 1 B or 256 Cs / K 128 Cs / K 64 Cs / K 32 Cs / K 16 Cs / C / ½ C 26

27 CIDR Address Allocation Example Assume that an ISP owns the address block /16. This block represents 65, 536 (2^16) IP addresses (or 256 /24s). If the ISP wants to allocate the /20 address block. In a classful environment, this smaller block represents 4,096 (2^12) IP addresses (or 16 /24s). In a classless environment, the ISP is free to cut up the pie any way it wants. One-half of the address space for Organization A One-fourth of the address space for Organization B One-eight of the address space for Organization C and Organization D

28 CIDR Example - Continued Step #1: Divide the address block /20 into two equal size slices. Each block represents one-half of the address space or 2,048 (2^11) IP addresses. ISP's Block /20 Org A: /21 Reserved: /21 Step #2: Divide the reserved block ( /21) into two equal size slices. Each block represents one-fourth of the address space or 1,024 (2^10) IP addresses. Reserved /21 Org B: /22 Reserved /22 Step #3: Divide the reserved address block ( /22) into two equal size blocks. Each block represents one-eight of the address space or 512 (2^9) IP addresses. Reserved /22 Org C: /23 Org D: /23 28

29 Route Aggregation

30 Longest Prefix Match Forwarding Forwarding tables in IP routers Maps each IP prefix to next-hop link(s) Destination-based forwarding Packet has a destination address in the IP Header Router identifies longest-matching prefix destination forwarding table / / / / /24 outgoing link Serial0/0.1

31 IP Forwarding Routing table of R2

32 IP Forwarding - Continued Routing table of the center router

33 Summary Protocol Stacks and Layering Network Addressing Subnetting CIDR Route Aggregation IPv6 is the future?

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