# General Network Analysis: Graph-theoretic. COMP572 Fall 2009

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1 General Network Analysis: Graph-theoretic Techniques COMP572 Fall 2009

2 Networks (aka Graphs) A network is a set of vertices, or nodes, and edges that connect pairs of vertices Example: a network with 5 vertices and 4 edges

3 The Königsberg Bridge Problem Is it possible to walk a route that crosses each bridge exactly once? Euler (1735): a path of the desired form is possible if and only if there are exactly zero or two nodes of odd degree.

4 Systems Biology in Graphtheoretic Terminology Instead of analyzing single small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges within such graphs, consider largescale properties of graphs. This is now possible due to the availability of large amounts of data.

5 Why Develop Computational Techniques for Network Analysis? 1. Large amounts of data, and hence manual analysis is not possible 2. Simple questions ( what node is central? ) are replaced by more relevant questions ( what percent of nodes is crucial to the network connectivity? ) 3. How can I tell what this network looks like, even when I can t actually look at it? (networks have millions of nodes)

6 Goals of This Lecture Statistical properties that characterize the structure and behavior of networked systems, and appropriate ways to measure these properties Models of networks that help understand the meaning of these properties Predict the behavior of networked systems based on measured structural properties and the local rules governing individual vertices

7 Lecture Outline Types of networks Networks in the real world Properties of networks Random graphs Exponential random graphs and Markov graphs The small-world model Models of network growth Part I Part II

8 Part I Types and Properties of Networks

9 Types of Networks A set of nodes joined by edges is the simplest network model There may be types of nodes, types of edges; nodes and edges may have properties; nodes and edges can carry weights; edges can be directed

10 Example: Social Network of Nodes: people People Different types: men, women, nationality, location, age, income,... Edges: relationships Different types: friendship, animosity, professional acquaintance, geographical proximity,... Weight of an edge: how well two people know each other,...

11 Special Types of Graphs Digraph (directed graph) Edges are directed and paths can be traversed only along the direction of the edges Bipartite graph Two types of nodes, and edges connect between nodes of different types 7 nodes and 3 hyperedges Hypergraph: contain edges that join more than two nodes

12 Networks in the Real World

13 Social Networks A social network is a set of people or groups of people with some pattern of contacts or interactions between them. Traditional social network studies (friendships, patterns of sexual contacts, etc.) often suffer from problems of inaccuracy, subjectivity, and small sample size. More reliable data in this area: collaboration networks, communication records (phone calls, s, etc.)

14 Information Networks Also known as knowledge networks Classic example: network of citations between academic papers Edges are directed There are social aspects to the citation patterns of papers too... Citation networks are acyclic (with very rare exceptions)

15 Information Networks Another example of information network: the World Wide Web (WWW) It is cyclic Our picture of the network structure of WWW is biased: data comes from crawls of the network, in which Web pages are found by following hyperlinks from other pages There are social aspects to it, as well

16 Technological networks Man-made networks designed for distribution of some commodity or resource, such as electricity or information Examples: the electric power grid, network of airline routes, network of roads,... Another example: the Internet (the network of physical connections between computers)

17 Biological Networks Examples: network of protein interactions, metabolic pathways, signal transduction pathways, the food web,... The data that we will consider in this course

18 Properties of Networks

19 Glossary of Terms

20 Properties of Networks The small-world effect In a famous experiment carried out by S. Milgram in the 1960s, participants were asked to pass a letter to one of their first-name acquaintances in an attempt to get it to an assigned target individual. Result: the letters were able to reach the designated target individual in a small number of steps (around six in the published cases) The experiment demonstrated the small-world effect: most pairs of vertices are connected by a short path through the network.

