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1 TCP/IP Drill Pack By Donna Warren Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 1 of 19

2 Drill 1: OSI vs DOD and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite Complete the following chart. On the next page give a brief description of each of the TCP/IP protocols. It is important that you understand how the older protocols are represented in the OSI model. Some of the functionality is combined in the older protocols but as the hardware and software keeps constantly changing, knowing where everything fits matters. OSI Model DoD Model TCP/IP Protocols Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 2 of 19

3 Drill 2: Converting Decimal to Binary, Binary to Decimal They have been talking about eliminating TCP/IP version 4 for at least 20 years. It hasn t happened yet and until they work out the security issues such as figuring out who does and does not belong on your network, I don t see it not being used for a long time to come, at least on a company s internal network. As a result, you need to know how to do binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversions. Complete the following table to practice converting a number from binary notation to decimal format. Binary Decimal = Complete the following table to practice converting a number from decimal notation to binary format. Decimal Binary = Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 3 of 19

4 Drill 3: More Decimal/Binary Conversions Practice Address classes seem to be obsolete since everyone uses the /xx notation. They are not. The class determines what the default values of the subnet mask are. If you don t know the class you cannot determine whether an address is subnetted. Learn the five classes and their default subnet mask. 1. Express in binary format and identify the address class: 2. Express in binary format and identify the address class: 3. Express in binary format and identify the address class: 4. Express in binary format and identify the address class: 5. Express in binary format and identify the address class: 6. Express in binary format and identify the address class: 7. Express in binary format and identify the address class: 8. Express in binary format and identify the address class: Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 4 of 19

5 Drill 4: Understanding Address Classes Since the subnet mask determines how many hosts addresses are available on a network or subnet, you need to understand how to calculate the number of host addresses that are available. 1. Write the address class next to each IP address. Address Class Which address class(es) will allow you to have more than 1,000 hosts per network? 3. Which address class(es) will allow only 254 hosts per network? Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 5 of 19

6 Drill 5: Identifying Invalid Host IP Addresses It is also important to know whether an IP address is valid. Invalid addresses don t work. Objective: Identify which portion of the below host IP addresses are invalid and explain why it is invalid. Hint: If you aren't sure, convert to binary then answer Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 6 of 19

7 Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 7 of 19

8 Drill 6: Assigning IP Addresses Objective: Review the following scenario and answer the questions that follow. You have a network with 10 Novell Servers, 40 Windows NT Servers, 50 UNIX workstations, 180 Windows 9x Workstations, and 20 Windows NT Workstations. They are all on the same network and using the same subnet/segment. 1. Which address classes will support this network? 2. Which of the following network addresses will support this network? a b c d Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 8 of 19

9 Drill 7: Subnet Masks Determined Subnetting just complicates matters and you need to know how it works. In the following drill determine the Subnet Mask in decimal and binary Class Address Bits Borrowed 1. Class A 8 Subnet Mask Decimal/Binary Class B 6 3. Class C 4 4. Class B Class A Class C 3 7. Class A Class C 5 9. Class B Class A Class B Class C Class B Class A 16 Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 9 of 19

10 (7 cont'd) In the following section determine how many bits have been borrowed IP Address Subnet Mask Bit Borrowed (( Class A = n.s.s/h.h - 2 nd & 3 rd octets)) n h = 10 bits Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 10 of 19

11 Drill 8: Defining Subnet Masks Objective: Review each item below and determine whether it needs a subnet mask. Note the appropriate subnet mask number(s) and the number of bits required. 1. Class A network address on a local network. 2. Class B network address on a local network with 4,000 hosts. 3. Class C network address on a local network with 254 hosts. 4. Class A address with 6 subnets. 5. Class B address with 126 subnets. 6. Class A network address. Currently, there are 30 subnets that will grow to approximately 65 subnets within the next year. Each subnet will never have more than 50,000 hosts. 7. Using the subnet mask from step 6, how much growth will this subnet mask provide? 8. Class B network address. Currently, there are 14 subnets that may double in size within the next two years. Each subnet will have fewer than 1,500 hosts. 9. Using the subnet mask from step 8, how much growth will this subnet mask provide? Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 11 of 19

12 Drill 9: Determining Subnet IDs and Host IDs Objective: Determine the Subnet IDs and Host IDs within the scenarios. Example Scenario You have a network with four subnets. It is using a Class B subnet mask by using 3 bits from the third octet. 1. Using the information in the table below, list all valid and invalid subnet numbers. Also list the beginning value of the valid subnet(s). (Remember subnet and host ids can not be all zeros or all ones in binary.) 255 n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n s s s h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h - invalid subnet h h h h h Subnet # (w/ starting host) (w/ ending host) # # # # # h h h h h - invalid subnet Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 12 of 19

