# Network/Graph Theory. What is a Network? What is network theory? Graph-based representations. Friendship Network. What makes a problem graph-like?

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1 What is a Network? Network/Graph Theory Network = graph Informally a graph is a set of nodes joined by a set of lines or arrows Graph-based representations Representing a problem as a graph can provide a different point of view Representing a problem as a graph can make a problem much simpler More accurately, it can provide the appropriate tools for solving the problem What is network theory? Network theory provides a set of techniques for analysing graphs Complex systems network theory provides techniques for analysing structure in a system of interacting agents, represented as a network Applying network theory to a system means using a graph-theoretic representation What makes a problem graph-like? Friendship Network There are two components to a graph Nodes and edges In graph-like problems, these components have natural correspondences to problem elements Entities are nodes and interactions between entities are edges Most complex systems are graph-like

2 Scientific collaboration network Genetic interaction network Transportation Networks Business ties in US biotechindustry Protein-Protein Interaction Networks Internet

3 Ecological Networks Graph Theory - History Leonhard Euler's paper on Seven Bridges of Königsberg, published in Graph Theory - History Cycles in Polyhedra Graph Theory - History Trees in Electric Circuits Thomas P. Kirkman William R. Hamilton Hamiltonian cycles in Platonic graphs Gustav Kirchhoff Graph Theory - History Enumeration of Chemical Isomers Graph Theory - History Four Colors of Maps Arthur Cayley James J. Sylvester George Polya Francis Guthrie Auguste DeMorgan

4 Definition: Graph G is an ordered triple G:=(V, E, f) V is a set of nodes, points, or vertices. E is a set, whose elements are known as edges or lines. f is a function maps each element of E to an unordered pair of vertices in V. Definitions Vertex Basic Element Drawn as a node or a dot. Vertex set of G is usually denoted by V(G), or V Edge A set of two elements Drawn as a line connecting two vertices, called end vertices, or endpoints. The edge set of G is usually denoted by E(G), or E. Example Simple Graphs Simple graphs are graphs without multiple edges or self-loops. V:={1,2,3,4,5,6} E:={{1,2},{1,5},{2,3},{2,5},{3,4},{4,5},{4,6}} Directed Graph (digraph) Weighted graphs Edges have directions An edge is an ordered pair of nodes multiple arc arc loop node is a graph for which each edge has an associated weight, usually given by a weight function w: E R

5 Structures and structural metrics Graph structures are used to isolate interesting or important sections of a graph Structural metrics provide a measurement of a structural property of a graph Global metrics refer to a whole graph Local metrics refer to a single node in a graph Graph structures Identify interesting sections of a graph Interesting because they form a significant domain-specific structure, or because they significantly contribute to graph properties A subset of the nodes and edges in a graph that possess certain characteristics, or relate to each other in particular ways Connectivity a graph is connected if you can get from any node to any other by following a sequence of edges OR any two nodes are connected by a path. Component Every disconnected graph can be split up into a number of connected components. A directed graph is strongly connected if there is a directed path from any node to any other node. Degree Number of edges incident on a node Degree (Directed Graphs) In-degree: Number of edges entering Out-degree: Number of edges leaving Degree = indeg + outdeg outdeg(1)=2 indeg(1)=0 outdeg(2)=2 indeg(2)=2 The degree of 5 is 3 outdeg(3)=1 indeg(3)=4

6 Degree: Simple Facts If G is a graph with m edges, then Σ deg(v) = 2m = 2 E If G is a digraph then Σ indeg(v)=σ outdeg(v) = E Number of Odd degree Nodes is even Walks A walk of length k in a graph is a succession of k (not necessarily different) edges of the form uv,vw,wx,,yz. This walk is denote by uvwx xz, and is referred to as a walk between u and z. A walk is closed is u=z. Path A path is a walk in which all the edges and all the nodes are different. Cycle A cycle is a closed path in which all the edges are different. Walks and Paths 1,2,5,2,3,4 1,2,5,2,3,2,1 1,2,3,4,6 walk of length 5 CW of length 6 path of length 4 1,2,5,1 2,3,4,5,2 3-cycle 4-cycle Special Types of Graphs Empty Graph / Edgeless graph No edge Trees Connected Acyclic Graph Two nodes have exactly one path between them Null graph No nodes Obviously no edge

