# Graph Theory: Penn State Math 485 Lecture Notes. Christopher Griffin

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1 Graph Theory: Penn State Math 485 Lecture Notes Version Christopher Griffin Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike.0 United States License With Contributions By: Suraj Shekhar

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3 List of Figures Using These Notes Contents Chapter 1. Preface and Introduction to Graph Theory 1 1. Some History of Graph Theory and Its Branches 1. A Little Note on Network Science Chapter. Some Definitions and Theorems 1. Graphs, Multi-Graphs, Simple Graphs. Directed Graphs 8. Elementary Graph Properties: Degrees and Degree Sequences 9 4. Subgraphs Graph Complement, Cliques and Independent Sets 16 Chapter. More Definitions and Theorems 1 1. Paths, Walks, and Cycles 1. More Graph Properties: Diameter, Radius, Circumference, Girth. More on Trails and Cycles 4 4. Graph Components 5 5. Introduction to Centrality 0 6. Bipartite Graphs 1 7. Acyclic Graphs and Trees Chapter 4. Some Algebraic Graph Theory Isomorphism and Automorphism 41. Fields and Matrices 47. Special Matrices and Vectors Matrix Representations of Graphs Determinants, Eigenvalue and Eigenvectors 5 6. Properties of the Eigenvalues of the Adjacency Matrix 55 Chapter 5. Applications of Algebraic Graph Theory: Eigenvector Centrality and Page-Rank Basis of R n 59. Eigenvector Centrality 61. Markov Chains and Random Walks Page Rank 68 Chapter 6. Trees, Algorithms and Matroids 71 iii v xi

4 1. Two Tree Search Algorithms 71. Prim s Spanning Tree Algorithm 7. Computational Complexity of Prim s Algorithm Kruskal s Algorithm Shortest Path Problem in a Positively Weighted Graph 8 6. Greedy Algorithms and Matroids 87 Chapter 7. A Brief Introduction to Linear Programming Linear Programming: Notation 91. Intuitive Solutions of Linear Programming Problems 9. Some Basic Facts about Linear Programming Problems Solving Linear Programming Problems with a Computer Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) Conditions Duality 10 Chapter 8. An Introduction to Network Flows and Combinatorial Optimization The Maximum Flow Problem 109. The Dual of the Flow Maximization Problem 110. The Max-Flow / Min-Cut Theorem An Algorithm for Finding Optimal Flow Applications of the Max Flow / Min Cut Theorem More Applications of the Max Flow / Min Cut Theorem 11 Chapter 9. A Short Introduction to Random Graphs Bernoulli Random Graphs 17. First Order Graph Language and 0 1 properties 10. Erdös-Rényi Random Graphs 11 Chapter 10. Coloring Vertex Coloring of Graphs 17. Some Elementary Logic 19. NP-Completeness of k-coloring Graph Sizes and k-colorability 145 Chapter 11. Some More Algebraic Graph Theory Vector Spaces and Linear Transformation 147. Linear Span and Basis 149. Vector Spaces of a Graph Cycle Space Cut Space The Relation of Cycle Space to Cut Space 157 Bibliography 159 iv

5 List of Figures.1 It is easier for explanation to represent a graph by a diagram in which vertices are represented by points (or squares, circles, triangles etc.) and edges are represented by lines connecting vertices. 4. A self-loop is an edge in a graph G that contains exactly one vertex. That is, an edge that is a one element subset of the vertex set. Self-loops are illustrated by loops at the vertex in question. 5. The city of Königsburg is built on a river and consists of four islands, which can be reached by means of seven bridges. The question Euler was interested in answering is: Is it possible to go from island to island traversing each bridge only once? (Picture courtesy of Wikipedia and Wikimedia Commons: Representing each island as a dot and each bridge as a line or curve connecting the dots simplifies the visual representation of the seven Königsburg Bridges. 5.5 During World War II two of the seven original Königsburg bridges were destroyed. Later two more were made into modern highways (but they are still bridges). Is it now possible to go from island to island traversing each bridge only once? (Picture courtesy of Wikipedia and Wikimedia Commons: http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:konigsberg_bridges_presentstatus.png) 6.6 A multigraph is a graph in which a pair of nodes can have more than one edge connecting them. When this occurs, the for a graph G = (V, E), the element E is a collection or multiset rather than a set. This is because there are duplicate elements (edges) in the structure. 7.7 (a) A directed graph. (b) A directed graph with a self-loop. In a directed graph, edges are directed; that is they are ordered pairs of elements drawn from the vertex set. The ordering of the pair gives the direction of the edge. 8.8 The graph above has a degree sequence d = (4,,,, 1). These are the degrees of the vertices in the graph arranged in increasing order We construct a new graph G from G that has a larger value r (See Expression.5) than our original graph G did. This contradicts our assumption that G was chosen to maximize r The complete graph, the Petersen Graph and the Dodecahedron. All Platonic solids are three-dimensional representations of regular graphs, but not all regular graphs are Platonic solids. These figures were generated with Maple. 14 v

