A Fast Algorithm For Finding Hamilton Cycles

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1 A Fast Algorithm For Finding Hamilton Cycles by Andrew Chalaturnyk A thesis presented to the University of Manitoba in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Computer Science Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Summer 2008 c Andrew Chalaturnyk 2008

2 Abstract This thesis is concerned with an algorithmic study of the Hamilton cycle problem. Determining if a graph is Hamiltonian is well known to be an NP -Complete problem, so a single most efficient algorithm is not known. Improvements to the understanding of any single NP -Complete problem may also be of interest to other NP -Complete problems. However, it is an important problem and creating an algorithm which is efficient for many families of graphs is desirable. The majority of the work described within starts with an exhaustive backtracking search, called the Multi-Path method and explores two main areas: Creating an algorithm based upon the method which is both efficient in time and memory when implemented in code. Developing a pruning condition based upon separating sets that may be found during the execution of the method in order to maximize the amount of pruning possible. Both of these areas represent a significant evolution of previous work done with the method. The resulting algorithm is extremely fast and requires only O(n + ε) space in memory, where n is the number of vertices and ε is the number of edges. Additionally a class of graphs based on the Meredith graph is described. These graphs have a property which significantly affects the performance of the multi-path method. The insights that follow from this property lead to a reduction technique that further improves the algorithm in a significant way when determining if graphs ii

3 Abstract iii are non-hamiltonian. Further directions for study along the lines pursued by these insights is discussed. Testing of the algorithm is performed on a family of graphs known as knight s move graphs, which are known to be difficult for algorithms dealing with Hamilton cycles.

4 Contents Title Page Abstract Table of Contents i ii iv 1 Introduction 1 2 Graph Theory Concepts Basic Terminology Graphical Representation Paths and Cycles Connectivity Bipartitions Isomorphism The Multi-Path Method An Exhaustive Search Incident Edges about v Limiting Edges Multi-Path Method Simplifying the Search Reducing G Removal of Branching Edges The Search Space Example: Petersen Graph Considerations for Algorithm Design Data Structures Adjacency Matrix and Lists Degree Values and Virtual Edges Segment and Cycle Storage Reducing Time and Space Overhead iv

5 Contents v 5.3 Detecting Stopping Conditions Tracking Forced Vertices Designing the Multi-Path Algorithm Efficient Reduction and Recovery Extending Segments Managing Removed Edges Unwinding Segments and Restoring State Vertex Selection Navigating the Search Space using a Turing Machine State of the Tape Edges from E(S) Status Flags represented by the Bit-Field Moving Read/Write Head Moving Right Moving Left Switching Directions Implementation of the Multi-Path Algorithm Data Graph State Removed Edges Tape State Code Running the Turing Machine Extending Segments and Branching Restoring State and Removing Branching Edges Pruning Algorithm Pruning Mechanism Testing for Separating Sets Overview of Previous Test Increasing ω(g r K) K Reducing the Frequency of Testing Top Down vs. Bottom Up Testing Testing at the Extremities of the Search Space Ensuring a Full Climb up the Search Tree Implementation Data Structures Code

6 Contents vi 10 Reduction Technique Hamiltonian Subgraphs Half-Bipartite Structures Finding Reducible Complete Half-Bipartite Structures Reducing G False positives: an Unwanted Side Effect of Reduction Analysis and Verification Verification Analysis Knight s Move Graphs Complete Graphs Reduction Technique on the Meredith Graph Further Work Multi-Path Algorithm A Closer Examination of Vertex Order Algorithm for Directed Graphs Fine Tuning for the TSP A Work-Stealing Parallel Implementation Pruning Algorithm Constructing Components for Better Separating Sets Reduction Technique Finding More Reducible Subgraphs Reconstructing Hamilton Cycles in G α A Multi-Path Code 99 A.1 Data Types A.2 Extending Segments A.2.1 Support Routines for Extending Segments A.2.2 Main Routine for Extending Segments A.3 Extending Branches A.4 Restoring Graph B Pruning Algorithm 115 B.1 Data Types B.2 Depth First Search (DFS) B.2.1 Main DFS algorithm B.2.2 Routine for calculating Component / Separating Set differences. 119 B.3 Turing Machine for Pruning Condition B.3.1 Pruning B.3.2 Main Turing Machine Code

7 Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis describes work that improves and extends upon an algorithm for finding Hamilton cycles in graphs. Named for Sir William Rowan Hamilton, the popularity of the problem of finding Hamilton cycles originates from the Icosian Game invented by Hamilton. The object of the game is to find a continuous route along the edges of a dodecahedron that visit all of its corners exactly once and ends at the starting corner. A graph can be visualized as a collection of points, or vertices, connected by lines, or edges. A cycle is a walk along a path of edges visiting vertices until ending at the originating vertex. A Hamilton cycle is a cycle that visits every vertex in a graph exactly once. The difficulty of finding Hamilton cycles increases with the number of vertices in a graph. Not all graphs contain a Hamilton cycle, and those that do are referred to as Hamiltonian graphs. Determining if a graph is Hamiltonian can take an extremely long time. In the broad field of Computer Science the problem of determining if a graph is 1

