We Are HERE! Subne\ng

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1 TELE 302 Network Design Lecture 21 Addressing Strategies Source: McCabe 12.1 ~ 12.4 Jeremiah Deng TELE Programme, University of Otago, 2013 We Are HERE! Requirements analysis Flow Analysis Logical Design Technology choices InterconnecLon mechanisms Network Management and security Physical Design Addressing and RouLng Dividing Up the Space AllocaLon of resources is a fundamental problem in design it includes issues like ParLLoning the design space Preserving high cohesion and weak coupling Ensuring flexibility IdenLfy boundaries for roulng and addressing Work groups FuncLonal areas (based on work groups) Physical interfaces AdministraLve domains 2 3 Addressing Background Subne\ng Two Types of Subne\ng IPv4 Addressing based on mullple classes ~ Classful Addressing Set Bits Class (First Octet) Natural Mask Number of Addresses A 0xxxxxxx ^24-2 B 10xxxxxx ^16-2 C 110xxxxx ^8-2 Two subtracted from host addresses All 1 s is the broadcast address All zeros is the network self- address An average customer May use a small fraclon of Class B address. Or uses mullple Class C address. E.g., a network with 10,000 computers Can be supported with a Class B address with 2^16-2=65,534 host addresses Or by a minimum of 40 Class C addresses 40*(2^8-2)=10,160 How to make beder use of address space? Subne/ng involves making the address mask larger, extending by trading host bits for network addresses. Hierarchy established, but not adverlsed outside. StaLc Length Subne\ng: all the subnetworks in a single network use the same subnet mask Easy to configure but all are the same size Variable Length Subne\ng: different subnetworks in a single network use different subnet masks Available host addresses are used more efficiently but all the routers must understand this kind of subne\ng 4 5 6

2 VariaLon of the Mask Length Subnet Mask Length and Subnet Size Class B Host Address AllocaLons Linear Subne\ng by trading host bits for network bits à more smaller networks Address (Example) Natural Mask Class B ( ) Classful Addresses Class C ( ) Address Subnet Mask Size Subnets Hosts/Subnet bit bit /24--> subnet mask of /20--> subnet mask of Classless InterDomain Routing (CIDR /xx notation) 7 Class B X.Y 2-bit 3-bit 4-bit 5-bit 6-bit x=192 x=224 x=240 x=248 x= net 64K hosts x = , hosts/subnet hosts/subnet hosts/subnet hosts/subnet hosts/subnet 8 Host Address Space Allocated Linearly Sales/Marketing.1.5 Management Engineering.7 Difficult to introduce hierarchy into the network design. If a random scheme was used for allocalng addresses originally then readdressing is required to implement subne\ng..4 Operations Class B Host Address AllocaLons Hierarchical Address Hierarchies Implemented with Address Mask Change Fixed (StaLc) Length Subne\ng Host Address Space Allocated Hierarchically Sales/MarkeLng Engineering Management OperaLons Sales/MarkeLng Engineering Management OperaLons A hierarchical address allocalon scheme makes it much easier to introduce subnet addressing when it is needed because no host address changes are needed. 10 External Management Sales/Marketing Engineering By applying a single subnet mask one gets a number of all the same size. Sonetimes one wants of different sizes Operations 11 Breaks a classful network address space down into a number of fixed length by trading host bits for networks. Usually requires a network to have a single subnet mask 12

3 Variable Length Subne\ng Applying mullple subnet masks to a network allows more effeclve use of the available address space by crealng of different sizes called variable length subne\ng. It involves recognizing mullple subnet masks for the same network address, example Work Group Groups Size/Group (Hosts) Engineering => /23 (510) Marketing => /21 (2046) Administration => /24 (254) Sales =>/25 (126) R&D =>/24 (254) Support =>/26 (62) 13 Example: Addressing Scheme (Improved) Work Group Groups Size/Group (Hosts) Engineering MarkeLng AdministraLon Sales ~ 90 R&D Support ~ 40 Address Alloca:ons 4- Bit Mask 8- Bit Mask Subnets E1-3 (Engineering) Subnet M1 (MarkeLng) Subnet A1 (AdministraLon) Subnets SA1- SA15 (Sales) Subnet R1 (R&D) Subnets SU1- SU22 (Support) Superne\ng Class A: Too big and too few Class B: Too big and too few Class C: Numerous but oqen too small The sheer number of Class C networks makes adverlsing potenlally a threat to overload the internet core routers. Subne\ng helps to manage networks by breaking things up hierarchically 15 AllocaLng and AdverLsing 16 Class C Addresses to External Advertised as Mask If all Class C networks classful addresses are adverlsed, the resullng influx of route adverlsements could exceed the capability of internet core routers, resullng in performance loss or failure Modifying Address Masks to Represent Address Groups New Mask or 20 bits long, i.e. /20 Original Address Mask xxxx xxxx Bits do not change Bits do change Address mask is reduced by 4 bits 17 Classless InterDomain RouLng (CIDR) to External Advertised as Mask or /20 This reduces an advertising of 16 Class C to the advertising of a single CIDR block