21 Properties of Networks The small-world effect The mean geodesic (i.e., shortest) distance between vertex pairs in a network with n nodes is the number of node pairs in the network geodesic distance between nodes i and j Computable in O(mn) time, where m is the number of edges, and n is the number of nodes

22 Properties of Networks The small-world effect The mean geodesic distance is problematic when the network contains more than one component (dij= for some pairs in this case). One approach to overcome the problem: pairs of nodes that fall in two different components are excluded from the average An alternative, yet not as commonly used, approach uses the harmonic mean (dij= contribute nothing in this case), aka graph efficiency

23 Properties of Networks The small-world effect The small-world effect has obvious implications for the dynamics of processes taking place on networks. The small-world effect is mathematically obvious: if the number of vertices within a distance r of a typical central node grows exponentially with r (which is true for many networks, including random graphs), then the value of will increase as log n. Mathematically: networks are said to show the smallworld effect if the value scales logarithmically or slower with network size for fixed mean degree

24 Properties of Networks Transitivity (or, Clustering) The friend of your friend is likely also to be your friend. In network terminology: If vertex A is connected to vertex B, and vertex B is connected to vertex C, then there is a heightened probability that vertex A is also connected to vertex C.

25 Properties of Networks Transitivity (or, Clustering) In terms of network topology, transitivity implies the presence of a heightened number of triangles in the network The clustering coefficient is (*) Connected triple = a single vertex with edges running to an unordered pair of other vertices

26 Properties of Networks An Example of Clustering Coefficient In this network, there are: 1 triangle, and 8 connected triples Therefore, based on Formula (*), C= 3/8

27 Properties of Networks Clustering Coefficient Satisfies 0 C 1 C is the mean probability that two vertices that are network neighbors of the same other vertex will themselves be neighbors.

28 Properties of Networks Clustering Coefficient: Another Definition ( Ci=0 if denominator is 0 ) The clustering coefficient of the whole network (**)

29 Properties of Networks An Example of Clustering Coefficient C1 = 1 C3 = 1/6 C4 = 0 C2 = 1 C5 = 0 Based on Formula (**), C= 13/30

30 Properties of Networks Clustering Coefficient: Another Definition The clustering coefficient we described measures the density of triangles in a network. A number of authors have also looked at the density of longer loops, but no clean theory that separates the independent contributions of the various orders from one another

31 Properties of Networks Node Degrees ki : degree of node i For directed graphs: ki in and ki out Average degree: k = 1 n n i=1 k i ki in = 1 n n i=1 k in i ki out = 1 n n i=1 k out i

32 Properties of Networks Degree distributions Define pk to be the fraction of vertices in the network that have degree k The degree distribution of a network can be visualized by making a histogram of the pk values For random graphs, the degree distribution is binomial Real-world networks have degree distributions with a very long right tail

33 Properties of Networks Degree distributions Measuring the tail is tricky: in practice there are rarely enough measurements to get good statistics in the tail Two approaches around this problem: 1. Construct a histogram in which the bin sizes increase exponentially with degree (1, 2-3, 4-7, 8-15,...) 2. Plot the cumulative distribution function

34 Properties of Networks Cumulative Degree distributions for Six Different Networks

35 Properties of Networks Power Law Degree Distribution As the figure on the previous slide shows, the distributions are all right-skewed. Many of them have power-law degree distributions: They show up as power laws in the cdf, but with a smaller exponent:

36 Properties of Networks Power Law Degree Distribution Some of the other distributions (e.g., power grid) have exponential tails: They also give exponentials in the cdf, but with the same exponent:

37 Properties of Networks Cumulative Degree distributions for Six Different Networks power law distribution power law distribution power law = straight line on doubly logarithmic scales power law distribution exponential distribution power law distribution

38 Properties of Networks Degree Distribution for Other Types of Networks Bipartite graphs: two distributions, one for each type of nodes Directed graphs: nodes have in- and out-degrees, and the degree distribution therefore is a function of two variables the fraction of nodes that simultaneously have indegree j and out-degree k

39 Properties of Networks Scale-free Networks Networks with power-law degree distributions are also referred to as scale-free networks. Scale-free refers to any functional form f(x) that remains unchanged to within a multiplicative factor under a rescaling of x This, in effect, means power-law forms, since these are the only solutions to f(ax)=bf(x).