8 Chapter 1: Introduction 2 Hamiltonian is known to be in the class of NP-complete problems. Simply put, the time it takes to solve NP-complete problems can rise exponentially with the problem size. Another NP-complete problem very closely related is the Traveling Salesman Problem. The nature of the Hamilton Cycle problem is such that no single most efficient algorithm is known [Van98]. In [Van98], Vandegriend provides a survey of different Hamiltonian algorithms and the problems encountered that can cause extreme slowdowns during algorithm execution. Any improvements that can be made to speed up solutions to both determining if a graph is Hamiltonian and finding Hamiltonian cycles are of interest. Also, because

9 Chapter 1: Introduction 3 of the complexity of the problem, improvements may reveal more insight into the qualities of graphs that make them Hamiltonian. Due to the nature of NP-complete problems, all problems in the class NP may benefit from improvements or insights found. The multi-path method introduced by Rubin [Rub74] and Christofides [Chr75] is an exhaustive search for all possible Hamilton cycles that can be found within a graph. The work by Kocay [Koc92], implements the method with an algorithm that overlays additional pruning capabilities into the search. Under certain conditions the improvements in [Koc92] can allow for significant pruning of the search tree generated by the multi-path algorithm. This thesis extends and improves on the work in [Koc92] with two major improvements and introduces a method for dealing with certain special graphs that can lead to exponential increases in the performance of the algorithm. As with the work from [Koc92], the work described here is for finding Hamilton cycles in undirected simple graphs. The first of the improvements is to the design and implementation of the algorithm in [Koc92]. These improvements result in reduced runtime and decreased memory use and are significant code optimizations. The memory reduction is by an order of magnitude in terms of the number of vertices in the graph. The runtime improvement is linear with respect to the complexity and size of the graph. The second of the improvements is to the scope and frequency of the pruning enhancement from [Koc92]. The new method focuses on a recursive graph reduction technique that can be ap-

10 Chapter 1: Introduction 4 plied repeatedly to graphs that contain subgraphs with a certain interesting property. The contents of this thesis is organized in the following way: Chapter 2 introduces and describes common graph theory concepts that are used throughout this work. Chapters 3 and 4 introduce and describe the multi-path method in detail. Chapter 5 discusses algorithm details with respect to the required data structures needed for the new multi-path algorithm and compares against those needed by the previous algorithm from [Koc92]. Chapters 6, 7 and 8 describe the new multi-path algorithm and its improvements over its predecessor from [Koc92]. Chapter 9 introduces the pruning technique and describes the improvements to it from [Koc92]. Chapter 10 introduces the reduction technique and shows how it can be used to speed up detection of certain non-hamiltonian graphs. Chapter 11 discusses how the work for this thesis was verified and provides some analysis of the improvements introduced. Chapter 12 discusses some further directions research into this problem could take, based upon the work provided by this thesis.

11 Chapter 2 Graph Theory Concepts 2.1 Basic Terminology A graph G is composed of a set V (G) of vertices and a set E(G) of edges. It is assumed that n = V (G) and ε = E(G). Every edge e E(G) is composed of a set e = {u, v} where u, v V (G). In undirected graphs, edges are unordered pairs of vertices. In directed graphs, edges or arcs are ordered pairs of vertices. Simple graphs do not allow edges to repeat and the vertices in an edge must be distinct. Only simple graphs are considered here. The edges from E(G) which contain v are said to be incident to v. The two vertices incident to an edge are said to be adjacent. Given the graph G and two vertices u and v from V (G), u v means that u and v are adjacent. u v indicates that u and v are not adjacent. 5

12 Chapter 2: Graph Theory Concepts 6 Figure 2.1: Three drawings of the Petersen graph. 2.2 Graphical Representation As an abstraction, a graph G is represented mathematically as composed of two sets V (G) and E(G). Visually this can be represented as a collection of points, V (G), connected by lines, E(G). The co-ordinates of the points or the shape of the lines do not matter. The same graph G can therefore be represented visually by an infinite number of drawings. Depending on the drawing, different attributes of a graph may become more apparent to the observer. For instance the drawing on the right hand side of figure 2.1 suggests that there may be a Hamilton cycle in the Petersen graph. While the Petersen graph is not Hamiltonian, using the same graphical orientation of fitting adjacent vertices around a circle is a useful representation to help in finding Hamilton cycles in relatively small graphs using simple observation. 2.3 Paths and Cycles A path in G is defined to be an ordered sequence of distinct vertices such that every vertex in the sequence is adjacent to the vertex that immediately precedes it and adjacent to the vertex that immediately follows it. This can be written as

