# Big Bend Community College. Beginning Algebra MPC 095. Lab Notebook

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1 Big Bend Community College Beginning Algebra MPC 095 Lab Notebook Beginning Algebra Lab Notebook by Tyler Wallace is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at 1

2 Table of Contents Module A: Linear Equations...3 Module B: Graphing Linear Equations...31 Module C: Polynomials...50 Module D: Factoring...72 Module E: Rational Expressions

3 MPC 095 Module A: Linear Equations 3

4 Order of Operations Introduction The order: To remember:

5 Order of Operations Parenthesis Different types of parenthesis: Always do first!

6 Order of Operations Fractions When simplifying fractions, always simplify and first, then

7 Order of Operations Absolute Value Absolute Value just like, make positive

8 Simplify Algebraic Expressions Evaluate Variables Dozen is as 12 To Evaluate: , 5, 7 8

9 Simplify Algebraic Expressions Combine Like Terms Terms: Like Terms: When we have like terms we can the coefficients of

10 Simplify Algebraic Expressions Distributive Property Distributive Property: We use the distributive property to

11 Simplify Algebraic Expressions Distribute and Combine Order of operations tells us that comes before So we will always first and then last

12 Show that 3 is the solution to Linear Equations One Step Equations We solve by working, using the inverse or operations! Example C Example D Practice C Practice D 12

13 Linear Equations Two Step Equations When solving we do Order of Operations in First we will and. Then we will and

14 Linear Equations - General Move variables to one side by. Sometimes we may have to first. Simplify by and on each side

15 Linear Equations Fractions Clear fractions by multiplying by the Important: Multiply including

16 Linear Equations Distributing with Fractions Important: Always first and second

17 Formulas Two Step Formulas Solving Formulas: Treat other variables like. Final answer is an Example: 3 15 and 17

18 Formulas Multi-Step Formulas Strategy:

19 Formulas Fractions Clear fractions by May have to first!

20 Absolute Value Two Solutions What is inside the absolute value can be or This means we have

21 Absolute Value Isolate Absolute Before we look at our two solutions, we must first We do this by

22 Absolute Value Two Absolutes With two absolutes, we need The first equation is The second equation is

23 Word Problems Number Problems Translate: Is/Were/Was/Will Be: More than: Subtracted from/less Then: Five less than three times a number is nineteen. What is the number? Seven more than twice a number is six less than three times the same number. What is the number? 23

24 Word Problems Consecutive Integers Consecutive Numbers: First: Second: Third: Find three consecutive numbers whose sum is 543. Find four consecutive integers whose sum is

25 Word Problems Consecutive Even/Odd Consecutive Even: First: Second: Third: Find three consecutive even integers whose sum is 84. Consecutive Odd: First: Second: Third: Find four consecutive odd integers whose sum is

26 Word Problems Triangles Angles of a triangle add to Two angles of a triangle are the same measure. The third angle is 30 degrees less than the first. Find the three angles. The second angle of a triangle measures twice the first. The third angle is 30 degrees more than the second. Find the three angles. 26

27 Word Problems Perimeter Formula for Perimeter of a rectangle: Width is the side A rectangle is three times as long as it is wide. If the perimeter is 62 cm, what is the length? The width of a rectangle is 6 cm less than the length. If the perimeter is 52 cm, what is the width? 27

28 Age Problem Variable Now Table: Equation is always for the Sue is five years younger than Brian. In seven years the sum of their ages will be 49 years. How old is each now? Maria is ten years older than Sonia. Eight years ago Maria was three times Sonia s age. How old is each now? 28

29 Age Problem Sum Now Consider: Sum of 8 When we have the sum now, for the first box we use and the second we use The sum of the ages of a man and his son is 82 years. How old is each if 11 years ago, the man was twice his son s age? The sum of the ages of a woman and her daughter is 38 years. How old is each if the woman will be triple her daughter s age in 9 years? 29

30 Age Problems Variable Time If we don t know the time: A man is 23 years old. His sister is 11 years old. How many years ago was the man triple his sister s age? A woman is 11 years old. Her cousin is 32 years old. How many years until her cousin is double her age? 30

