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1 Unit 3 Let s Route Overview Description This unit contains two lessons: The first lesson introduces the format for addressing data that travels across the Internet. The lesson focuses on the underlying binary system that determines how addresses are assigned and analyzed. The second lesson introduces the basic functions of routers. It begins with a description of the IP packet format. The lesson focuses on an introduction to routing tables and how static routes can be entered into those tables. The lesson concluded with a brief introduction to dynamic routing. Unit Table of Contents This unit contains the following two lessons: Lessons Pages Length Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing hours Lesson 3-2: Routing hours ST A 97

5 Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing Converting Between Binary and Decimal Numbers To understand how addresses are assigned and interpreted, it is necessary to work with addresses in binary format. But addresses are usually written in dotted decimal notation. Therefore, it is important to understand how to convert between the formats. Manual Conversion Although conversions may be done on a calculator, the concept of how to translate between binary and decimal using paper and pencil is important to network administrators. A calculator may not always be available when a quick conversion is needed. 1. Each position in a binary octet has a decimal equivalent Position in Octet Decimal Equivalent To calculate the decimal equivalent of a binary octet, multiply the binary number in each position by its decimal equivalent then add the products Binary Number Decimal Equivalent Product Add the sum of products ( =134). 101 ST A

6 Unit 3: Let s Route A shorter way to do the math is to add together the decimal equivalents of all the positions in the octet that have a 1. To convert from decimal to binary, find the highest decimal equivalent of the octet that is less than the decimal number. Place a 1 in that location. Subtract the decimal equivalent from the decimal address and then repeat the process with the remainder. For example, convert 134 to binary: 1. The highest decimal equivalent from the octet that is less than or equal to 134 is 128. Place a one in the 8th position Position in Octet Decimal Equivalent Binary Number =6. The highest decimal equivalent less than or equal to 6 is 4. Place a 1 in the 3 rd position. Position in Octet Decimal Equivalent Binary Number =2. The highest decimal equivalent less than or equal to 2 is 2. Place a 1 in the 2 nd position. Position in Octet Decimal Equivalent Binary Number =0. Once 0 is reached, fill in the empty positions with 0s and the conversion is completed. Position in Octet Decimal Equivalent Binary Number ST A Routing

8 Unit 3: Let s Route Reserved Addresses Certain IP addresses are reserved. They cannot be used by hosts on the Internet. The addresses ( ) and ( ) are both reserved. Addresses with a first octet of (127) are reserved as loop back addresses which refer back to the sender. Check Your Understanding Convert the following addresses into dotted decimal notation: Convert the following addresses into binary: What are two IP addresses that can t be assigned to a host? 104 ST A Routing

10 Unit 3: Let s Route Zip Code Map Classful addressing can be compared to the way the post office uses zip codes. A zip code has nine digits, for example The first digit corresponds to the region of the country. Any mail with a zip code beginning with 0 is destined for the Northeast or New Jersey. Mail with a zip code beginning with 3 is destined for the Southeast. Mail with a zip code starting with 9 is headed for the West Coast or Alaska or Hawaii. When the post office sorts mail, the first sorter only has to look at the first digit of the zip code to determine what part of the country the mail should be sent to. Once the mail gets there, the regional post office looks at the next four digits of the zip code to determine what local post office the mail should be sent to. Once the mail gets to the local post office, the sorter there looks at the last four digits to determine what street or building to which the mail goes. 106 ST A Routing

11 Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing The job of sending data through the Internet is divided among routers. Some routers only send data to the borders of specific networks but not to particular hosts on those networks. These routers only have to remember the part of the address that identifies the network. Routers inside of networks receive data from the outside and then send it to the specific host on the inside. IP Address Classes Binary Address through through through Dotted-decimal Representation Class Reserved through through through Class A addresses Class B addresses Class C addresses Reserved 107 ST A