13 Chapter 2: Graph Theory Concepts 7 u 1 u 2 u k, where u 1 through u k are all distinct vertices from V (G). A cycle in the G is defined as a path in G that terminates on the starting vertex. The number of edges in a cycle is equal to the number of vertices. 2.4 Connectivity Figure 2.2: Example of a graph with a separating set. If a path exists between two distinct vertices, v, u V (G), they are called connected. A graph G is connected if every pair of distinct vertices from V (G) is connected. A component in G is a maximal subgraph of G that is connected. A graph with more than one component is called disconnected. In a connected graph G, a separating set is a set of vertices from G that when

14 Chapter 2: Graph Theory Concepts 8 removed, disconnects G. A separating set, K, with m = K, is called minimum when there is no other separating set in G smaller than m. A cutpoint in G is a single vertex from G that forms a separating set in G. 2.5 Bipartitions A bipartition exists in a graph G, if V (G) can be divided into two distinct sets, A and B, where A B = and A B = V (G), and no two vertices from the same set are adjacent. A graph with a bipartition is referred to as bipartite. 2.6 Isomorphism An isomorphism is a one-to-one mapping between vertices of two graphs that preserves the connections, or edges, between vertices. If an isomorphism exists, the two graphs are said to be isomorphic. The three drawings of the Petersen graph in figure 2.1 are isomorphic to each other.

15 Chapter 3 The Multi-Path Method This chapter describes the multi-path method for finding Hamilton cycles. While it was originally proposed by Rubin in [Rub74], the description of the multi-path method within this chapter is a synthesis of the descriptions from [Koc92, Chr75] as well as the work described by this thesis. To facilitate understanding of both the multi-path method and the enhancements to it some preliminary ground must be covered. Section 3.1 describes a truly exhaustive method of finding Hamilton cycles. Sections 3.2 and 3.3 describe two improvements that can be used to reduce the amount of search required and section 3.4 combines the results of the improvements to describe the multi-path method. Finally in section 3.5, a few refinements that appear in [Koc92] are described and added to the method. Assume that all graphs G to be considered are non-trivial with respect to the Hamilton Cycle problem, implying that all vertices in any graph will be at least of degree three. 9

16 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 10 The algorithms described in this chapter are partial algorithms used as a tool to convey general information about the multi-path method. Procedures that are not fully defined can be implicitly understood given their names and context of use. Each undefined procedure is assumed to be implementable by some algorithm with a polynomial overhead in time and space. 3.1 An Exhaustive Search By definition all vertices from V (G) must be part of any Hamilton cycle of G. The edges that make up any Hamilton cycle are what must be varied. One method to determine if a graph is Hamiltonian is to generate all combinations of n edges from E(G) until a Hamilton cycle is found or until no combinations are left. In the worst case, the number of edge combinations to try is ( ε n). The order in which edges are chosen with this method is not restricted by the order in which they would be traversed in a Hamilton cycle. When testing if the chosen edges form a Hamilton cycle the correct traversal order will implicitly be found. Let S be the subgraph of G describing a partial Hamilton cycle formed by choosing m edges, m < n, to be on the Hamilton cycle. S forms a subgraph in G, with E(S) and V (S) its edges and vertices. Obviously m = E(S). When m = n we have a candidate subgraph that will form a cycle iff G is Hamiltonian. Algorithm briefly describes a recursive procedure for generating and testing all possible combinations of edges up to the first Hamilton cycle found. The algorithm works by recursively fixing an edge within S and attempting all

17 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 11 possible edge combinations for the remaining n m positions to be filled with the current edges available. IsCycle verifies if E(S) describes a Hamilton cycle and ChooseEdge returns some unspecified edge from the remaining edges at the current depth in the search space. The recursive nature of the procedure allows for the search space of the algorithm to be modeled as a tree. In this case the depth is bounded by n and the number of leaves is bounded by ( ε n). Each node in the search tree represents this fixed position in S and the branches represent the current edge in that position. Algorithm 3.1.1: HCEdges( n, E, S ) All parameters passed by value. comment: Initially n = V (G), E = E(G) and S is empty. result = true G is Hamiltonian if E(S) = n then return (IsCycle(S)) while E = e ChooseEdge(E) do E E e if HCEdges( n, E, S + e ) then return ( true ) return ( false ) This type of algorithm is referred to as a backtracking algorithm. The ability to return to a specific spot while searching and ensuring that all possible permutations of decisions are attempted from that point characterize these kind of algorithms.

18 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method Incident Edges about v Algorithm blindly generates edge combinations. If instead the focus is now placed on vertices, a significant fact emerges. All possible edge combinations about v V (G) use one of the deg(v) edges incident to v. There are up to ( ) deg(v) 2 ways of selecting pairs of incident edges in any possible cycle about v. Algorithm is a modification of algorithm to instead use vertices chosen by ChooseVertex, in the selection of edges. These vertices are referred to as anchor points. Instead of branching out with all remaining edges at the current spot in the search space, only edges incident to the anchor vertex v are chosen for branches. Similar to ChooseEdge from the previous algorithm, ChooseVertexEdge returns some unspecified edge incident to v from the remaining edges at the current depth in the search space. Algorithm 3.2.1: HCVertexEdges( n, V, E, S ) All parameters passed by value. comment: Initially n = V (G), V = V (G), E = E(G) and S is empty. result = true G is Hamiltonian if E(S) = n then return ( IsCycle(S) ) v ChooseVertex(V) if v V (S) then V V v while deg(e, v) 0 e b ChooseVertexEdge( v, E ) do E E e b if HCVertexEdges( n, V, E, S + e b ) then return ( true ) return ( false )