6 .11 The Petersen Graph is shown (a) with a sub-graph highlighted (b) and that sub-graph displayed on its own (c). A sub-graph of a graph is another graph whose vertices and edges are sub-collections of those of the original graph The subgraph (a) is induced by the vertex subset V = {6, 7, 8, 9, 10}. The subgraph shown in (b) is a spanning sub-graph and is induced by edge subset E = {{1, 6}, {, 9}, {, 7}, {4, 10}, {5, 8}, {6, 7}, {6, 10}, {7, 8}, {8, 9}, {9, 10}} A clique is a set of vertices in a graph that induce a complete graph as a subgraph and so that no larger set of vertices has this property. The graph in this figure has cliques A graph and its complement with cliques in one illustrated and independent sets in the other illustrated A covering is a set of vertices so that ever edge has at least one endpoint inside the covering set A walk (a), cycle (b), Eulerian trail (c) and Hamiltonian path (d) are illustrated.. We illustrate the 6-cycle and 4-path.. The diameter of this graph is, the radius is 1. It s girth is and its circumference is We can create a new walk from an existing walk by removing closed sub-walks from the walk. 5.5 We show how to decompose an (Eulerian) tour into an edge disjoint set of cycles, thus illustrating Theorem A connected graph (a), a disconnected graph (b) and a connected digraph that is not strongly connected (c). 6.7 We illustrate a vertex cut and a cut vertex (a singleton vertex cut) and an edge cut and a cut edge (a singleton edge cut). Cuts are sets of vertices or edges whose removal from a graph creates a new graph with more components than the original graph. 7.8 If e lies on a cycle, then we can repair path w by going the long way around the cycle to reach v n+1 from v Path graph with four vertices The graph for which you will compute centralities A bipartite graph has two classes of vertices and edges in the graph only exists between elements of different classes..1 Illustration of the main argument in the proof that a graph is bipartite if and only if all cycles have even length..1 A tree is shown. Imagining the tree upside down illustrates the tree like nature of the graph structure The Petersen Graph is shown on the left while a spanning tree is shown on the right in red. 5 vi

7 .15 The proof of 4 = 5 requires us to assume the existence of two paths in graph T connecting vertex v to vertex v. This assumption implies the existence of a cycle, contradicting our assumptions on T We illustrate an Eulerian graph and note that each vertex has even degree. We also show how to decompose this Eulerian graph s edge set into the union of edge-disjoint cycles, thus illustrating Theorem.78. Following the tour construction procedure (starting at Vertex 5), will give the illustrated Eulerian tour Two graphs that have identical degree sequences, but are not isomorphic The graph K has six automorphisms, one for each element in S the set of all permutations on objects. These automorphisms are (i) the identity automorphism that maps all vertices to themselves; (ii) the automorphism that exchanges vertex 1 and ; (iii) the automorphism that exchanges vertex 1 and ; (iv) the automorphism that exchanges vertex and ; (v) the automorphism that sends vertex 1 to and to and to 1; and (vi) the automorphism that sends vertex 1 to and to and to The star graphs S and S The adjacency matrix of a graph with n vertices is an n n matrix with a 1 at element (i, j) if and only if there is an edge connecting vertex i to vertex j; otherwise element (i, j) is a zero Computing the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix in Matlab can be accomplished with the eig command. This command will return the eigenvalues when used as: d = eig(a) and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors when used as [V D] = eig(a). The eigenvectors are the columns of the matrix V Two graphs with the same eigenvalues that are not isomorphic are illustrated A matrix with 4 vertices and 5 edges. Intuitively, vertices 1 and 4 should have the same eigenvector centrality score as vertices and A Markov chain is a directed graph to which we assign edge probabilities so that the sum of the probabilities of the out-edges at any vertex is always An induced Markov chain is constructed from a graph by replacing every edge with a pair of directed edges (going in opposite directions) and assigning a probability equal to the out-degree of each vertex to every edge leaving that vertex The breadth first walk of a tree explores the tree in an ever widening pattern The depth first walk of a tree explores the tree in an ever deepening pattern The construction of a breadth first spanning tree is a straightforward way to construct a spanning tree of a graph or check to see if its connected The construction of a depth first spanning tree is a straightforward way to construct a spanning tree of a graph or check to see if its connected. However, vii

