# One of the most important topics in any discussion of TCP/IP is IP. IP Addressing

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5 IP Addressing 129 So, a Class A network is defined in the first octet between 0 and 127. It can t be less or more. (We ll talk about illegal addresses in a minute.) If you are having any difficulty with the binary-to-decimal conversions, please read the Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Review sidebar. Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Review Prior to learning about IP addressing, you must have a fundamental understanding of binary-to-decimal conversions. Here is how it works: Binary numbers use 8 bits to define a decimal number. These bits are weighted from right to left in an increment that doubles in value. Here is an example of 8 bits and the value assigned to each bit: Here is an example of binary-to-decimal conversion: Binary value Byte in binary Add the value of the bits that are turned on: =38 Any time you find a bit turned on (a one), you add the values of each bit position. Let s practice on a few more: = =85

6 130 Chapter 3 Internet Protocol Try a few on your own: = = =204 You will need to memorize the binary-to-decimal conversions in the following list. You will use this information when you practice subnetting later in this chapter: = = = = = = = = =255 Network Address Range: Class B In a Class B network, the RFCs state that the first bit of the first byte must always be turned on, but the second bit must always be turned off. If you turn the other six bits all off and then all on, you will find the range for a Class B network: = =191 As you can see, this means that a Class B network can be defined when the first byte is configured from 128 to 191. Network Address Range: Class C For Class C networks, the RFCs define the first two bits of the first octet always turned on, but the third bit can never be on. Following the same process as the previous classes, convert from binary to decimal to find the range. Here is the range for a Class C network: = =223

11 Subnetting 135 To create subnetworks, you take bits from the host portion of the IP address and reserve them to define the subnet address. This means fewer bits for hosts, so the more subnets, the fewer bits available for defining hosts. In this section you will learn how to create subnets, starting with Class C addresses. However, before you implement subnetting, you need to determine your current requirements and plan for future conditions. Follow these steps: 1. Determine the number of required network IDs. A. One for each subnet B. One for each wide area network connection 2. Determine the number of required host IDs per subnet. A. One for each TCP/IP host B. One for each router interface 3. Based on the above requirement, create the following: A. One subnet mask for your entire network B. A unique subnet ID for each physical segment C. A range of host IDs for each subnet Understanding the Powers of 2 Powers of 2 are important to understand and memorize for use with IP subnetting. To review powers of 2, remember that when you see a number with another number to its upper right, this means you should multiply the number by itself as many times as the upper number specifies. For example, 2 3 is 2x2x2, which equals 8. Here is the list of powers of 2 that you should memorize: 2 1 =2 2 2 =4 2 3 =8 2 4 = = = = =256

27 Subnetting 151 Notice, however, that for the 1 subnet in the third octet, the fourth octet has four subnets, 0, 64, 128, and 192. Practice Example 7: This is done the same way as the preceding subnet mask; however, we just have more subnets and fewer hosts per subnet available =2046 subnets =30 hosts =32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192. However, as demonstrated above, both the 0 and 224 subnets can be used as long as the third octet does not show a value of 0 or 255. Here is an example of having no subnet bits in the third octet. 4. First find the broadcast addresses in step 5, then come back and perform step 4 by filling in the host addresses. 5. Find the broadcast address of each subnet, which is always the number right before the next subnet. The following table shows the first range of subnets. Subnet First Host Last Host Broadcast Let s take a look at a situation where a subnet bit is turned on in the third octet. The following table shows the full range of subnets available in the fourth octet. Subnet First Host Last Host Broadcast

29 Subnetting 153 Subnetting Class A Addresses Class A subnetting is not performed any differently from Classes B and C, though there are 24 bits to play with instead of the 16 in a Class B address and the eight bits in a Class C address. Let s start by listing all the Class A subnets: That s it. You must leave at least two bits for defining hosts. We hope you can see the pattern by now. Remember, we re going to do this the same way as a Class B or C subnet, but we just have more host bits. Subnetting Practice Examples: Class A Addresses When you look at an IP address and a subnet mask, you must be able to determine the bits used for subnets and the bits used for determining hosts. This is imperative. If you are still struggling with this concept, please reread

31 Subnetting =16. However, since the second octet is 255, or all subnet bits on, we can start the third octet with 0 as long as a subnet bit is turned on in the second octet. So the subnets become , , , and , all the way to The next set of subnets would be , , , , all the way to Notice that we can use 240 in the third octet as long as all the subnet bits in the second octet are not on. In other words, is invalid because all subnet bits are turned on. The last valid subnet would be First find the broadcast addresses in step 5, then come back and perform step 4 by filling in the host addresses. 5. Find the broadcast address of each subnet, which is always the number right before the next subnet. Table 3.9 shows some examples of the host ranges. TABLE 3.9 Valid Host Ranges for a Class A Mask First Subnet Second Subnet Last Subnet Subnet First Host Last Host Broadcast Practice Example 3: Let s do one more example using the second, third, and fourth octets for subnetting =262,142 subnets =62 hosts. 3. Now, we need to add subnet numbers from the second, third, and fourth octets. In the second and third, they can range from 1 to 255, as long as all subnet bits in the second, third, and fourth octets are not

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3. Advanced Secure Network Design 3.1 Introduction You already know that routers are probably the most critical equipment piece in today s networking. Without routers, internetwork communication would

### Network Terminology Review

Network Terminology Review For those of you who have experience with IP networks, this document may serve as a reminder of the current lexicon of terms used in our industry. If you re new to it or specialized