19 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 13 As seen in the algorithm a given vertex may be chosen twice when descending towards a leaf in the search space. This allows for the ( ) deg(v) 2 possible edge pairs about v to be explored iteratively and dramatically reduces the breadth of the search tree by limiting the total number of leaves while not removing any possible Hamilton cycle that could be found. The order and manner in which ChooseVertex picks vertices in V will be discussed later in section Limiting Edges Edge choices from E(G) can be limited based on the edges already chosen. For any v in a cycle, only two edges incident to v may be used and deg(v) = 2 with respect to the subgraph the cycle defines in G. Definition (segment). A segment is a path in G. Segments do not overlap or share endpoints with other segments. Let S i be a subgraph in G defined by some segment and let S = S 1... S k be the k segments formed from E(S). V ex (S) denotes the external vertices, or segment endpoints, and V in (S) denotes the internal degree 2 vertices with respect to S. As in the previous section, m = E(S). When adding another edge to S the choice of e m+1 E(G) is now limited to the edges of E(G V in (S)), as no more edges incident to the internal vertices in S can be chosen and still satisfy the degree 2 restriction. Inductively it can be seen when m starts at 0 and approaches n, only two edges

20 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 14 incident to a given v V (G) can ever be in E(S). The main idea of the multi-path method is to construct a Hamilton cycle by piecing together the disjoint segments formed by the edges in S. 3.4 Multi-Path Method The multi-path method uses the two ideas from sections 3.2 and 3.3 to dramatically reduce the search space of algorithms and The selection of a new edge will eventually cause a chain reaction as each new v V in (S) may induce conditions that require unchosen additions to E(S). Let the vertex and edge sets for the derived graph M be: V (M) = V (G) V in (S) (3.1) E(M) = E E(G V in (S)) (3.2) Where E is the set of edges remaining in G to be selected for E(S). More on E will be described later in this section. For now, assume that E has been inherited from the parent node in the search space. E(M) represents the remaining edges available that may be added to E(S) at the point in the search space it is defined. Deriving M may result in one or more vertices in V (M) that no longer have any choice in what edges are placed into E(S), leading to the following definitions: Definition (forced vertex). A forced vertex is a vertex v V (M) where deg(v) = 2 when v V (S) or deg(v) = 1 when v V ex (S).

21 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 15 Definition (forced edge). An forced edge is an edge e E(M) where v e and v is a forced vertex. Forced vertices must be added to V in (S). These additions are accomplished by adding forced edges one at a time to E(S). The chain reaction occurs when the two vertices incident to a forced edge both belong to V ex (S). In this situation either a cycle is found or two segments are forced to merge. The two vertices incident to the forced edge that caused two segments to merge are called junction vertices and now belong to V in (S). Any edges not in E(S) that are incident to the junction vertices must be removed from M and may result in one or more additional forced vertices. Definition (consistent). M is said to be consistent if for all v M, deg(v) > 1 when v V ex (S) and deg(v) > 2 when v V ex (S). The chain reaction continues until M stabilizes and is found to be consistent or until a stop condition occurs. A stop condition can occur in three situations: Stop Condition (1A). v V ex (S) and deg(m, v) = 0 Stop Condition (1B). v V ex (S) and deg(m, v) = 1 Stop Condition (2). For some segment S i S there exists a forced edge, e E(M), such that the addition of e to S i would form a cycle. In this case if m = n a Hamilton cycle has been found. If m < n no Hamilton cycle can exist in the current S.

22 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 16 After each change to S a stop condition may occur in M. Algorithm describes this process of forcing edges into S and testing for a stop condition. Algorithm 3.4.1: ForceEdges( G, V, E, S ) All parameters passed by value. comment: Returns the set { V, E, S, stop } where stop is a boolean flag indicating a stop condition. E M E(G V in (S)) E V M V (G) V in (S) while not IsConsistent(V ex (S), E M ) S S + GetForcedEdge(V ex (S), E M ) E do M E(G V in (S)) E V M V (G) V in (S) if IsStopCondition(S, E M ) then return ( {,,, true } ) V V V M E E M return ( { V, E, S, false } ) Now that the process of forcing edges into S has been described, the rest of the method follows the same design as algorithm Using the first improvement from section 3.2, an anchor point v is chosen from V (M) and a single edge, e b, incident to v is selected from E(M) and added to E(S). This edge is referred to as a branching edge, and is a reflection of one of the two locations in the search space where choice is allowed in the algorithm. The other being the selection of anchor points. The overall shape and size of the search space is controlled by these choices. After removing e b, M may no longer be consistent and have edges to be forced into