13 Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing Class B Addresses Class B addresses are for medium sized networks. They use the first two octets to represent the network address and the last two octets to represent the host address. Class B addresses begin with and end with (again, the zeroes mean any number between 0 and 255). There are 16,382 Class B addresses and each Class B network can have 65,534 different host machines. Class B Addressing Class B First Octet Range Example Network Host Class B 10XXXXXX ST A

14 Unit 3: Let s Route Class C Addresses Class C addresses are for smaller networks. They use the first three octets to represent the network address and the last octet to represent the host address. Class C addresses range from to There are 2,097,150 Class C addresses and each Class C network can have 254 different host machines. Addresses above are used for Class D addresses, which are used for multicasting, and Class E addresses, which are used for research by the Internet committee. Class C Addressing Class C First Octet Range Example Network Host Class C 110XXXXX ST A Routing

16 Unit 3: Let s Route Which of the following is a Class C address? Subnetting The Internet is divided into Class A, B, and C networks. Those networks are in turn divided into subnetworks. Network administrators subdivide networks to separate traffic destined for one part of a large network from traffic destined for another part. Administrators use routers to subdivide networks. This is called subnetting. For example, suppose a large telecommunications company has a Class B network with the address: giving it 65,534 possible host addresses. This company has a manufacturing division, a sales division, an administrative division and several other divisions. Data from the manufacturing division includes huge drawing files created by the engineers that take up an enormous amount of bandwidth. To keep the manufacturing division data from slowing down the rest of the network, the network administrator puts that division on its own network, which is really a subnetwork of the Class B. The administrator may also put the sales and administrative divisions on their own subnetworks. Each of these subnetworks is connected to an interface on a router. A Large Network Without a Subnetwork Before Internet Router Sales Sales Manuf g Manuf g Manuf g Admin 112 ST A Routing

20 Unit 3: Let s Route To create fewer subnetworks with more hosts per subnetwork, it is possible to use fewer bits to identify the subnetwork address, leaving more bits available for the host address. For example, the administrator can choose to use only four of the bits in the third octet for the subnetwork address. Four bits remain in the third octet plus the eight bits in the fourth octet for the host address. This yields 2 4 or 16 subnetworks, but two are reserved or not recognized by most routers (0000 and 1111) which leaves only 14 possible subnets and (2 12 ) or 4,054 possible host addresses on each subnetwork. Subnetting a Class B using 4 bits Class B address space: Subnet mask: Network Subnetwork Host Dotted Decimal Notation reserved subnets = 14 possible subnetworks 4054 Hosts possible 116 ST A Routing

22 Unit 3: Let s Route Complete the following table: Subnetting a Class C Address Number of bits used to identify subnetwork Subnet Mask in binary and in dotted decimal notation Number of useable subnetwork addresses Number of useable host addresses in each subnetwork or How would you divide the Class C address into 28 subnetworks? Hint: You may not be able to get 28 networks exactly. How many hosts would each Class C subnetwork be able to accommodate? What would the subnet mask look like for any of the Class C subnetworks. Give the answer in binary and in dotted decimal notation. 118 ST A Routing

24 Unit 3: Let s Route end of the address. For example, a CIDR address of /20 indicates a prefix of 20 bits. That is, the first 20 bits of the address indicate the network. Internet Protocol Version 6 Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the long-term solution to the problems of Internet Addressing. IPv6 uses 128 bit addresses instead of 32 bit used by IPv4. Check Your Understanding What does the following address notation indicate? /26 Write the CIDR mask for the above address in binary. How many possible hosts could there be in the above CIDR network? 120 ST A Routing