8 this method can be implemented with a recursive function call. Notice this algorithm yields a different spanning tree from the BFS A weighted graph is simply a graph with a real number (the weight) assigned to each edge In the minimum spanning tree problem, we attempt to find a spanning subgraph of a graph G that is a tree and has minimal weight (among all spanning trees) Prim s algorithm constructs a minimum spanning tree by successively adding edges to an acyclic subgraph until every vertex is inside the spanning tree. Edges with minimal weight are added at each iteration When we remove an edge (e ) from a spanning tree we disconnect the tree into two components. By adding a new edge (e) edge that connects vertices in these two distinct components, we reconnect the tree and it is still a spanning tree Kruskal s algorithm constructs a minimum spanning tree by successively adding edges and maintaining and acyclic disconnected subgraph containing every vertex until that subgraph contains n 1 edges at which point we are sure it is a tree. Edges with minimal weight are added at each iteration Dijkstra s Algorithm iteratively builds a tree of shortest paths from a given vertex v 0 in a graph. Dijkstra s algorithm can correct itself, as we see from Iteration and Iteration Feasible Region and Level Curves of the Objective Function: The shaded region in the plot is the feasible region and represents the intersection of the five inequalities constraining the values of x 1 and x. On the right, we see the optimal solution is the last point in the feasible region that intersects a level set as we move in the direction of increasing profit An example of infinitely many alternative optimal solutions in a linear programming problem. The level curves for z(x 1, x ) = 18x 1 + 6x are parallel to one face of the polygon boundary of the feasible region. Moreover, this side contains the points of greatest value for z(x 1, x ) inside the feasible region. Any combination of (x 1, x ) on the line x 1 + x = 10 for x 1 [16, 5] will provide the largest possible value z(x 1, x ) can take in the feasible region S Matlab input for solving the diet problem. Note that we are solving a minimization problem. Matlab assumes all problems are mnimization problems, so we don t need to multiply the objective by 1 like we would if we started with a maximization problem The Gradient Cone: At optimality, the cost vector c is obtuse with respect to the directions formed by the binding constraints. It is also contained inside the cone of the gradients of the binding constraints, which we will discuss at length later In this problem, it costs a certain amount to ship a commodity along each edge and each edge has a capacity. The objective is to find an allocation of capacity to each edge so that the total cost of shipping three units of this commodity from Vertex 1 to Vertex 4 is minimized. 107 viii

9 8.1 A cut is defined as follows: in each directed path from v 1 to v m, we choose an edge at capacity so that the collection of chosen edges has minimum capacity (and flow). If this set of edges is not an edge cut of the underlying graph, we add edges that are directed from v m to v 1 in a simple path from v 1 to v m in the underlying graph of G Two flows with augmenting paths and one with no augmenting paths are illustrated The result of augmenting the flows shown in Figure The Edmonds-Karp algorithm iteratively augments flow on a graph until no augmenting paths can be found. An initial zero-feasible flow is used to start the algorithm. Notice that the capacity of the minimum cut is equal to the total flow leaving Vertex 1 and flowing to Vertex Illustration of the impact of an augmenting path on the flow from v 1 to v m Games to be played flow from an initial vertex s (playing the role of v 1 ). From here, they flow into the actual game events illustrated by vertices (e.g., NY-BOS for New York vs. Boston). Wins and loses occur and these wins flow across the infinite capacity edges to team vertices. From here, the games all flow to the final vertex t (playing the role of v m ) Optimal flow was computed using the Edmonds-Karp algorithm. Notice a minimum capacity cut consists of the edges entering t and not all edges leaving s are saturated. Detroit cannot make the playoffs A maximal matching and a perfect matching. Note no other edges can be added to the maximal matching and the graph on the left cannot have a perfect matching In general, the cardinality of a maximal matching is not the same as the cardinality of a minimal vertex covering, though the inequality that the cardinality of the maximal matching is at most the cardinality of the minimal covering does hold Three random graphs in the same random graph family G ( 10, 1 ). The first two graphs, which have 1 edges, have probability The third graph, which has 4 edges, has probability A path graph with 4 vertices has exactly 4!/ = 1 isomorphic graphs obtained by rearranging the order in which the vertices are connected There are 4 graphs in the isomorphism class of S, one for each possible center of the star The 4 isomorphism types in the random graph family G(5, ). We show that there are 60 graphs isomorphic to this first graph (a) inside G(5, ), 0 graphs isomorphic to the second graph (b) inside G(5, ), 10 graphs isomorphic to the third graph (c) inside G(5, ) and 0 graphs isomorphic to the fourth graph (d) inside G(5, ) A graph coloring. We need three colors to color this graph. 17 ix

10 10. At the first step of constructing G, we add three vertices {T, F, B} that form a complete subgraph At the second step of constructing G, we add two vertices v i and v i to G and an edge {v i, v i} At the third step of constructing G, we add a gadget that is built specifically for term φ j When φ j evaluates to false, the graph G is not -colorable as illustrated in subfigure (a). When φ j evaluates to true, the resulting graph is colorable. By the label TFT, we mean v(x j1 ) = v(x j ) = TRUE and v j = FALSE The cycle space of a graph can be thought of as all the cycles contained in that graph along with the subgraphs consisting of cycles that only share vertices but no edges. This is illustrated in this figure A fundamental cycle of a graph G (with respect to a spanning forest F ) is a cycle created from adding an edge from the original edge set of G (not in F ) to F The cut space of a graph can be thought of as all the minimal cuts contained in that graph along with the subgraphs consisting of minimal cuts that only share vertices but no edges. This is illustrated in this figure A fundamental edge cut of a graph G (with respect to a spanning forest F ) is a partition cut created from partitioning the vertices based on a cut in a spanning tree and then constructing the resulting partition cut. 155 x