23 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 17 S, ultimately reducing the number of anchor points and branching edges to choose from. Algorithm describes the multi-path method using the ideas given so far. As previously mentioned and used in the previous algorithms, E represents the edges remaining in G that can be chosen for S. Edges are removed from E in two ways. The first is by the G V in (S) reduction. The second is by removal of branching edges, e b, that have had all possible combinations of E(S) attempted for the current location in the search space. Once a branching edge has been used, no more cycles can be found that contain that edge when continuing to search at the current depth in the search tree. Algorithm 3.4.2: HCMultiPath( G, V, E, S ) All parameters passed by value. comment: Initially V = V (G), E = E(G) and S is empty. result = true G is Hamiltonian { V, E, S, stop } ForceEdges( G, V, E, S ) if stop then return ( IsEqual( V (G), E(S) ) ) v ChooseVertex(V) while deg(e, v) 0 e b ChooseVertexEdge( v, E ) do E E e b if HCMultiPath( G, V, E, S + e b ) then return ( true ) return ( false ) As can be seen from the use of the stop conditions, no IsCycle test is required with the multi-path method. This follows from the inductive reasoning provided at the end of section 3.3. If the algorithm ever allows E(S) to contain n edges, a

24 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 18 Hamilton cycle will be found. Taken together, both of the improvements reduce the total breadth and average depth of the search space. This is one of the major benefits of the multi-path method. 3.5 Simplifying the Search A couple of minor improvements to the multi-path method are now described that focus on simplifying movement through the search space. Both of these improvements are used by [Koc92]. Section introduces a reduction that can be applied to G in order to direct the path through the search space more efficiently. Section removes redundant recursive calls to the multi-path method at a given node in the search space. Algorithms and reflect these improvements, and are the basis for the multi-path algorithm developed and presented later on in this work Reducing G At any given node in the search space there is the original graph G, the set S of segments derived from the m edges selected so far and the derived graph M as described by equations 3.1 and 3.2. A reduced graph G SE defined by M and S may be defined for any point in the search space.

25 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 19 V (G SE ) = V (M) (3.3) E(G SE ) = E(M) + E v (S) (3.4) E v (S) is a set of virtual edges created to connect the segment endpoints in M. Each virtual edge represents a single segment from S at the current point in the search space. Let the edge {u,v} E v (S) be a virtual edge representing the segment S i S, then u, v V ex (S i ). Virtual edges may be thought of as the connections between unsearched sections of the graph. They may not be forced and can not be chosen for any E(S) as they already represent the edges that make up the segments already contained by S. Edges from M may be referred to as real edges. Real edges are what remains of the choices available to E(S) for any descendent point below the current in the search space. Due to equation 3.4 some of the conditions that define forced vertices, consistency and stop conditions can be simplified: Definition (forced vertex). A vertex v V (G SE ) where deg(v) = 2. Definition (consistent). G SE is said to be consistent if for all v V (G SE ), deg(v) > 2. Stop Condition (1). v V (G SE ) such that deg(v) = 1. In algorithms and 3.5.2, the variable G represents the reduced graph G SE.

26 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 20 Ensuring a Simple Graph A consequence of introducing the virtual edges from E v (S) in the forming of G SE is the potential for a virtual and a real edge to share the same endpoints. In this situation G SE would not represent a simple graph. With respect to G, the segment that the virtual edge represents and the real edge would form a cycle in G. As long as this cycle is not a Hamilton cycle, it is safe to remove the real edge, as any descendant point in the search space below the current one will never use the real edge in any Hamilton cycle found. In fact its removal would reduce the size of the tree formed below the current point in the search space. In algorithm it is to be assumed that ReduceGraph would ensure that a simple graph is returned, and any virtual edge takes precedence over a real edge Removal of Branching Edges As seen in algorithm 3.4.2, once a branching edge, e b, has been attempted, it is removed for the remaining branches at the current level in the search space. Since all edge combinations that may exist at that point in the search space which contain that branching edge will have been attempted, it must be removed. This removal may cause an inconsistent G SE. In this case the multi-path method as currently defined, will fail at the first call to ForceEdges for each recursive call to the multi-path method on the remaining branches. It would instead be better to detect if G SE is inconsistent once the recursive call to the multi-path method returns for that branching edge. In algorithm 3.5.2, the

27 Chapter 3: The Multi-Path Method 21 addition of a call to ForceEdges from within the while loop reflects this improvement. Algorithm 3.5.1: ForceEdges( G, S ) All parameters passed by value. comment: Returns the set { G, S, stop } where stop is a boolean flag indicating a stop condition. G ReduceGraph( G, S ) if IsStopCondition( G, S ) then return ( {,, true } ) while not IsConsistent(G) S S + GetForcedEdge(G) do G ReduceGraph( G, S ) if IsStopCondition( G, S ) then return ( {,, true } ) return ( { G, S, false } ) Algorithm 3.5.2: MultiPath( n, G, S ) All parameters passed by value. comment: Initially G = G, and S is empty. result = true G is Hamiltonian { G, S, stop } ForceEdges( G, S ) if stop then return ( n = E(S) ) v ChooseVertex(V (G)) while deg(v) 0 e b ChooseVertexEdge( v, E(G) ) G G e b do if MultiPath( n, G, S + e b ) then return ( true ) { G, S, stop } ForceEdges( G, S ) if stop then return ( n = E(S) ) return ( false )