7 Special Trees Regular Connected Graph Paths All nodes have the same degree Stars Special Regular Graphs: Cycles C 3 C 4 C 5 Bipartite graph V can be partitioned into 2 sets V 1 and V 2 such that (u,v) E implies either u V 1 and v V 2 OR v V 1 and u V 2. Complete Graph Every pair of vertices are adjacent Has n(n-1)/2 edges Complete Bipartite Graph Bipartite Variation of Complete Graph Every node of one set is connected to every other node on the other set Stars

8 Planar Graphs Can be drawn on a plane such that no two edges intersect K 4 is the largest complete graph that is planar Subgraph Vertex and edge sets are subsets of those of G a supergraph of a graph G is a graph that contains G as a subgraph. Special Subgraphs: : Cliques A A clique is a maximum complete connected subgraph. B C Spanning subgraph Subgraph H has the same vertex set as G. Possibly not all the edges H spans G. D E F G H I Spanning tree Let G be a connected graph. Then a spanning tree in G is a subgraph of G that includes every node and is also a tree. Isomorphism Bijection, i.e., a one-to-one mapping: f : V(G) -> V(H) u and v from G are adjacent if and only if f(u) and f(v) are adjacent in H. If an isomorphism can be constructed between two graphs, then we say those graphs are isomorphic.

9 Determining whether two graphs are isomorphic Although these graphs look very different, they are isomorphic; one isomorphism between them is f(a)=1 f(b)=6 f(c)=8 f(d)=3 f(g)=5 f(h)=2 f(i)=4 f(j)=7 Isomorphism Problem Representation (Matrix) Incidence Matrix V x E [vertex, edges] contains the edge's data Adjacency Matrix V x V Boolean values (adjacent or not) Or Edge Weights Matrices Representation (List) 1,2 1,5 2,3 2,5 3,4 4, , Edge List pairs (ordered if directed) of vertices Optionally weight and other data Adjacency List (node list) Implementation of a Graph. Edge and Node Lists Adjacency-list representation an array of V lists, one for each vertex in V. For each u V, ADJ [ u ] points to all its adjacent vertices. Edge List Node List

10 Edge Lists for Weighted Graphs Edge List Topological Distance A shortest path is the minimum path connecting two nodes. The number of edges in the shortest path connecting p and q is the topological distance between these two nodes, d p,q Distance Matrix Erdős and Renyi (1959) Random Graphs p = 0.0 ; k = 0 N = 12 V x V V matrix D = ( d ij ) such that ij is the topological distance between i and j. d ij N nodes A pair of nodes has probability p of being connected. Average degree, k pn What interesting things can be said for different values of p or k? (that are true as N ) p = 0.09 ; k = 1 p = 1.0 ; k ½N 2 Erdős and Renyi (1959) Random Graphs p = 0.0 ; k = 0 Erdős and Renyi (1959) Random Graphs p = 0.09 ; k = 1 p = ; k = 0.5 Let s look at Size of the largest connected cluster p = 1.0 ; k ½N 2 Diameter (maximum path length between nodes) of the largest cluster Average path length between nodes (if a path exists) p = 0.0 ; k = 0 p = ; k = 0.5 p = 0.09 ; k = 1 p = 1.0 ; k ½N 2 Size of largest component Diameter of largest component Average path length between nodes