31 MPC 095 Module B: Graphing Linear Equations 31

32 Inequalities Graphing Inequalities: Less Than Less Than or Equal To Greater Than Greater Than or Equal To Graphing on Number Line Use for less/greater than and use when its or equal to Graph 3 Give the inequality 32

33 Inequalities Interval Notation Interval notation: (, ) Use for less/greater than and use when its or equal to and always use a Give Interval Notation Graph the interval, 1 33

34 Inequalities - Solving Solving inequalities is just like The only exception is if you or by a, you must

35 Inequalities - Tripartite Tripartite Inequalities: When solving When graphing

36 Graphing and Slope Points and Lines The coordinate plane: Give to a point going then as Graph the points 2,3, 4, 1, 2, 4, 0,3, 1,0 Graph the line:

37 Graphing and Slope Slope from a graph Slope: 37

38 Graphing and Slope Slope from two points Slope: Find the slope between 7,2 11,4 Find the slope between 2, 5 17,4 38

39 Equations Slope Intercept Equation Slope-Intercept Equation: Give the equation with a slope of and y-intercept of 2 Give the equation of the graph 39

40 Equations Put in Intercept Form We may have to put an equation in intercept form. To do this we Give the slope and y-intercept Give the slope and y-intercept

41 Equations - Graph We can graph an equation by identifying the and Start at the and use the to change Remember slope is over Graph 2 Graph

42 Equations Vertical/Horizontal Vertical Lines are always equals the Horizontal Lines are always equals the Graph 2 Find the equation 42

43 Equations Point Slope Point Slope Equation: Give the equation of the line that passes through 3,5 and has a slope of Give the equation of the line that passes through 6, 2 and has a slope of 4. Give your final answer in slope-intercept form. 43

44 Equations Given Two Points To find the equation of a line you must have the Recall the formula for slope: Find the equation of the line through 3, 5 and 2,5. Find the equation of the line through 1, 4 and 3,5. Give answer in slope-intercept form. 44

45 Parallel and Perpendicular - Slope Parallel Lines: Perpendicular Lines: Slope: One line goes through 5,2 and 7,5. Another line goes through 2, 6 and 0, 3. Are the lines parallel, perpendicular, or neither? Slope: One line goes through 4,1 and 1,3. Another line goes through 2, 1 and 6, 7. Are the lines parallel, perpendicular, or neither? 45

46 Parallel and Perpendicular - Equations Parallel lines have the slope, Perpendicular lines have slopes Once we know the slope and a point we can use the formula: Find the equation of the line parallel to the line that goes through the point 5,3 Find the equation of the line perpendicular to line that goes through the point 3, 4 46

47 Distance Opposite Directions The distance Table: Opposite Directions: Brian and Jennifer both leave the convention at the same time traveling in opposite directions. Brian drove 35 mph and Jennifer drove 50 mph. After how much time were they 340 miles apart? Maria and Tristan are 126 miles apart biking towards each other. If Maria bikes 6 mph faster than Tristan and they meet after 3 hours, how fast did each ride? 47

48 Distance Catch Up A head start: the head start to his/her Catch Up: Raquel left the party traveling 5 mph. Four hours later Nick left to catch up with her, traveling 7 mph. How long will it take him to catch up? Trey left on a trip traveling 20 mph. Julian left 2 hours later, traveling in the same direction at 30 mph. After how many hours does Julian pass Trey? 48

49 Distance Total Time Consider: Total time of 8 When we have a total time, for the first box we use and the second we use Lupe rode into the forest at 10 mph, turned around and returned by the same route traveling 15 mph. If her trip took 5 hours, how long did she travel at each rate? Ian went on a 230 mile trip. He started driving 45 mph. However, due to construction on the second leg of the trip, he had to slow down to 25 mph. If the trip took 6 hours, how long did he drive at each speed? 49

50 MPC 095 Module C: Polynomials 50

51 Exponents Product Rule Product Rule:

52 Exponents Quotient Rule Quotient Rule:

53 Exponents Power Rules Power of a Product: Power of a Quotient: Power of a Power:

54 Exponents - Zero Zero Power Rule:

55 Exponents Negative Exponents Negative Exponent Rules:

56 Exponents - Properties 1 To simplify:

57 Scientific Notation - Convert 10 positive negative Convert to Standard Notation Convert to Standard Notation Example C Example C Convert to Scientific Notation Convert to Scientific Notation Practice C Practice D 57

