# Subnetting IPv4 and IPv6

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1 Subnetting IPv4 and IPv6 Advanced Networking: Routing & Switching 1 Chapter 9 Copyleft 2013 Hacklab Cosenza ( Released under Creative Commons License 3.0 By-Sa Cisco name, logo and materials are Copyright Cisco Systems Inc. 1

2 Why subnetting? Using smaller networks we optimize address space Network segmentation, comunication between subnetworks need routing Limiting broadcast Increased security Note: A subnet is equivalent to a network and these terms can be used interchangeably. Most networks are a subnet of some larger address block.

3 Subnetting = borrowing bits Decimal Binary

4 2 subnets / /25

5 Number of Subnets and Hosts Calculating Subnets Use this formula to calculate the number of subnets: 2^n (where n = the number of bits borrowed) In the revious /25 example, the calculation looks like this: 2^1 = 2 subnets Calculating Hosts per subnetwork Use this formula to calculate the number of hosts per network: 2^n -2 (where n = the number of bits remaining in the host field) In the revious /25 example, the calculation looks like this: 2^7-2 = 126 per subnetwork

6 Subnetting example

8 Borrowing bits from 3rd octet

9 Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) VLSM subnetting is similar to traditional subnetting in that bits are borrowed to create subnets. The formulas to calculate the number of hosts per subnet and the number of subnets created still apply. The difference is that subnetting is not a single pass activity. With VLSM, the network is first subnetted, and then the subnets are subnetted again. This process can be repeated multiple times to create subnets of various sizes.

10 VLSM Exercise Take the /24 and: Subnet it /27 Take the third subnet and subnet it /29 For the second sub-subnetwork print Network address First host address Last host address Broadcast address

11 VLSM Exercise: solution Take the /24 and: Subnet it /27: / / /27 (4 more subnets) /27 Take the third subnet and subnet it / / / / /29 For the second sub-subnetwork print Network address: First host address: Last host address: Broadcast address: Subnet mask:

12 Planning to Address the Network There are three primary considerations when planning address allocation. Preventing Duplication of Addresses - Without the proper planning and documentation, an address could be assigned to more than one host, resulting in access issues for both hosts. Providing and Controlling Access - Some hosts, such as servers, provide resources to internal hosts as well as to external hosts. If the address is randomly assigned and not well documented, controlling access is more difficult. Monitoring Security and Performance - As part of the monitoring process, network traffic is examined for addresses that are generating or receiving excessive packets. If there is proper planning and documentation of the network addressing, problematic network devices can be easily found.

14 IPv6 Subnetting An IPv6 address space is not subnetted to conserve addresses; rather, it is subnetted to support hierarchical, logical design of the network. While IPv4 subnetting is about managing address scarcity, IPv6 subnetting is about building an addressing hierarchy based on the number of routers and the networks they support. An IPv6 address block with a /48 prefix has 16 bits for subnet ID. Subnetting using the 16 bit subnet ID yields a possible 65,536 /64 subnets and does not require borrowing any bits from the interface ID, or host portion of the address.

15 IPv6 Subnet example

16 IPv6 Subnetting considerations Subnetting with IPv6 is not drastically different than subnetting with IPv4, we just need to keep a few things in mind: Each character in an IPv6 address represents 4 bits (a nibble). Since 0xF is 1111 in binary, it's easy to fall back into an IPv4 habit and forget that 0x11 is actually in binary. The leading practice is to receive at least a /48 prefix from an ISP. This leaves you with 2^80 bits to manipulate. More bits than the entire IPv4 address space! According to RFC4291 the current recommended smallest prefix is a / 64. You can assign a /64 to a point-to-point link and not feel guilty. The only exception to this is the recommendation from ARIN to use a /128 on loopback addresses. This gives us one block of hex digits, or 16-bits, to use for subnetting. One block might not sound like much, but 16-bits is half of the entire IPv4 address space.

17 End of lesson

Planning the Addressing Structure Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP Chapter 4 Copyleft 2012 Vincenzo Bruno (www.vincenzobruno.it) Released under Crative Commons License 3.0 By-Sa Cisco name,

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