25 Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing Try It Out Introduction to Site Manager Site Manager is an SNMP application that communicates with the router using UDP/IP. SNMP operates at the IP application layer, which sends data to UDP at the transport layer, which sends data to IP at the network layer. This means that for Site Manager to run on a PC connected to a router, the PC must have the IP protocol stack installed (or at least the UDP and IP portions), and the router must have at least one port configured to accept IP packets. This is why TI is used to configure the first port on the router. Materials Needed: Nortel Networks' Advanced Remote Node (ARN) Router Classroom Network Windows 95 PC Site Manager Nortel Networks V.35 Serial Cable (Model # 7835, Part # A) Any Word Processor (e.g., MS Word) (optional) Pen/Pencil and Paper Student Portfolio In this lab you will learn how to: Use Site Manager. Configure the router s interface parameters to support IP on a synchronous circuit. Verify that all routers in the lab network are reachable. Part One: Starting Site Manager and Use Site Manager to Configure the Router 1. With your PC connected (through the LAN) to the router, start Site Manager. 2. If the Router Connections Options window opens, type the IP Address of the configured router port. This window will not display if Site Manager already knows the IP address from a previous session. The 121 ST A

26 Unit 3: Let s Route main Site Manager window will display the known routers and their communications status as up or down. The Router Connection Options window also displays three other pieces of information: Identity: works essentially like a password You can specify a name that must be typed in to access the router. Actually this is a very weak form of security. A network administrator who wants to prevent unauthorized changes to a router s configuration will need to use additional security measures. Timeout How long Site Manager will wait for the router to respond to a command before it issues the command again. Retries (per request) The number of times Site Manager will issue a command when the router does not respond. This introductory activity uses two options from the Tools menu: Configuration Manager Used to create and edit configuration files Statistics Manager Used to view router status In this activity, you will configure a WAN connection as a synchronous circuit. The terms WAN connection and synchronous connection are used interchangeably. Site Manager will be used to configure the port. 1. To use the Configuration Manager in remote mode: a. Click Tools. b. Click Configuration Manager. c. Click Remote File. Configuration Manager allows the creation of a configuration file in four different modes: Local Mode Create a configuration file and save it on your PC, then transfer it to the router for later use Remote Mode Create a configuration file and save it on the router, then use it to start the router later Dynamic Mode Change the configurations of the router as you work. Cache Mode Configuration changes go directly to the router s active memory (DRAM)_and a copy is made locally on the Site Manager PC. 122 ST A Routing

27 Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing 2. When the Edit Remote Configuration File window opens, locate the startup.cfg configuration file in the Directory box. If the startup.cfg file is not displayed in the directory box, it may be necessary to select a different volume within the Volume box. a. Locate the file startup.cfg. b. Click the file to select it. c. Click Open. d. The startup.cfg file is transferred (via tftp) from the router s memory (the flash card) to the PC. The file is copied into C:\WF\CONFIG. If a file named startup.cfg already exists in C:\WF\CONFIG, you will be prompted whether you want to back up the file. Select No, so that the file from the router memory overwrites the file already on the PC. e. Site Manager opens and displays the file startup.cfg it just received. 3. Enter system information for the router. a. Choose a system name for each router. In the remainder of this activity, the routers in the network will be referred to as Router A and Router B. b. Choose more interesting names, perhaps after cities in distant parts of the world, to simulate a long distance between the two routers. c. To keep the names straight, put a sign on each router with its name. d. Click Platform. e. Click Edit. f. Click System Information. g. When the Edit System Description Parameters window opens, enter the router s System Name, System Contact, and System Location. h. Click OK. 123 ST A