28 Chapter 4 The Search Space To provide context on where the improvements described in this thesis are focused, this chapter illustrates the search space of the multi-path method. The search trees used to describe the search space are assumed to be traversed in a depth first, left to right manner and are a reflection of the route generated by algorithm A hypothetical example of a search tree is presented in figure 4.1. The larger circular nodes represent the anchor points chosen and the smaller solid points represent vertices removed from G and placed into V in (S). The small diamond shaped leaves of the search tree represent the occurrence of a stopping condition. Anchor points that exist close to the extremities of the search tree are referred to as leaf nodes. A leaf node is an anchor point in the tree that only contains leaves as descendants. The edges joining points in the search tree do not correspond to edges added to E(S). The dashed edges between points in the tree do however indicate that a 22

29 Chapter 4: The Search Space 23 branching edge was chosen at that point in the search space. The rightmost solid edge descending out of an anchor point in the search tree represents an inconsistent state occurring due to the removal of a branching edge from G. 4.1 Example: Petersen Graph The search tree for the non-hamiltonian Petersen graph is shown in this example. This graph is used as an example because it terminates after only finding six stopping conditions. Figure 4.2 represents the search tree for the Petersen graph. The labeled vertices on the drawing of the Petersen graph correspond to the labels on the search tree. In the case of the Petersen graph, each of the six leaves terminate with stop condition 1 being encountered. Table 4.1 describes the state of E(S) at each of the six leaves in the search tree moving from left to right. Note how the branching edges correspond to the anchor points from the tree, and how E(S) behaves like a stack when moving between the branching edges. In figure 4.3 the state of G is represented for each stable state after the branching edge has been added to E(S) for each branching edge down to the leftmost leaf. Note stop condition 1 is detected for vertex 4 after branching edge {2,3} has been added. Also note that virtual edge {8,9}, requires the removal of the corresponding real edge, leading to the addition of vertex 7 to V in (S). As a comparison to the first method presented for finding Hamilton cycles, this

30 Chapter 4: The Search Space 24 Table 4.1: E(S) at the leaves of search tree for the Petersen graph. Branching edges are bold. Edge # {1,3} {1,3} {1,3} {1,3} {1,7} {1,7} 2 {1,7} {1,7} {1,10} {1,10} {1,10} {1,10} 3 {9,10} {9,10} {7,8} {7,8} {2,3} {2,3} 4 {6,10} {6,10} {4,7} {4,7} {3,5} {3,5} 5 {2,3} {3,5} {2,3} {3,5} {2,4} {2,9} 6 {5,6} {2,4} {5,6} {2,4} {8,9} {4,7} 7 {5,8} {2,9} {5,8} {2,9} {9,10} {4,6} 8 {7,8} {5,6} {2,4} {9,10} {4,7} {5,6} example of the multi-path method only generates 6 leaves, using only 5 points where a branching is directly controlled by the algorithm. The first method would have generated ( 15 10), or 3003 leaves, and many more branchings would have to be controlled directly by the algorithm.

31 Chapter 4: The Search Space 25 Figure 4.1: Hypothetical search tree generated during the search for Hamilton cycles for some unknown graph using the Multi-Path method. Typically the tree generated would be extremely large and would not be practical to display.

32 Chapter 4: The Search Space Figure 4.2: Full search tree of the multi-path method for the Petersen graph Figure 4.3: State of G after each branching edge down to the leftmost leaf.

33 Chapter 5 Considerations for Algorithm Design Before progressing further with the design of the multi-path algorithm, some considerations with respect to data structures and implementation details for [Koc92] must first be mentioned. The implementation for [Koc92] is similar to what has already been introduced for the multi-path method in algorithms and It is a recursive procedure that can be configured to either stop at the first Hamilton cycle found, or to visit each possible Hamilton cycle by examining the entire search space. If a Hamilton cycle is treated as a stopping condition for a branch instead of a stopping condition for the algorithm, this visiting operation is possible in the multipath method. 27

34 Chapter 5: Considerations for Algorithm Design Data Structures If each vertex is labeled with a positive integer value, it can be used both as an identifier and as an index in lookup tables, arrays and other data structures. The special identifier of 0 is reserved, and can have specific meaning depending on use. Typically this use will result in the 0 th entry from any table/array to be used either as a temporary store or go unused. Entries in a table/array structure that use the 0 value in an entry where a vertex identifier is expected typically mean the indexed value does not belong to a set tracked by the structure Adjacency Matrix and Lists Two ways to store the edges of a graph are by using either a matrix, refered to as an adjacency matrix, or a linked list construct, called an adjacency list. An adjacency matrix is an n x n data structure that uses the index of two vertices to determine the existence of an edge. An adjacency matrix however has two main drawbacks: it is slow to determine all of the edges incident to a given vertex and it takes O(n 2 ) of memory to store. A linked list has the drawback of not being able to quickly test if two vertices are adjacent. The adjacency list for a given vertex must be scanned until the other vertex is encountered. The benefit of an adjacency list is when the traversal of all edges of a given vertex is all that is required. Additionally with adjacency lists, the entire graph is stored in O(ε) space. In [Koc92] both of these structures are used, however as will be shown in later

