# Euler Paths and Euler Circuits

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1 Euler Paths and Euler Circuits An Euler path is a path that uses every edge of a graph exactly once. An Euler circuit is a circuit that uses every edge of a graph exactly once. An Euler path starts and ends at different vertices. An Euler circuit starts and ends at the same vertex.

2 Euler Paths and Euler Circuits A B A B C C E D E D An Euler path: BBADCDEBC

3 Euler Paths and Euler Circuits A B A B C C E D E D Another Euler path: CDCBBADEB

4 Euler Paths and Euler Circuits A B A B C C E D E D An Euler circuit: CDCBBADEBC

5 Euler Paths and Euler Circuits A B A B C C E D E D Another Euler circuit: CDEBBADC

6 Euler Paths and Euler Circuits Is it possible to determine whether a graph has an Euler path or an Euler circuit, without necessarily having to find one explicitly?

7 The Criterion for Euler Paths Suppose that a graph has an Euler path P.

8 The Criterion for Euler Paths Suppose that a graph has an Euler path P. For every vertex v other than the starting and ending vertices, the path P enters v the same number of times that it leaves v (say s times).

9 The Criterion for Euler Paths Suppose that a graph has an Euler path P. For every vertex v other than the starting and ending vertices, the path P enters v the same number of times that it leaves v (say s times). Therefore, there are 2s edges having v as an endpoint.

10 The Criterion for Euler Paths Suppose that a graph has an Euler path P. For every vertex v other than the starting and ending vertices, the path P enters v the same number of times that it leaves v (say s times). Therefore, there are 2s edges having v as an endpoint. Therefore, all vertices other than the two endpoints of P must be even vertices.

11 The Criterion for Euler Paths Suppose the Euler path P starts at vertex x and ends at y.

12 The Criterion for Euler Paths Suppose the Euler path P starts at vertex x and ends at y. Then P leaves x one more time than it enters, and leaves y one fewer time than it enters.

13 The Criterion for Euler Paths Suppose the Euler path P starts at vertex x and ends at y. Then P leaves x one more time than it enters, and leaves y one fewer time than it enters. Therefore, the two endpoints of P must be odd vertices.

14 The Criterion for Euler Paths The inescapable conclusion ( based on reason alone! ): If a graph G has an Euler path, then it must have exactly two odd vertices. Or, to put it another way, If the number of odd vertices in G is anything other than 2, then G cannot have an Euler path.

15 The Criterion for Euler Circuits Suppose that a graph G has an Euler circuit C.

16 The Criterion for Euler Circuits Suppose that a graph G has an Euler circuit C. For every vertex v in G, each edge having v as an endpoint shows up exactly once in C.

17 The Criterion for Euler Circuits Suppose that a graph G has an Euler circuit C. For every vertex v in G, each edge having v as an endpoint shows up exactly once in C. The circuit C enters v the same number of times that it leaves v (say s times), so v has degree 2s.

18 The Criterion for Euler Circuits Suppose that a graph G has an Euler circuit C. For every vertex v in G, each edge having v as an endpoint shows up exactly once in C. The circuit C enters v the same number of times that it leaves v (say s times), so v has degree 2s. That is, v must be an even vertex.

19 The Criterion for Euler Circuits The inescapable conclusion ( based on reason alone ): If a graph G has an Euler circuit, then all of its vertices must be even vertices. Or, to put it another way, If the number of odd vertices in G is anything other than 0, then G cannot have an Euler circuit.

20 Things You Should Be Wondering Does every graph with zero odd vertices have an Euler circuit? Does every graph with two odd vertices have an Euler path? Is it possible for a graph have just one odd vertex?

21 How Many Odd Vertices?

22 How Many Odd Vertices? Odd vertices

23 How Many Odd Vertices? Number of odd vertices 2 4 8

24 The Handshaking Theorem The Handshaking Theorem says that In every graph, the sum of the degrees of all vertices equals twice the number of edges. If there are n vertices V 1,..., V n, with degrees d 1,..., d n, and there are e edges, then Or, equivalently, d 1 + d d n 1 + d n = 2e e = d 1 + d d n 1 + d n 2

25 The Handshaking Theorem Why Handshaking? If n people shake hands, and the i th person shakes hands d i times, then the total number of handshakes that take place is d 1 + d d n 1 + d n. 2 (How come? Each handshake involves two people, so the number d 1 + d d n 1 + d n counts every handshake twice.)

26 The Number of Odd Vertices The number of edges in a graph is which must be an integer. d 1 + d d n 2

27 The Number of Odd Vertices The number of edges in a graph is which must be an integer. d 1 + d d n 2 Therefore, d 1 + d d n must be an even number.

28 The Number of Odd Vertices The number of edges in a graph is which must be an integer. d 1 + d d n 2 Therefore, d 1 + d d n must be an even number. Therefore, the numbers d 1, d 2,, d n must include an even number of odd numbers.