40 Properties of Networks Scale-free Real Life Networks Citation networks WWW The Internet Metabolic networks Telephone call graphs Network of human sexual contacts

41 Properties of Networks Real Life Networks with Other Degree Distribution Exponential Power grid Railway networks Power law with exponential cutoffs Network of movie actors Some collaboration networks

42 Properties of Networks Network resilience Resilience of networks to the removal of their vertices is important. As vertices are removed, the geodesic distances increase, and eventually become infinite (i.e., the network becomes disconnected). Networks vary in their level of resilience to vertex removal. An example from epidemiology: vaccination of individuals is modeled by the removal of their corresponding vertices, and the effect of such removal is of interest (e.g., what effect it has on the spread of the disease)

43 Properties of Networks An Internet Network Network resilience: An Example Vertices removed in decreasing order of their degree Vertices removed in random order

44 Properties of Networks An Internet Network Network resilience: An Example Vertices removed in decreasing order of their degree Vertices removed in random order Conclusion: The Internet is highly resilient to random failures, but highly vulnerable to deliberate attacks on highest-connectivity nodes

45 Properties of Networks Mixing patterns In a network with multiple types of nodes, how do types affect connectivity? Do nodes associate with others from the same type (assortative), or from different types (disassortative)? Mixing by race in a social network

46 Properties of Networks Mixing patterns Assortative mixing can be quantified by an assortativity coefficient : the number of edges connecting nodes of types i and j : the matrix with elements : the normalized mixing matrix The sum of all elements in the matrix

47 Properties of Networks Mixing patterns Another measure is the conditional probability that vertex x s neighbor is of type j given that x is of type i P (j i) = e ij k e ik

48 Properties of Networks Mixing patterns: Assortativity coefficients (N: number of types) Q has two problems: (1) may give different values for asymmetric input matrices, and (2) weights all types equally. A measure that remedies both problems: (Tr: transpose)

49 Properties of Networks Degree correlations Do high-degree vertices associate preferentially with other high-degree vertices or do they prefer to attach to low-degree ones? One way to measure degree correlations in a network is to compute Pearson correlation coefficient of the degrees at either ends of an edge. r xy = m i=1 (x i x)(y i y) (m 1)σ x σ y m (x i,y i ) (x, y) σ x σ y : the number of edges; : the degrees of endpoints of edge i : the means, and, : the standard deviations

50 Properties of Networks Community structure Are there communities within the network such that there is a high density of edges within the community, but not between communities? The traditional method for extracting community structure is cluster analysis (or, hierarchical clustering) Connection strength is assigned to each vertex pair, and then, starting from n vertices with no edges, add edges between pairs of vertices in decreasing order of connection strength, and observe the emerging structure

51 Properties of Networks Community structure Various ways for defining connection strength: weighted vertex-vertex distance measures, sizes of minimum cut-sets,... Another way is to measure edge betweenness: the number of geodesic paths between vertices that run along each edges in the network. Under this measure, biological networks seem to exhibit community structure.

52 Properties of Networks Network navigation Milgram s famous small-world experiment showed that there are short paths between apparently distant individuals. A more surprising result is that the experiment showed that ordinary people were good at finding these short paths, even though the participants had no knowledge of the structure of the network (they only knew their neighbors ). In random networks, on the other hand, short paths exist, but no one would be able to find them given the kind of information that people have in realistic scenarios

53 Properties of Networks Other Network Properties People have looked at the size of the largest component, second largest component, etc., in a network Betweenness centrality of a vertex v: the number of geodesic paths between other vertices that run through v Betweenness centrality can be viewed as a measure of network resilience Efficiency of a vertex v: the harmonic mean distance between v and all other vertices Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrix of the network; network motifs; and many more...

54 #nodes #edges mean degree mean geod. distance exp of power law clust. coeff. Eq (*) clust. coeff. Eq (**) degree corr. coeff.