11 Using These Notes Stop! This is a set of lecture notes. It is not a book. Go away and come back when you have a real textbook on Graph Theory. Okay, do you have a book? Alright, let s move on then. This is a set of lecture notes for Math 485 Penn State s undergraduate Graph Theory course. Since I use these notes while I teach, there may be typographical errors that I noticed in class, but did not fix in the notes. If you see a typo, send me an and I ll add an acknowledgement. There may be many typos, that s why you should have a real textbook. The lecture notes are loosely based on Gross and Yellen s Graph Theory and It s Applications, Bollobás Graph Theory, Diestel s Graph Theory, Wolsey and Nemhauser s Integer and Combinatorial Optimization, Korte and Vygen s Combinatorial Optimization and several other books that are cited in these notes. All of the books mentioned are good books (some great). The problem is, they are either too complex for an introductory undergraduate course, have odd notation, do not focus enough on applications or focus too much on applications. This set of notes correct some of the problems I mention by presenting the material in a format for that can be used easily in an undergraduate mathematics class. Many of the proofs in this set of notes are adapted from the textbooks with some minor additions. One thing that is included in these notes is a treatment of graph duality theorems from the perspective linear optimization. This is not covered in most graph theory books, while graph theoretic principles are not covered in many linear or combinatorial optimization books. I should note, Bondy and Murty discuss Linear Programming in their book Graph Theory, but it is clear they are not experts in optimization and their treatment is somewhat non sequitur, which is a shame. The best book on the topic of combinatorial optimization is by far Korte and Vygen s, who do cover linear programming in their latest edition. Note: Penn State has an expert in graph coloring problems, so there is no section on coloring in these notes, because I invited a guest lecturer who was the expert. I may add a section on graph coloring eventually. In order to use these notes successfully, you should have taken a course in combinatorial proof (Math 11W at Penn State) and ideally matrix algebra (Math 0 at Penn State), though courses in Linear Programming (Math 484 at Penn State) wouldn t hurt. I review a substantial amount of the material you will need, but it s always good to have covered prerequisites before you get to a class. That being said, I hope you enjoy using these notes! xi

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13 CHAPTER 1 Preface and Introduction to Graph Theory 1. Some History of Graph Theory and Its Branches Graph Theory began with Leonhard Euler in his study of the Bridges of Königsburg problem. Since Euler solved this very first problem in Graph Theory, the field has exploded, becoming one of the most important areas of applied mathematics we currently study. Generally speaking, Graph Theory is a branch of Combinatorics but it is closely connected to Applied Mathematics, Optimization Theory and Computer Science. At Penn State (for example) if you want to start a bar fight between Math and Computer Science (and possibly Electrical Engineering) you might claim that Graph Theory belongs (rightfully) in the Math Department. (This is only funny because there is a strong group of graph theorists in our Computer Science Department.) In reality, Graph Theory is cross-disciplinary between Math, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering and Operations Research 1. Here are some of the subjects within Graph Theory that are of interest to people in these disciplines: (1) Optimization Problems on Graphs: Problems of optimization on graphs generally treat a graph structure like a road network and attempt to maximize flow along that network while minimizing costs. There are many classical optimization problems associated to graphs and this field is sometimes considered a sub-discipline within Combinatorial Optimization. () Topological Graph Theory: Asks questions about methods of embedding graphs into topological spaces (like R or on the surface of a torus) so that certain properties are maintained. For example, the question of planarity asks: Can a graph be drawn on the plane in such a way so that no two edge cross. Clearly, the bridges of Königsburg graph had that property, but not all graphs do. () Graph Coloring: A question related both to optimization and to planarity asks how many colors does it take to color each vertex (or edge) of a graph so that no two adjacent vertices have the same color. Attempting to obtain a coloring of a graph has several applications to scheduling and computer science. (4) Analytic Graph Theory: Is the study of randomness and probability applied to graphs. Random graph theory is a subset of this study. In it, we assume that a graph is drawn from a probability distribution that returns graphs and we study the properties that certain distributions of graphs have. (5) Algebraic Graph Theory: Is the application of abstract algebra (sometimes associated with matrix groups) to graph theory. Many interesting results can be proved about graphs when using matrices and other algebraic properties. Obviously this is not a complete list of all the various problems and applications of Graph Theory. However, this is a list of some of the things we may touch on in the class. The 1 See my note on Network Science below. 1

14 textbook [GY05] is a good place to start on some of these topics. Another good source is [BM08], which I used for some of these notes. [Bol01] and [Bol00] are classics by one of the absolute masters of the field Bollobás and Diestel s [Die10] book is a pleasant read (it actually used to be much shorter). For the combinatorial optimization element of graph theory, turn to Nemhauser and Wolsey [WN99] as well as the second part of Bazarra et al. s Linear Programming and Network Flows [BJS04]. Another reasonable book is [PS98], though it s a bit older, it s much less expensive than the others. In that same theme, [Tru94] and [Cha84] are also inexpensive little introductions to Graph Theory that are not as comprehensive as Gross and Yellen or Bondy and Murty, but they are nice to have in one s library for easier reading. In particular, [Cha84] spends a lot of time on applications rather than theory.. A Little Note on Network Science If this were a real book, I d never be able to add this section, but since these are lecture notes (and supposed to be educational) it s worth talking for a minute about Network Science. Network Science is one of these interdisciplinary terms that seems to be appearing everywhere and it seems to be used by anyone who is not a formal mathematician or computer scientist to describe his/her work in some application of graph theory. [New0, NBW06] are good places to look to see what was popular in the field a few years ago. There are two opinions on Network Science that I ve heard so far: (1) this work is all so brilliant, new and exciting and will change the world or () this is as old as the hills and is just a group of physicists reinterpreting classical results in graph theory and mixing in econometrics-style experiments. Reality, I hope, is somewhere in between. There is a certain amount of redundancy from older work going on in Network Science. For example, Simon [Sim55] presaged and surpassed some of the work in the seminal Network Science literature [AB00, AB0, BAJB00, BAJ99] and Alderson et al. [Ald08] do correctly point out that there is a misinterpretation behind the mechanisms of network formation, especially man-made networks. On the other hand, some questions being asked by the Network Science community are new, useful and highly interdisciplinary such as detecting membership or multiple memberships in online communities (see e.g., [FCF11]) or understanding the spread of pathogens on specialized networks [PSV01, GB06]. It will be interesting to see where this interdisciplinary research goes in the long term. Hopefully, the results will justify the hype currently surrounding the discipline. Ideally these notes will help you decide what is really novel and exciting and what is just over-hyped nonsense.