28 Unit 3: Let s Route Part Two: Configuring a Synchronous Circuit Layers 1 and 2 are defined for a particular circuit when the router is configured. If the circuit is a LAN, Site Manager automatically defines the Layer 1 and 2 characteristics when a particular connector on the router is chosen. If the circuit is a WAN, it is necessary to specify the type of WAN protocol to be used. 1. From the Configuration Manager window, click Circuits. 2. Click Add Circuit. The Add Circuit window displays a blank box for the Circuit Name. The default circuit name consists of an abbreviation for the type of connection followed by two numbers that identify the circuit location on the router. The options for circuit types are: E Ethernet E1 E1 F fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) H high-speed serial interface (HSSI) MCE1 Multichannel E1 (MCE1) MCT1 Multichannel T1 (MCT1) O token ring S synchronous T1 T1 3. On the Add Circuit screen: a. Click the synchronous interface (for example, COM1) that will be configured as a WAN circuit b. In the Circuit Name box, change the name of the synchronous connection. Name the connection for the router that it connects to. For example, S12_RouterB would be the synchronous port on Router A that connects to Router B. c. Click OK. A pop-up list will appear with a list of choices for WAN protocols. For this first configuration, a proprietary protocol for Nortel Networks routers will be used. This protocol is a version of PPP designed especially for one Nortel Networks router to talk to another Nortel Networks router. All router manufacturers include their own protocols as well as such widely used WAN protocols as Frame Relay and ATM. 124 ST A Routing

29 Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing 4. Choose Standard as the WAN protocol. 5. Click OK. 7. Enable both IP and IP/RIP on this circuit. 8. Click OK. 9. On the Select Protocols window, click the IP and RIP boxes. 10. Click Ok. 11. Refer to the network topology diagram and assign the correct IP address and subnet mask for this circuit. 12. Leave the Transmit Broadcast parameter at its default setting. 13. Click OK to return to the main Configuration Manager screen. Part Three: Saving the Configuration File 1. In the Nortel Networks Configuration Manager window, click File. 2. Click Save As. 3. When the Save Configuration File window opens, do the following: a. In the Enter File Name box, enter the name of the router just configured with the extension.cfg. For example, RouterA.cfg. b. Click Save. c. If the message specified file already exists, do you want to overwrite appears, click Yes. d. The configuration file is saved onto the PC in C:\WF\CONFIG. e. When the File Saved message appears, click OK. f. The configuration file still needs to be transferred (via tftp) to the Flash memory on the router. 4. In the Nortel Networks Configuration Manager window, select Tools, Routers File Manager From the Routers File Manager window select the "file", "tftp", "put files" option. A window appears with the local hard drive of your computer set to the "c:\" prompt, change to the directory where you just saved to "C:\WF\Config" and then select the configuration file, click "add" and then ST A

31 Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing 3. Click Statistics Manager. 4. Click Tools. 5. Click Screen Manager. When the Screen Manager appears, note the default Nortel Networks statistics screens in the upper left corner. Screen Manager allows the addition of any of the default statistics screens to the Current Screen List. Only the screens that are in the Current Screen List may be launched (viewed). 6. Find each of the following default screens and add it to the Current Screen List by selecting it and clicking Add. a. IP_MAIN2.DAT b. IP_TRFC2.DAT c. T_SYNC.DAT 7. Click OK to confirm that the screens are added. 8. Return to the Statistics Manager screen. 9. From the Statistics Manager screen, launch and view a screen that will verify that the circuits you have configured are working. a. Click Tool. b. Click Launch. c. In the Statistics Launch Facility window, select and launch the IP_TRFC2.DAT screen. d. View the IP_TRFC2.DAT screen to see the state of the router s circuits. 10. From the Statistics Manager screen, launch and view a screen that will verify that traffic is being sent at the line level. a. Click Tools. b. Click Launch. c. In the Statistics Launch Facility window, select and launch the T_SYNC.DAT screen. d. Is there traffic moving in and out? 127 ST A

32 Unit 3: Let s Route 11. From the Statistics Manager screen, launch and view the IP_MAIN2.DAT screen. If it appears that all circuits are operational, go on to the next step. If not, try to troubleshoot. Part Five: Compare using Site Manager to Technicians Interface. 1. Return to Technician s Interface. 2. Use the TI show and monitor commands to check the operational status of circuits. Are there any advantages to using TI rather than Site Manager? 3. Now that a protocol has been loaded into several slots, use the TI commands that show information about protocols. a. Type show system protocols. b. Type loadmap. 4. Ping the Ethernet interface of each router. If any router is unreachable, try to resolve the problem. (Hint: Use the p qualifier) 5. When all ports on all routers are reachable from any PC on any port, the exercise is complete. The router s interface has been configured using Site Manager. 6. Include any notes or reactions to this activity in your portfolio. Rubric: Suggested Evaluation Criteria and Weightings Criteria % Your Score Following specific instructions 30 Demonstrate an understanding of configuration details Successful troubleshooting and problem resolution techniques TOTAL ST A Routing