35 Chapter 5: Considerations for Algorithm Design 29 chapters, there is need only for the adjacency lists Degree Values and Virtual Edges Storing the current degree value in a lookup table/array is extremely useful, as it avoids the overhead of recalculating them. Depending on the data structure used to represent edges, the time overhead of recalculating is at least O(deg(v)). A lookup table reduces this to O(1). The tradeoff here is that more memory is required to store the degree value of each vertex. One very useful aspect of maintaining the degree array, is that it becomes trivial to test if a vertex is still within the current G, as it must have a non-zero value in the array. With respect to the multi-path method, the extra virtual edge that may exist for any vertex can be stored using an array of vertices. At any point in the search space, the state of E v (S) can be reflected by an array with either a 0 value for vertices not in S or a vertex value for the other end point of a virtual edge. As will be seen later, this way of representing the virtual edge is preferable to inserting a new edge into an adjacency list Segment and Cycle Storage One result of the work done in this thesis, is that it is unnecessary to store the current segments and partial cycles during the running of the algorithm. Instead only directly maintaining the stack of edges in E(S) is necessary, as both segment and cycles can be directly derived from the contents of E(S).

36 Chapter 5: Considerations for Algorithm Design 30 However, in [Koc92] maintaining them is an integral part of the algorithm. To this effect a single array of vertices is used for segments and two arrays of vertices are used to track the current partial and potential Hamilton cycle. For the segments, a merge-find like structure is maintained in the array. More on the merge-find structure can be found in [Wei95]. For the partial Hamilton cycle, the two arrays use the entries to point to the vertices to the left and to the right of a given vertex. 5.2 Reducing Time and Space Overhead As noted in the header comments for each of the previous algorithms described, procedure arguments are passed by value. The overhead required to pass variables by value increases the memory requirements by an order of magnitude. Additionally, passing by value implies that time must be spent copying data. The expected overhead of copying would be in the range of O(n + ε) per branching edge in the search space. To limit the time and space penalties of copying by value, [Koc92] uses an inplace reduction on G. This means that a reference to the attributes in G is available at all points during the running of the algorithm and the original state of G is not known until the algorithm finishes. Only the current reduction of G is known and is equivalent to that given by equation 3.4. This in-place reduction is referred to as G r. To accomplish this in-place reduction, there must be a way to reverse changes to G r at each point in the search space, so as to ensure that the state of the data for each function call is equivalent to that of the pass by value model. The method used

37 Chapter 5: Considerations for Algorithm Design 31 to restore G r for the work described in this thesis can be found in the next chapter and differs from the way it is done in [Koc92]. One of these differences is in the extent of removing the pass by value data. While limiting the expense of retaining a complete copy of the graph state per node, in [Koc92] there is still a memory overhead of O(n 2 ) consisting of degree information and segment information. This is the remaining data that is still passed by value during branching operations, with O(n) cost in time and space for each node. Without the in-place reduction, memory overhead would be O(n 3 ) in space. This remaining overhead is eliminated by the work described in this thesis and the entire state of the algorithm only requires O(n + ε) in space to function. 5.3 Detecting Stopping Conditions The detection of a stopping condition has very little overhead. The algorithm forces edges into E(S) one at a time, and a stopping condition can be detected while dealing with each edge. Assume the current forced edge is e. The second stopping condition is easy to detect by simply checking segment membership of each of the two vertices incident to e. If both vertices belong to the same segment, a cycle is forced and a stop flag is raised. This can be done with an time overhead of just O(1). The first stopping condition has slightly more overhead than the second. A forced vertex never has any more edges to remove from G r, but the other vertex v incident to e may already be an endpoint for another segment. In this case, v must be added to V in (S) and all remaining edges incident to v must be removed from G r. The other

38 Chapter 5: Considerations for Algorithm Design 32 vertices incident to each of these removed edges must have their degree values reduced by one. If the degree value for any of these vertices is reduced to one, a stopping condition has occurred. The overhead here is just O(deg(v)), per non forced vertex pushed into V in (S). 5.4 Tracking Forced Vertices Instead of scanning each vertex in G r for forced vertices each time the ForceEdges method is called, it is possible to record the current forced edges in a list for quick referencing later. As mentioned with detecting stopping conditions, changes to S all occur one edge at a time. When removing the edges incident to each new vertex in V in (S), the changes to the degree values for the other vertex can also be used to detect when a vertex has become forced. Each of these vertices can be added to a list for later processing. The list construct used in [Koc92] is a queue. In the implementation for the multi-path algorithm for this thesis a stack is used instead. A stack was chosen because by marking the beginning of the stack with a 0 value and not using it, no length variable is needed. A pointer to the current position is all that is required when a stack is used in this way. As the order in which forced edges is unimportant with respect to the final consistent G r, any abstract data type for managing list addition and removal can be used here. The order in which forced vertices are removed from the list becomes important when trying to detect stopping conditions sooner and more sophisticated structures

39 Chapter 5: Considerations for Algorithm Design 33 could be used to enable this, however this is beyond the scope of the work done here and further work could yield some interesting results.