29 The Number of Odd Vertices The number of edges in a graph is which must be an integer. d 1 + d d n 2 Therefore, d 1 + d d n must be an even number. Therefore, the numbers d 1, d 2,, d n must include an even number of odd numbers. Every graph has an even number of odd vertices!

30 Back to Euler Paths and Circuits Here s what we know so far: # odd vertices Euler path? Euler circuit? 0 No Maybe 2 Maybe No 4, 6, 8,... No No 1, 3, 5,... No such graphs exist! Can we give a better answer than maybe?

31 Euler Paths and Circuits The Last Word Here is the answer Euler gave: # odd vertices Euler path? Euler circuit? 0 No Yes* 2 Yes* No 4, 6, 8,... No No 1, 3, 5, No such graphs exist * Provided the graph is connected.

32 Euler Paths and Circuits The Last Word Here is the answer Euler gave: # odd vertices Euler path? Euler circuit? 0 No Yes* 2 Yes* No 4, 6, 8,... No No 1, 3, 5, No such graphs exist * Provided the graph is connected. Next question: If an Euler path or circuit exists, how do you find it?

33 Bridges Removing a single edge from a connected graph can make it disconnected. Such an edge is called a bridge.

34 Bridges Removing a single edge from a connected graph can make it disconnected. Such an edge is called a bridge.

35 Bridges Removing a single edge from a connected graph can make it disconnected. Such an edge is called a bridge.

36 Bridges Loops cannot be bridges, because removing a loop from a graph cannot make it disconnected. e delete loop e

37 Bridges If two or more edges share both endpoints, then removing any one of them cannot make the graph disconnected. Therefore, none of those edges is a bridge. A B C delete multiple edges D

38 Bridges If two or more edges share both endpoints, then removing any one of them cannot make the graph disconnected. Therefore, none of those edges is a bridge. A B C delete multiple edges D

39 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Don t burn your bridges.

40 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Problem: Find an Euler circuit in the graph below. B A C D E F

41 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths There are two odd vertices, A and F. Let s start at F. B A C D E F

42 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Start walking at F. When you use an edge, delete it. B A C D E F

43 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FE A B C D E F

44 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEA A B C D E F

45 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEAC A B C D E F

46 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEACB A B C D E F

47 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Up until this point, the choices didn t matter.

48 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Up until this point, the choices didn t matter. But now, crossing the edge BA would be a mistake, because we would be stuck there.

49 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Up until this point, the choices didn t matter. But now, crossing the edge BA would be a mistake, because we would be stuck there. The reason is that BA is a bridge. We don t want to cross ( burn?) a bridge unless it is the only edge available.

50 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEACB A B C D E F

51 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEACBD. A B C D E F

52 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEACBD. A Don t cross the bridge! B C D E F

53 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEACBDC A B C D E F

54 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEACBDC A Now we have to cross the bridge CF. B E C F D

55 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEACBDCF A B C D E F

56 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEACBDCFD A B C D E F

57 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Path so far: FEACBDCFDB A B C D E F

58 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Euler Path: FEACBDCFDBA B A C D E F

59 Finding Euler Circuits and Paths Euler Path: FEACBDCFDBA B A C D E F

60 Fleury s Algorithm To find an Euler path or an Euler circuit:

61 Fleury s Algorithm To find an Euler path or an Euler circuit: 1. Make sure the graph has either 0 or 2 odd vertices.

62 Fleury s Algorithm To find an Euler path or an Euler circuit: 1. Make sure the graph has either 0 or 2 odd vertices. 2. If there are 0 odd vertices, start anywhere. If there are 2 odd vertices, start at one of them.

63 Fleury s Algorithm To find an Euler path or an Euler circuit: 1. Make sure the graph has either 0 or 2 odd vertices. 2. If there are 0 odd vertices, start anywhere. If there are 2 odd vertices, start at one of them. 3. Follow edges one at a time. If you have a choice between a bridge and a non-bridge, always choose the non-bridge.

64 Fleury s Algorithm To find an Euler path or an Euler circuit: 1. Make sure the graph has either 0 or 2 odd vertices. 2. If there are 0 odd vertices, start anywhere. If there are 2 odd vertices, start at one of them. 3. Follow edges one at a time. If you have a choice between a bridge and a non-bridge, always choose the non-bridge. 4. Stop when you run out of edges.

65 Fleury s Algorithm To find an Euler path or an Euler circuit: 1. Make sure the graph has either 0 or 2 odd vertices. 2. If there are 0 odd vertices, start anywhere. If there are 2 odd vertices, start at one of them. 3. Follow edges one at a time. If you have a choice between a bridge and a non-bridge, always choose the non-bridge. 4. Stop when you run out of edges. This is called Fleury s algorithm, and it always works!

66 Fleury s Algorithm: Another Example A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q

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