15 CHAPTER Some Definitions and Theorems 1. Graphs, Multi-Graphs, Simple Graphs Definition.1 (Graph). A graph is a tuple G = (V, E) where V is a (finite) set of vertices and E is a finite collection of edges. The set E contains elements from the union of the one and two element subsets of V. That is, each edge is either a one or two element subset of V. Definition. (Self-Loop). If G = (V, E) is a graph and v V and e = {v}, then edge e is called a self-loop. That is, any edge that is a single element subset of V is called a self-loop. Definition. (Vertex Adjacency). Let G = (V, E) be a graph. Two vertices v 1 and v are said to be adjacent if there exists an edge e E so that e = {v 1, v }. A vertex v is self-adjacent if e = {v} is an element of E. Definition.4 (Edge Adjacency). Let G = (V, E) be a graph. Two edges e 1 and e are said to be adjacent if there exists a vertex v so that v is an element of both e 1 and e (as sets). An edge e is said to be adjacent to a vertex v if v is an element of e as a set. Definition.5 (Neighborhood). Let G = (V, E) be a graph and let v V. neighbors of v are the set of vertices that are adjacent to v. Formally: (.1) N(v) = {u V : e E (e = {u, v} or u = v and e = {v})} In some texts, N(v) is called the open neighborhood of v while N[v] = N(v) {v} is called the closed neighborhood of v. This notation is somewhat rare in practice. When v is an element of more than one graph, we write N G (v) as the neighborhood of v in graph G. Remark.6. Expression.1 is read N(v) is the set of vertices u in (the set) V such that there exists an edge e in (the set) E so that e = {u, v} or u = v and e = {v}. The logical expression x (R(x)) is always read in this way; that is, there exists x so that some statement R(x) holds. Similarly, the logical expression y (R(y)) is read: For all y the statement R(y) holds. Admittedly this sort of thing is very pedantic, but logical notation can help immensely in simplifying complex mathematical expressions 1. 1 When I was in graduate school, I always found Real Analysis to be somewhat mysterious until I got used to all the ɛ s and δ s. Then I took a bunch of logic courses and learned to manipulate complex logical expressions, how they were classified and how mathematics could be built up out of Set Theory. Suddenly, Real Analysis (as I understood it) became very easy. It was all about manipulating logical sentences about those ɛ s and δ s and determining when certain logical statements were equivalent. The moral of the story: if you want to learn mathematics, take a course or two in logic. The

16 Remark.7. The difference between the open and closed neighborhood of a vertex can get a bit odd when you have a graph with self-loops. Since this is a highly specialized case, usually the author (of the paper, book etc.) will specify a behavior. Example.8. Consider the set of vertices V = {1,,, 4}. The set of edges E = {{1, }, {, }, {, 4}, {4, 1}} Then the graph G = (V, E) has four vertices and four edges. It is usually easier to represent this graphically. See Figure.1 for the visual representation of G. These visualizations 1 4 Figure.1. It is easier for explanation to represent a graph by a diagram in which vertices are represented by points (or squares, circles, triangles etc.) and edges are represented by lines connecting vertices. are constructed by representing each vertex as a point (or square, circle, triangle etc.) and each edge as a line connecting the vertex representations that make up the edge. That is, let v 1, v V. Then there is a line connecting the points for v 1 and v if and only if {v 1, v } E. In this example, the neighborhood of Vertex 1 is Vertices and 4 and Vertex 1 is adjacent to these vertices. Definition.9 (Degree). Let G = (V, E) be a graph and let v V. The degree of v, written deg(v) is the number of non-self-loop edges adjacent to v plus two times the number of self-loops defined at v. More formally: deg(v) = {e E : u V (e = {u, v})} + {e E : e = {v}} Here if S is a set, then S is the cardinality of that set. Remark.10. Note that each vertex in the graph in Figure.1 has degree. Example.11. If we replace the edge set in Example.8 with: E = {{1, }, {, }, {, 4}, {4, 1}, {1}} then the visual representation of the graph includes a loop that starts and ends at Vertex 1. This is illustrated in Figure.. In this example the degree of Vertex 1 is now 4. We obtain this by counting the number of non self-loop edges adjacent to Vertex 1 (there are ) and adding two times the number of self-loops at Vertex 1 (there is 1) to obtain + 1 = 4. Example.1. The city of Königsburg exists as a collection of islands connected by bridges as shown in Figure.. The problem Euler wanted to analyze was: Is it possible to go from island to island traversing each bridge only once? This was assuming that there was no trickery such as using a boat. Euler analyzed the problem by simplifying the 4