55 Part II Models of Networks

56 Why Network Models? Take observed properties of real-world networks, and try to create models that would generate networks with similar properties This leads to a better understanding of realworld network and the ability to simulate and analyze them, as well as predict behavior of processes that take place on them.

57 Random Graphs The Erdo s-rényi (ER) model (Poisson random graphs) To generate a random number on n nodes: (1) take n nodes, and (2) connect each pair with probability p Gn,p is the ensemble of all such graphs A graph in Gn,p has probability where M = 1 n(n 1) 2 p m (1 p) M m of having m edges,

58 Random Graphs Properties of the ER Model It has Poisson degree distribution with mean p k = k ( )p n k (1 p) n k zk e z z = p(n 1) k! Has the small-world effect Has a low clustering coefficient C=p, since the probability of connection of two vertices is p, regardless of whether they have a common neighbor. It has entirely random mixing patterns; no correlation between degrees of adjacent vertices; no community structure, and navigation is impossible using local algorithms.

59 The Small-world Model Small-world models have high degree of transitivity They are built on lattices of any dimension or topology Creating a small-world network on a one-dimensional lattice: Take a ring with L vertices Join each vertex to its neighbors k or fewer lattice spacings away For each edge, and with probability p, move one end of that edge to a new location chosen uniformly at random from the lattice, except that no double edges or self-edges are ever created (in a slightly modified version, no edges are removed from the underlying lattice)

60 The Small-world Model Properties A regular lattice (p=0) does not show the small-world effect: mean geodesic distances between vertices tend to L/4k for large L, and have clustering coefficient of C=(3k-3)/ (4k-2) For the small-world model, Barrat and Weigt showed that For the modified version, Newman showed that

61 Models of Network Growth Models we ve seen so far do not explain how networks come to have their properties In this part, we will discuss models that reflect how networks grow, and how growth leads to the networks properties

62 Models of Network Growth Price s Model: The Rationale Price called his model cumulative advantage, and is today known under the name preferential attachment (coined by Barabási and Albert) Originally it was done in the context of paper citations, and Price s idea was that the rate at which a paper gets new citations should be proportional to the number that it already has Makes sense: the more a paper is cited, the higher the probability that you ll come across it while reading the literature, and cite it

63 Models of Network Growth Price s Model: The Details Consider a directed graph of n vertices Let pk be the fraction of vertices with in-degree k New vertices are continually added, not necessarily at a constant rate Each added vertex has a certain out-degree, which is fixed permanently at the creation of the vertex The out-degree may vary from vertex to another, but the mean degree, denoted by m, is a constant over time Price suggests that the probability of attaching a new edge to a vertex of in-degree k is proportional to k+k0, where k0 is a constant (he chose k0=1, which we also use)

64 Models of Network Growth Price s Model: The Details The probability that a new edge attaches to any of the vertices with degree k is (k +1)p k k (k +1)p k = (k +1)p k m +1 The mean number of new edges to vertices with current in-degree k is (k +1)p k m m +1 The number of vertices of in-degree k, npk, decreases by the amount in (2), but increases because of the influx from the vertices previously of degree k-1 that have just acquired a new edge (except for vertices of degree 0, which have an influx of exactly 1) (2) (1)

65 Models of Network Growth Price s Model: The Details Denote by pk,n the value of pk when the graph has n vertices, then the net change in npk per vertex added, for k>0, is m (n +1)p k,n+1 np k,n =[kp k 1,n (k +1)p k,n ] m +1 and, for k=0, is (n +1)p 0,n+1 np 0,n =1 p 0,n m m +1 Looking for stationary solutions pk,n+1=pk,n=pk, we find: p k = { [kpk 1 (k +1)p k ]m/(m +1) fork 1 Rearranging (3), we find 1 p 0 m/(m +1) fork =0 (3) p 0 =(m +1)/(2m +1) p k = p k 1 k/(k +2+1/m)

66 Models of Network Growth Price s Model: The Details The rearrangement of (3) can be written as p k = k(k 1) 1 (k +2+1/m) (3 + 1/m) p 0 =(1+1/m)B(k +1, 2+1/m) where B(a, b) = Γ(a)Γ(b)/Γ(a + b) is Legendre s beta-function, which goes asymptotically as a b for large a and fixed b, and hence p k k (2+1/m) In other words, in the limit of large n, the degree distribution of a network growing according to Price s model has a power-law tail with exponent α =2+1/m This will typically give exponents in the interval between 2 and 3, which is in agreement with the values seen in real-world networks.