58 Scientific Notation Close to Scientific Put number Then use on the 10 s

59 Scientific Notation Multiply/Divide Multiply/Divide the Use on the 10 s

60 Scientific Notation Multiply/Divide where answer not scientific If your final answer is not in scientific notation

61 Polynomials - Evaluate Term: Monomial: Binomial: Trinomial: Polynomial: when when 4 61

63 Polynomials Multiply by Monomials To multiply a monomial by polynomial:

64 Polynomials Multiply by Binomials To multiply a binomial by a binomial: This process is often called which stands for

65 Polynomials Multiply by Trinomials Multiplying trinomials is just like we just have

66 Polynomials Multiply Monomials and Binomials Multiply first, then the

67 Polynomials Sum and Difference Sum and Difference Shortcut:

68 Polynomials Perfect Square Perfect Square Shortcut:

69 Division By Monomials Long Division Review:

70 Division By Polynomials On division step, only focus on the

71 Division Missing Terms The exponents MUST If one is missing we will add

72 MPC 095 Module D: Factoring 72

73 GCF and Grouping Find the GCF Greatest Common Factor: On variables we use Find the Common Factor Find the Common Factor

74 GCF and Grouping Factor GCF Put in front, and divide. What is left goes in the

75 GCF and Grouping Binomial GCF GCF can be a

76 GCF and Grouping - Grouping Grouping: GCF of the and then factor out (if it matches!)

77 GCF and Grouping Change Order If binomials don t match:

78 Trinomials 1 AC Method: Find a pair of numbers that multiply to and add to Using FOIL, these numbers come from and

79 Trinomials 1 with GCF Always factor the first!

80 Trinomials 1 If there is a in front of, the method gives us

81 Trinomials 1 with GCF Always do the first!!

82 Special Products Difference of Squares Difference of Squares:

83 Special Products Sum of Squares Factor: Sum of Squares is always

84 Special Products Difference of 4 th Powers The square root of is With fourth powers we can use twice!

85 Special Products Perfect Squares Using the ac method if the numbers then it factors to

86 Special Products Cubes Sum of Cubes: Difference of Cubes:

87 Special Products - GCF Always factor the first!!

88 Factoring Strategy - Strategy Always do First 2 terms: 3 terms: 4 terms: Which method would you use? Which method would you use? 20 Example C Which method would you use? Practice C Practice D Practice E 88

89 Solve by Factoring Zero Product Property Zero Product Rule: To solve we set each equal to

90 Solve by Factoring Need to Factor If we have and in an equation, we need to before we

91 Solve by Factoring Equal to Zero Before we factor, the equation must equal. To make factoring easier, we want the to be

92 Solve by Factoring - Simplify Before we make the equation equal zero, we may have to first

93 MPC 095 Module E: Rational Expressions 93

94 Reduce - Evaluate Rational Expressions: Quotient of two

95 Reduce Reduce Fractions To reduce fractions we common

96 Reduce - Monomials Quotient Rule of Exponents:

97 Reduce - Polynomials To reduce we common This means we must first

98 Multiply and Divide - Fractions First common Then multiply Division is the same, with one extra step at the start: by the

99 Multiply and Divide - Monomials With monomials we can use

100 Multiply and Divide - Polynomials To divide out factors, we must first

101 Multiply and Divide Both at Once To divide: Be sure to before

102 LCD - Numbers Prime Factorization: To find the LCD use factors with exponents ,

103 LCD - Monomials Use factors with exponents

104 LCD - Polynomials Use factors with exponents This means we must first

105 Add and Subtract - Fractions To add or subtract we the denominators by by the missing

106 Add and Subtract Common Denominator Add the and keep the When subtracting we will first the negative Don t forget to

107 Add and Subtract Different Denominators To add or subtract we the denominators by by the missing. This means we may have to to find the LCD!

108 Dimensional Analysis Convert Single Unit Multiply by and value does not change 1 Ask questions: feet to meters 3 miles to yards 108

109 Dimensional Analysis Convert Two Units Per is the Clear unit at a time! 100 feet per second to miles per hour 25 miles per hour to kilometers per minute 109

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