17 Self-Loop 1 4 Figure.. A self-loop is an edge in a graph G that contains exactly one vertex. That is, an edge that is a one element subset of the vertex set. Self-loops are illustrated by loops at the vertex in question. Islands Bridge C A B D Figure.. The city of Königsburg is built on a river and consists of four islands, which can be reached by means of seven bridges. The question Euler was interested in answering is: Is it possible to go from island to island traversing each bridge only once? (Picture courtesy of Wikipedia and Wikimedia Commons: wikipedia.org/wiki/file:konigsberg_bridges.png) Island(s) C A D Bridge B Figure.4. Representing each island as a dot and each bridge as a line or curve connecting the dots simplifies the visual representation of the seven Königsburg Bridges. 5

18 representation to a graph. Assume that we treat each island as a vertex and each bridge as an line egde. The resulting graph is illustrated in Figure.4. Note this representation dramatically simplifies the analysis of the problem in so far as we can now focus only on the structural properties of this graph. It s easy to see (from Figure.4) that each vertex has an odd degree. More importantly, since we are trying to traverse islands without ever recrossing the same bridge (edge), when we enter an island (say C) we will use one of the three edges. Unless this is our final destination, we must use another edge to leave C. Additionally, assuming we have not crossed all the bridges yet, we know we must leave C. That means that the third edge that touches C must be used to return to C a final time. Alternatively, we could start at Island C and then return once and never come back. Put simply, our trip around the bridges of Königsburg had better start or end at Island C. But Islands (vertices) B and D also have this property. We can t start and end our travels over the bridges on Islands C, B and D simultaneously, therefore, no such walk around the islands in which we cross each bridge precisely once is possible. Exercise 1. Since Euler s work two of the seven bridges in Königsburg have been destroyed (during World War II). Another two were replaced by major highways, but they are still (for all intents and purposes) bridges. The remaining three are still intact. (See Figure.5.) Construct a graph representation of the new bridges of Königsburg and determine C B A D Figure.5. During World War II two of the seven original Königsburg bridges were destroyed. Later two more were made into modern highways (but they are still bridges). Is it now possible to go from island to island traversing each bridge only once? (Picture courtesy of Wikipedia and Wikimedia Commons: wikipedia.org/wiki/file:konigsberg_bridges_presentstatus.png) whether it is possible to visit the bridges traversing each bridge exactly once. If so, find such a sequence of edges. [Hint: It might help to label the edges in your graph. You do not have to begin and end on the same island.] Definition.1 (MultiGraph). A graph G = (V, E) is a multigraph if there are two edges e 1 and e in E so that e 1 and e are equal as sets. That is, there are two vertices v 1 and v in V so that e 1 = e = {v 1, v }. Remark.14. Note in the definition of graph (Definition.1) we were very careful to specify that E is a collection of one and two element subsets of V rather than to say that E was, itself, a set. This allows us to have duplicate edges in the edge set and thus to define multigraphs. In Computer Science a set that may have duplicate entries is sometimes called a multiset. A multigraph is a graph in which E is a multiset. 6

19 Example.15. Consider the graph associated with the Bridges of Königsburg Problem (see Figure.6). The vertex set is V = {A, B, C, D}. The edge collection is: E = {{A, B}, {A, B}, {A, C}, {A, C}, {A, D}, {B, D}, {C, D}} This multigraph occurs because there are two bridges connecting island A with island B and two bridges connecting island A with island C. If two vertices are connected by two (or more) edges, then the edges are simply represented as parallel lines (or arcs) connecting the vertices. C A D B Figure.6. A multigraph is a graph in which a pair of nodes can have more than one edge connecting them. When this occurs, the for a graph G = (V, E), the element E is a collection or multiset rather than a set. This is because there are duplicate elements (edges) in the structure. Remark.16. Let G = (V, E) be a graph. There are two degree values that are of interest in graph theory: the largest and smallest vertex degrees usually denoted (G) and δ(g). That is: (.) (G) = max deg(v) v V (.) δ(g) = min deg(v) v V Remark.17. Despite our initial investigation of The Bridges of Königsburg Problem as a mechanism for beginning our investigation of graph theory, most of graph theory is not concerned with graphs containing either self-loops or multigraphs. Definition.18 (Simple Graph). A graph G = (V, E) is a simple graph if G has no edges that are self-loops and if E is a subset of two element subsets of V ; i.e., G is not a multi-graph. Remark.19. In light of Remark.17, we will assume that every graph we discuss in these notes is a simple graph and we will use the term graph to mean simple graph. When a particular result holds in a more general setting, we will state it explicitly. Exercise. Consider the new Bridges of Königsburg Problem from Exercise 1. Is the graph representation of this problem a simple graph? Could a self-loop exist in a graph derived from a Bridges of Königsburg type problem? If so, what would it mean? If not, why? 7