11 Erdős and Renyi (1959) Random Graphs Random Graphs David Mumford Erdős and Renyi (1959) Fan Chung Peter Belhumeur Kentaro Toyama If k < 1: small, isolated clusters small diameters short path lengths At k = 1: a giant component appears diameter peaks path lengths are high For k > 1: almost all nodes connected diameter shrinks path lengths shorten Percentage of nodes in largest component Diameter of largest component (not to scale) phase transition k What does this mean? If connections between people can be modeled as a random graph, then Because the average person easily knows more than one person (k >> 1), We live in a small world where within a few links, we are connected to anyone in the world. Erdős and Renyi showed that average path length between connected nodes is Random Graphs David Mumford Erdős and Renyi (1959) Fan Chung Peter Belhumeur Kentaro Toyama Watts (1999) The Alpha Model What does this mean? If connections between people can be modeled as a random graph, then Because the average person easily knows more than one person (k >> 1), We live in a small world where within a few links, we are connected to anyone in the world. Erdős and Renyi computed average path length between connected nodes to be: BIG IF!!! The people you know aren t randomly chosen. People tend to get to know those who are two links away (Rapoport *, 1957). The real world exhibits a lot of clustering. The Personal Map by MSR Redmond s Social Computing Group * Same Anatol Rapoport, known for TIT FOR TAT! The Alpha Model The Alpha Model Watts (1999) Watts (1999) Probability of linkage as a function of number of mutual friends (α is 0 in upper left, 1 in diagonal, and in bottom right curves.) α model: Add edges to nodes, as in random graphs, but makes links more likely when two nodes have a common friend. For a range of α values: The world is small (average path length is short), and Groups tend to form (high clustering coefficient). Clustering coefficient / Normalized path length Clustering coefficient (C) and average path length (L) plotted against α α model: Add edges to nodes, as in random graphs, but makes links more likely when two nodes have a common friend. For a range of α values: The world is small (average path length is short), and Groups tend to form (high clustering coefficient). α

12 Watts and Strogatz (1998) The Beta Model The Beta Model Watts and Strogatz (1998) Nobuyuki Hanaki Jonathan Donner Kentaro Toyama β = 0 β = β = 1 First five random links reduce the average path length of the network by half, regardless of N! Both α and β models reproduce short-path results of random graphs, but also allow for clustering. Clustering coefficient / Normalized path length People know their neighbors. Clustered, but not a small world People know their neighbors, and a few distant people. Clustered and small world People know others at random. Not clustered, but small world Small-world phenomena occur at threshold between order and chaos. Clustering coefficient (C) and average path length (L) plotted against β Albert and Barabasi (1999) Power Laws Albert and Barabasi (1999) Power Laws What s the degree (number of edges) distribution over a graph, for real-world graphs? What s the degree (number of edges) distribution over a graph, for real-world graphs? Random-graph model results in Poisson distribution. Random-graph model results in Poisson distribution. Degree distribution of a random graph, N = 10,000 p = k = 15. (Curve is a Poisson curve, for comparison.) But, many real-world networks exhibit a power-law distribution. Typical shape of a power-law distribution. But, many real-world networks exhibit a power-law distribution. Albert and Barabasi (1999) Power Laws Power Laws Albert and Barabasi (1999) Jennifer Chayes Anandan Kentaro Toyama Power-law distributions are straight lines in log-log space. The rich get richer! How should random graphs be generated to create a power-law distribution of node degrees? Hint: Pareto s* Law: Wealth distribution follows a power law. Power laws in real networks: (a) WWW hyperlinks (b) co-starring in movies (c) co-authorship of physicists (d) co-authorship of neuroscientists Map of the Internet poster Power-law distribution of node distribution arises if Number of nodes grow; Edges are added in proportion to the number of edges a node already has. Additional variable fitness coefficient allows for some nodes to grow faster than others. * Same Velfredo Pareto, who defined Pareto optimality in game theory.

13 Searchable Networks Kleinberg (2000) Searchable Networks Kleinberg (2000) Just because a short path exists, doesn t mean you can easily find it. a) Variation of Watts s β model: Lattice is d-dimensional (d=2). One random link per node. Parameter α controls probability of random link greater for closer nodes. You don t know all of the people whom your friends know. Under what conditions is a network searchable? b) For d=2, dip in time-to-search at α=2 For low α, random graph; no geographic correlation in links For high α, not a small world; no short paths to be found. c) Searchability dips at α=2, in simulation Searchable Networks Kleinberg (2000) Ramin Zabih Kentaro Toyama References ldous & Wilson, Graphs and Applications. An Watts, Dodds, Newman (2002) show that for d = 2 or 3, real networks are quite searchable. Killworth and Bernard (1978) found that people tended to search their networks by d = 2: geography and profession. The Watts-Dodds-Newman model closely fitting a real-world experiment Introductory Approach, Springer, Wasserman & Faust, Social Network Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 2008.

V. Adamchik 1 Graph Theory Victor Adamchik Fall of 2005 Plan 1. Basic Vocabulary 2. Regular graph 3. Connectivity 4. Representing Graphs Introduction A.Aho and J.Ulman acknowledge that Fundamentally, computer

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