13 (9: Example Scenario cont'd.) 2. List the range of valid host IDs for each subnet using the example format below. Since this is Class B, the first two octets (shown with x's) are the original network number and are unneeded for this demonstration. Subnet Beginning Value Ending value Subnet 1 x.x..1 x.x..254 Subnet 2 x.x..1 x.x Subnet 3 x.x..1 x.x Subnet 4 x.x..1 x.x..254 Subnet 5 x.x..1 x.x..254 (will be available for later use) 192 Subnet 6 x.x..1 x.x..254 (will be available for later use) Scenario 1 You have a network with two subnets. It is using a Class B subnet mask by using 2 bits from the third octet. 2. Using the information in the table below, list all valid and invalid subnet numbers. Also list the beginning value of the valid subnet(s) List the range of host IDs for each subnet using the example format below.. Subnet Beginning Value Ending value Subnet 1 x.x..1 x.x..254 Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 13 of 19

14 Scenario 2 You have a network with 14 subnets. It is using a Class B subnet mask by using 4 bits in the third octet. 1. Using the information in the table below, list all valid and invalid subnet numbers. Also list the beginning value of the valid subnet(s) List the range of host IDs for each subnet using the example format below.. Subnet Beginning Value Ending value Subnet 1 x.x..1 x.x..254 Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 14 of 19

15 Using Subnet Shortcuts Using Scenario 2 above that has 14 subnets, perform the following shortcut steps. Compare the results to the Scenario 2 results. They should match exactly. The first three subnets have been completed for you. 1. Identify the number of bits beyond the default mask bits that will be used for the subnet mask. This scenario includes a Class B subnet mask using 4 bits in the third octet We borrowed 4 bits. Take the lowest valued bit of the ones borrowed and covert it to decimal So 16 is the value that we are interested in. The 3 rd octet of the host IP number ranges will increment by To determine the number of possible subnets, reverse the bits so that they are in what is called low order as shown below. Convert the bits to decimal format and then subtract = 15 (# of valid subnets) 4. Starting with 0, increment by the value calculated in Step 2 (16) the same number of times as the possible number of bit combinations(subnets) calculated in Step 3 (15). # of Subnets Increment by number found Valid range of host IP addresses for Class B with subnet of (step 3) In step 2 ( Starting # of Range (4 th octet will be 1) Increment by 1 less than next starting # Ending # of Range (4 TH octet will 254) = 16 N.N = 31 (or 32-1) N.N = 32 N.N = 47 (or 48-1) N.N = 48 N.N = 63 (or 64-1) N.N = 64 N.N = 79 N.N Continue until you reach 14 subnets (where N.N. = network octets) Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 15 of 19

16 1. Define the ranges of host IDs that would be available for 2 subnets that use the following information (the subnet numbers are not known): Network ID , subnet mask Define the ranges of host IDs that would be available for 4 subnets that use the following information (the subnet numbers are not known): Network ID , subnet mask Define the ranges of host IDs for the following 2 subnets that are using a subnet mask of and Network IDs of and Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 16 of 19

17 4. Define the ranges of host IDs for the following 4 subnets that are using a subnet mask of and Network IDs of , , , and Define the ranges of host IDs for the following 3 subnets that are using a subnet mask of and Network IDs of , , and Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 17 of 19

18 You can tell by the range of valid addresses what the increments are, then determine the number of bits borrowed and the subnet mask. Objective: Determine the appropriate subnet mask for a given range of IP addresses 1. Address range of through Address range of through Address range of through Address range of through Address range of through Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 18 of 19

19 Drill 10: Determining If Hosts Need a Router To Communicate To compare IP addresses for common subnet. a. Determine which octet(s) bits are borrowed from and how many using the subnet mask b. Using the host IP number, convert only the necessary the octet(s) to binary c. Compare the bits used for the subnet to find matching #'s Ex. Compare the following host IP numbers: and both with a subnet mask of State whether these hosts are on the same subnet/segment or will they need a router to communicate. a. The first two octets are network numbers, 3 rd octet shows 2 bits borrowed (mask) = (subnet mask converted - 2 bits borrowed) b = = c. Since the first two bits match, these hosts are on the same subnet/segment and do not need a router to communicate 1. Compare the following Hosts and state whether which hosts are on the same segment if any A subnet mask B subnet mask C subnet mask D subnet mask E subnet mask F subnet mask Given the following host, with a mask of , which of the following hosts need a router to communicate with it. A subnet mask B subnet mask C subnet mask D subnet mask E subnet mask F subnet mask Created by Donna P. Warren Revised: 1/2/2012 Page 19 of 19

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