20 Exercise. Prove that for simple graphs the degree of a vertex is simply the cardinality of its (open) neighborhood.. Directed Graphs Definition.0 (Directed Graph). A directed graph (digraph) is a tuple G = (V, E) where V is a (finite) set of vertices and E is a collection of elements contained in V V. That is, E is a collection of ordered pairs of vertices. The edges in E are called directed edges to distinguish them from those edges in Definition.1 Definition.1 (Source / Destination). Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph. The source (or tail) of the (directed) edge e = (v 1, v ) is v 1 while the destination (or sink or head) of the edge is v. Remark.. A directed graph (digraph) differs from a graph only insofar as we replace the concept of an edge as a set with the idea that an edge as an ordered pair in which the ordering gives some notion of direction of flow. In the context of a digraph, a self-loop is an ordered pair with form (v, v). We can define a multi-digraph if we allow the set E to be a true collection (rather than a set) that contains multiple copies of an ordered pair. Remark.. It is worth noting that the ordered pair (v 1, v ) is distinct from the pair (v, v 1 ). Thus if a digraph G = (V, E) has both (v 1, v ) and (v, v 1 ) in its edge set, it is not a multi-digraph. Example.4. We can modify the figures in Example.8 to make it directed. Suppose we have the directed graph with vertex set V = {1,,, 4} and edge set: E = {(1, ), (, ), (, 4), (4, 1)} This digraph is visualized in Figure.7(a). In drawing a digraph, we simply append arrowheads to the destination associated with a directed edge. We can likewise modify our self-loop example to make it directed. In this case, our edge set becomes: E = {(1, ), (, ), (, 4), (4, 1), (1, 1)} This is shown in Figure.7(b) (a) (b) Figure.7. (a) A directed graph. (b) A directed graph with a self-loop. In a directed graph, edges are directed; that is they are ordered pairs of elements drawn from the vertex set. The ordering of the pair gives the direction of the edge. 8

21 Example.5. Consider the (simple) graph from Example.8. Suppose that the vertices represent islands (just as they did) in the Bridges of Königsburg Problem and the edges represent bridges. It is very easy to see that a tour of these islands exists in which we cross each bridge exactly once. (Such a tour might start at Island 1 then go to Island, then, then 4 and finally back to Island 1.) Definition.6 (Underlying Graph). If G = (V, E) is a digraph, then the underlying graph of G is the (multi) graph (with self-loops) that results when each directed edge (v 1, v ) is replaced by the set {v 1, v } thus making the edge non-directional. Naturally if the directed edge is a directed self-loop (v, v) then it is replaced by the singleton set {v}. Remark.7. Notions like edge and vertex adjacency and neighborhood can be extended to digraphs by simply defining them with respect to the underlying graph of a digraph. Thus the neighborhood of a vertex v in a digraph G is N(v) computed in the underlying graph. Remark.8. Whether the underlying graph of a digraph is a multi-graph or not usually has no bearing on relevant properties. In general, an author will state whether two directed edges (v 1, v ) and (v, v 1 ) are combined into a single set {v 1, v }or two sets in a multiset. As a rule-of-thumb, multi-digraphs will have underlying multigraphs, while digraphs generally have underlying graphs that are not multi-graphs. Remark.9. It is possible to mix (undirected) edges and directed edges together into a very general definition of a graph with both undirected and directed edges. Situations requiring such a model almost never occur in modeling and when they do, the undirected edges with form {v 1, v } are usually replaced with a pair of directed edges (v 1, v ) and (v, v 1 ). Thus, for remainder of these notes, unless otherwise stated: (1) When we say graph we will mean simple graph as in Remark.19. If we intend the result to apply to any graph we ll say a general graph. () When we say digraph we will mean a directed graph G = (V, E) in which every edge is a directed edge and the component E is a set and in which there are no self-loops. Exercise 4. Suppose in the New Bridges of Königsburg (from Exercise 1) some of the bridges are to become one way. Find a way of replacing the edges in the graph you obtained in solving Exercise 1 with directed edges so that the graph becomes a digraph but so that it is still possible to tour all the islands without crossing the same bridge twice. Is it possible to directionalize the edges so that a tour in which each bridge is crossed once is not possible but it is still possible to enter and exit each island? If so, do it. If not, prove it is not possible. [Hint: In this case, enumeration is not that hard and its the most straight-forward. You can use symmetry to shorten your argument substantially.]. Elementary Graph Properties: Degrees and Degree Sequences Definition.0 (Empty and Trivial Graphs). A graph G = (V, E) in which V = is called the empty graph (or null graph). A graph in which V = {v} and E = is called the trivial graph. Definition.1 (Isolated Vertex). Let G = (V, E) be a graph and let v V. deg(v) = 0 then v is said to be isolated. 9 If