33 Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing Stretch Yourself CIDR Materials Needed: Classroom Network Any Word Processor (e.g., MS Word) (optional) Pen/Pencil and Paper 1. Set up a 26-bit CIDR addressing scheme for the class network. 2. Draw a new network diagram correctly indicating the addresses of all devices in both binary and dotted decimal notation. 3. Exchange your diagram with another member of the class and check his or her work. Rubric: Suggested Evaluation Criteria and Weightings Criteria % Your Score Devise CIDR addressing scheme 50 Correctly drawn diagram 30 Check partner s work 20 TOTAL ST A

34 Unit 3: Let s Route Network Wizards Teaching Binary Math Materials Needed: Pen/Pencil and Paper Student Portfolio 1. Write a 30-minute lesson to teach 8 th graders how to convert between binary and decimal numbers. The lesson should be engaging and clear. 2. Create a rubric to evaluate the lesson s effectiveness. 3. Present your lesson to the class. 4. Participate in an open critique of the lesson, entertaining changes that would improve the lesson. 5. Based on the class critique, complete the lesson s rubric. Rubric: Suggested Evaluation Criteria and Weightings Criteria % Your Score Clear and engaging lesson which meets the time restraints. 40 Appropriate rubric created and completed. 20 Presentation of lesson and participation in class critique. 40 TOTAL ST A Routing

36 Unit 3: Let s Route d e Every computer that is connected to the Internet has a. The same IP address b. At least 3 IP addresses c. The same IP address as the main router on its local network d. A unique IP address e. A unique AppleTalk ID 4. Some portion to the left of an IP address indicates a. The workstation address within a network b. The number of computers in the local network c. The size of the network d. The address of the network Part BAnswer: d 132 ST A Routing

38 Unit 3: Let s Route 1. Subnet the class B network into 8 subnets. Part E 1. What are the host address ranges and subnet masks for each subnet in a class C network ( ) that has been subnetted into 16 equal subnets? Part F 1. Class-based IP addressing a. Provides flexible network sizes b. Only offers three sizes of network address spaces c. Uses a variable length mask for each domain d. Controls the suffix of each network s domain name 2. Classless Internet Domain Routing (CIDR) allows a. Domains to choose one of three network sizes b. Domains to have several names c. Domains to have an address mask length appropriate to the desired network size d. Have more then four octets in their dotted decimal address Scoring Rubric: Suggested Evaluation Criteria and Weightings Criteria % Your Score Part A: Identify the convention for IP 20 dd i 134 ST A Routing

39 Lesson 3-1: Network Layer Addressing addressing. Part B: Identify three classes of IP addresses. 20 Part C: Convert IP addresses between binary and dotted decimal notation. Part D: Demonstrate how to subnet a Class A, B, or C address into a given number of subnetworks. Part E: Determine the subnet mask for a subnetted network. Part F: Identify why CIDR is being implemented over classful IP addressing TOTAL 100 Try It Out: Configure the router s interface parameters to support IP on a synchronous circuit. Verify that all routers in the lab network are reachable. 100 Stretch Yourself 100 Network Wizards 100 FINAL TOTAL 400 Resources Bay Networks. (1999). Accelerated Router Configuration, Bay Networks, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts. Bay Networks. (1998). Installing and Operating BayStack ARN Routers, Bay Networks, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts. Palmer, M. (1998) Hands on Networking Essentials with Projects, Course Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 135 ST A

40 Unit 3: Let s Route 136 ST A Routing

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