4 Rules To Observe An Example ViolaLng Rule 2 Holes in CIDR block For CIDR to work certain rules must be observed: 1. Number of addresses in a CIDR block is based on a power of 2 (i.e. 2, 4, 8, addresses) 2. The ends of the address block must fall on bit boundaries 3. Avoid having holes in the address space, the CIDR block should be conlguous. Don t adverlse addresses not of your own! There is a workaround for this to /20? Invalid CIDR block! Original Address Mask xxxx xxxx Third octet in binary Bits now change in the fourth bit position. 20 A downstream network receiving mullple confliclng adverlsements will use the most specific address match based on address mask length. Organization A Advertises: with natural mask (This address is also in the CIDR block advertised by Organization B Internet Organization B Advertises: /20 A CIDR block of 16 addresses Downstream network receives both advertisements and chooses the most specific match for each network eg. the longer mask /24 instead of /20 Use with Caution! 21 Applying Address Strategies Best Fit Strategies Private Addresses Scalability: Need to know the NUMBERS of FuncLonal Areas within the system Work Groups within each FuncLonal Area within each Work Group Hosts within each Network Establish degree of hierarchies in the network. Applying addressing not only system- wide, but also funclon areas, network groups, and networks. Supernetting (CIDR) Natural Class Subnetting Variable-Length Subnetting Enterprise- Wide Functional Areas Hierarchy Work Groups Hosts Defined in RFC Class A: (10/8 prefix) Class B: (172.16/12 prefix) Class C: ( /16 prefix) Use NAT (Network Address TranslaLon) to get greater IP savings. LAN uses private IP addresses. Masquerade IP towards WAN (Internet). Difficult for protocols such as FTP, UDP. Efficiency problem

5 A NAT Example Local host request a conneclon to NAT allocates an external address NAT changes source address on outgoing packets to Reply packets arriving NAT, with deslnalon address changed to , are then forwarded back Internet Buggy Patches? Workarounds such as NAT, CIDR have their own problems! NATs promote reuse of private address space, but do not provide support to end- to- end packet- level security. CIDR addresses owned by ISPs. Internet slll faces the risk of running out of capacity in the global roulng tables. IPv6 is the solulon! IPv6 IPv4 uses 32- bit addresses. TheoreLcally allows 4 billion addresses. Not possible to reach 50% ullisalon. IPv6 goes to 128- bit addresses. 5f1b:df00:ce3e:e200:0020:0800:2078:e3e3 Enables other addilons to IP such as: Support for beder security (e.g. IPSEC) Support for mobile hosts. Support for real- Lme services NAT IPv4 and IPv6 IPv6 Address Planning IPv6 TransiLon Vers 4 IHL Type of Service IP Options Total Length Identification Flags Frag Offset Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum Source Address Destination Address v4 Header = 20 Bytes + Options v6 Header = 40 Bytes Vers 6 Traffic Class Payload Length Flow Label Next Hdr Source Address (128 bits) Hop Limit Destination Address (128 bits) MulLple address types for each host: unicast, anycast, mullcast Format: 16- byte hexadecimal number fields, e.g., 2001:db8:130F:0:0:9c0:876A:130B. Normally /64 prefix used for unicast IPv6 addresses and even for point- to- point links (where /126 or /127 can be used) Within the system, exislng IPv4 addressing schemes can be used, e.g., TranslaLng subnet numbers into IPv6 subnet IDs TranslaLng VLAN IDs into IPv6 subnet IDs Private addresses in IPv6 are unique! The Internet clearly must support IPv4 hosts for a long Lme into the future. Dual- stack operalon: Some nodes and routers will have both IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks. The version field will be used to direct a packet to the correct stack. Tunneling IPv6 through IPv4. Each IPv6 packet is encapsulated into an IPv4 packet whose address is the address of the other end of the tunnel

6 The Long Wait, but Why? By 2004 all implementalons will adopt IPv6 as the standard (NZ e- Government Interoperability Framework e- GIF, 2002). IPv4 exhauslon: IANA and ARIN registralon exhauslon: 2011 / 2012 ISP level: 2015 NAT Too many changes: Apps and API s have to change Domain Name System (DNS) changes Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) changes RouLng protocol changes IPv4 over xxx now needs IPv6 over xxx Everything has to change (end- to- end) NAT64 Technology white_paper_c html Summary Divide up design space How? Subne\ng Superne\ng Choose an addressing strategy NAT and IPv6 Refs: CISCO IPv6 Addressing Guide Coming next: RouLng

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