40 Chapter 6 Designing the Multi-Path Algorithm Algorithms and used to describe the multi-path method are enough to provide a broad recipe on how to go about creating a complete multi-path algorithm. This chapter is focused on fully developing the key aspects of the algorithm with respect to efficiently managing G r and S, as well as the selection of anchor points. The implementation of the multi-path algorithm resulting from the work described in this thesis was developed incrementally, as a series of refinements and data structure changes, each of which brought an increase in efficiency and speed. By studying the effects of each of the changes on various graphs, the techniques were continually improved, and new approaches suggested themselves. This chapter and the next represents the finalization of the work in this thesis on the stand alone portion of the multi-path algorithm. Recall that G r was introduced in the previous chapter as a representation of G 34

41 Chapter 6: Designing the Multi-Path Algorithm 35 from algorithm 3.5.1, with the difference being that it is the continuously changing instance of the original graph G that is not passed by value during the execution of the multi-path algorithm. As mentioned in the last chapter, passing by value increases both time and space overhead to the algorithm that would be best left avoided if possible. In order to design an algorithm that completely removes the pass by value requirements of movement between consistent states of G r, the first section of this chapter is concerned with the mechanics of changes to S and G r during movement up and down the search space of the multi-path algorithm. This also includes an improved algorithm for creating and extending the segments in S over the one used in [Koc92]. The final section of this chapter deals with the order in which anchor points are chosen. This can have a profound effect on the shape and size of the search space to be navigated by the algorithm. 6.1 Efficient Reduction and Recovery The reduction and recovery of G r between branching edges in the search space consumes the majority of the time spent running the algorithm. The improvements described in this section attempt to reduce the internal changes that are required when transforming a graph from one state to another, while additionally removing the remaining pass by value requirements from [Koc92]. By changing how edges are added to S it is possible to reverse the changes to G r as well as restore the data structures storing segment and degree information, subsequently reducing the memory footprint required by this portion of the algorithm

42 Chapter 6: Designing the Multi-Path Algorithm 36 by a factor of n. This results in a memory footprint of O(n+ε) for the entire algorithm. Additionally the total time overhead of managing G r is reduced to O( S), where S is the number of edges added to E(S) between branching edges. This is instead of the O(n + S) from the previous version. Section describes a different way of creating and extending segments in S that improves on what has been used previously. The improvement here over [Koc92] is difficult to quantify as it is heavily dependent on the structure of the graphs searched, however at worst it will be equivalent in steps required. Section describes how removed edges from G r are managed, and section describes how the state of G r is restored. The process of restoring G r used here is the reason for the O( S) claim Extending Segments Up to this point changes to segments in S occur one edge at a time. In this way there are three possible results when adding a forced or branching edge to E(S); either a segment is created or extended, or two segments will be merged into a single segment. Each time E(S), E v (S) and G r must be updated to reflect the new reduction. The process is repeated until no more forced edges remain in G r. Extending Segments from Forced Vertices via Paths The new approach changes focus from single edges to paths that can be extended from forced vertices in G r. Extending segments using a branching edge and its corresponding anchor point is a special case of this approach and is described at the end of

43 Chapter 6: Designing the Multi-Path Algorithm 37 P u P v e S i 1 u v e S i+1 v e S i G r Figure 6.1: Segments S i 1, S i, and S i+1 before extension of Si via forced vertex v. Forced vertices are represented by the solid symbols. The virtual edge {u,v} representing S i is labeled with a e S i and the other virtual edges are labeled likewise. this section. Let v be the next forced vertex to be processed. If v is the endpoint of some segment, S i S, virtual edge {u,v} represents this segment. Let P v be the first path to be extended into G r that originates at v. The first edge in P v is the real edge, {v,v }. This edge is added to E(S). Let P u be the second path to be extended into G r that originates at v, but proceeds in the opposite direction. If v is the endpoint of a segment, let the first edge in P u be the virtual edge {u,v}. If v is not the endpoint of a segment, let the first edge in P u be the real edge {u,v}, and ensure it is added to E(S). Initially let u = u. During the growth of P v and P u, the shared endpoint v remains fixed, while v and u are updated to indicate the new endpoints. Figure 6.1 illustrates this initial configuration on a cross section of an example G r. The goal is to form a new segment, Si, represented by the following: S i = P u + P v (6.1)

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