67 Models of Network Growth Price s Model: The Details For the generalized case of k 0 1 we have m +1 B(k + k 0, 2+1/m) p k = m(k 0 +1)+1 B(k 0, 2+1/m) and hence, for large k and fixed k0, we have α =2+1/m

68 Models of Network Growth The Barabási-Albert (BA) model The BA model is the same as Price s with one important difference: in the BA model, the edges that are added are undirected, so there is no distinction between in- and out-degree. Each vertex in the network appears with initial degree m, which is never changed thereafter, and the other end of each edge being attached to another vertex with probability proportional to the degree of that vertex.

69 Models of Network Growth The BA Model: The Details The probability that a new edge attached to any vertex of the vertices with degree k is kp k k kp k = kp k 2m The mean number of new edges to vertices with current degree k is (1) m kp k /(2m) = 1 2 kp k (2) The number of vertices of degree k, npk, decreases by the amount in (2), but increases because of the influx from the vertices previously of degree k-1 that have just acquired a new edge (except for vertices of degree m, which have an influx of exactly 1)

70 Models of Network Growth The BA Model: The Details Denote by pk,n the value of pk when the graph has n vertices, then the net change in npk per vertex added, for k>m, is (n +1)p k,n+1 np k,n = 1 2 (k 1)p k 1,n 1 2 kp k,n and, for k=m, is (n +1)p m,n+1 np m,n =1 1 2 mp m,n Looking for stationary solutions pk,n+1=pk,n=pk, we find: p k = { 1 2 (k 1)p k kp k for k>m mp m for k = m (3) Rearranging (3), we find p m =2/(m +2) p k = p k 1 (k 1)/(k +2)

71 Models of Network Growth The BA Model: The Details The rearrangement of (3) can be written as (k 1)(k 2) m p k = (k +1)(k +1) (m +3) p m = 2m(m +1) (k +2)(k +1)k In the limit of large k, this gives a power law degree distribution p k k 3 Two other interesting properties of the model: a correlation between the age and degree of vertices: older vertices have higher mean degree a correlation between the degrees of adjacent vertices in the model

72 Models of Network Growth Generalizations of the BA model Several extensions of the BA model have been proposed: 1. Probability of attachment to a vertex is proportional to k+k0, where k0 is a constant that is allowed to be negative 2. The probability of attachment to a vertex is not linear in the degree of the vertex 3. The mean degree changes over time

73 Models of Network Growth Vertex copying models Biochemical reaction networks appear to have power-law degree distributions, yet preferential attachment does not seem to be the appropriate model. For example, protein interaction networks (proteins are vertices and interactions are edges) change on a very long time-scale due to evolution, but biologically, cumulative advantage or preferential attachment are too simplistic to capture the evolutionary change. Kleinberg s model: the graph grows by stochastically constant addition of vertices and addition of directed edges by copying them from another vertex: Choose an existing vertex u and a number m of edges to add to it Choose a random vertex v and copy targets from m of its edges to u If the chosen vertex v has less than m outgoing edges, then its m edges are copied and one moves to a new vertex and copies its edges, and so forth until m edges in total have been copied

74 Models of Network Growth Vertex copying models Kleinberg s model gives rise to power-law degree distributions The rationale for using this model in biological networks is based on gene duplication: the proteins encoded by the two copies of the gene have the same interactions upon duplication...

75 Acknowledgments Materials in this lecture are mostly based on: The Structure and Function of Complex Networks, by M.E.J. Newman, and references therein.

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