22 Remark.. Note that Definition.1 applies only when G is a simple graph. If G is a general graph (one with self-loops) then v is still isolated even when {v} E, that is there is a self-loop at vertex v and no other edges are adjacent to v. In this case, however, deg(v) =. Definition. (Degree Sequence). Let G = (V, E) be a graph with V = n. The degree sequence of G is a tuple d Z n composed of the degrees of the vertices in V arranged in decreasing order. Example.4. Consider the graph in Figure.8. The degrees for the vertices of this graph are: (1) v 1 = 4 () v = () v = (4) v 4 = (5) v 5 = 1 This leads to the degree sequence: d = (4,,,, 1) Figure.8. The graph above has a degree sequence d = (4,,,, 1). These are the degrees of the vertices in the graph arranged in increasing order. Assumption 1 (Pigeonhole Principle). Suppose items may be classified according to m possible types and we are given n > m items. Then there are at least two items with the same type. Remark.5. The Pigeonhole Principle was originally formulated by thinking of placing m + 1 pigeons into m pigeon holes. Clearly to place all the pigeons in the holes, one hole has two pigeons in it. The holes are the types (each whole is a different type) and the pigeons are the objects. Another good example deals with gloves: There are two types of gloves (left handed and right handed). If I hand you three gloves (the objects), then you either have two left-handed gloves or two right-handed gloves. Theorem.6. Let G = (V, E) be a non-empty, non-trivial graph. Then G has at least one pair of vertices with equal degree. Proof. This proof uses the Pigeonhole Principal and is illustrated by the graph in Figure.8, where deg(v ) = deg(v 4 ). The types will be the possible vertex degree values and the objects will be the vertices. 10

23 Suppose V = n. Each vertex could have a degree between 0 and n 1 (for a total of n possible degrees), but if the graph has a vertex of degree 0 then it cannot have a vertex of degree n 1. Therefore, there are only at most n 1 possible degree values depending on whether the graph has an isolated vertex or a vertex with degree n 1 (if it has neither, there are even fewer than n 1 possible degree values). Thus by the Pigeonhole Principal, at least two vertices must have the same degree. Theorem.7. Let G = (V, E) be a (general) graph then: (.4) E = v V deg(v) Proof. Consider two vertices v 1 and v in V. If e = {v 1, v } then a +1 is contributed to v V deg(v) for both v 1 and v. Thus every non-self-loop edge contributes + to the vertex degree sum. On the other hand, if e = {v 1 } is a self-loop, then this edge contributes + to the degree of v 1. Therefore, each edge contributes exactly + to the vertex degree sum. Equation.4 follows immediately. Corollary.8. Let G = (V, E). Then there are an even number of vertices in V with odd degree. Exercise 5. Prove Corollary.8. Definition.9 (Graphic Sequence). Let d = (d 1,..., d n ) be a tuple in Z n with d 1 d d n. Then d is graphic if there exists a graph G with degree sequence d. Corollary.40. If d is graphic, then the sum of its elements is even. Exercise 6. Prove Corollary.40. Lemma.41. Let d = (d 1,..., d n ) be a graphic degree sequence. Then there exists a graph G = (V, E) with degree sequence d so that if V = {v 1,..., v n } then: (1) deg(v i ) = d i for i = 1,..., n and () v 1 is adjacent to vertices v,..., v d1 +1. Proof. The fact that d is graphic means there is at least one graph whose degree sequence is equal to d. From among all those graphs, chose G = (V, E) to maximize (.5) r = N(v 1 ) {v,..., v d1 +1} Recall that N(v 1 ) is the neighborhood of v 1. Thus maximizing Expression.5 implies we are attempting to make sure that as many vertices in the set {v,..., v d1 +1} are adjacent to v 1 as possible. If r = d 1, then the theorem is proved since v 1 is adjacent to v,..., v d1 +1. Therefore we ll proceed by contradiction and assume r < d 1. We know the following things: (1) Since deg(v 1 ) = d 1 there must be a vertex v t with t > d so that v t is adjacent to v 1. () Moreover, there is a vertex v s with s d that is not adjacent to v 1. () By the ordering of V, deg(v s ) deg(v t ); that is d s d t. 11

24 (4) Therefore, there is some vertex v k V so that v s is adjacent to v k but v t is not because v t is adjacent to v 1 and v s is not and the degree of v s is at least as large as the degree of v t. Let us create a new graph G = (V, E ). The edge set E is constructed from E by: (1) Removing edge {v 1, v t }. () Removing edge {v s, v k }. () Adding edge {v 1, v s }. (4) Adding edge {v t, v k }. This is ilustrated in Figure.9. In this construction, the degrees of v 1, v t, v s and v k are 1 s d 1 +1 t k 1 s d 1 +1 t Figure.9. We construct a new graph G from G that has a larger value r (See Expression.5) than our original graph G did. This contradicts our assumption that G was chosen to maximize r. preserved. However, it is clear that in G : r = N G (v 1 ) {v,..., v d1 +1} and we have r > r. This contradicts our initial choice of G and proves the theorem. Theorem.4 (Havel-Hakimi Theorem). A degree sequence d = (d 1,..., d n ) is graphic if and only if the sequence (d 1,..., d d1 +1 1, d d1 +,..., d n ) is graphic. Proof. ( ) Suppose that d = (d 1,..., d n ) is graphic. Then by Lemma.41 there is a graph G with degree sequence d so that: (1) deg(v i ) = d i for i = 1,..., n and () v 1 is adjacent to vertices v,..., v d1 +1. If we remove vertex v 1 and all edges containing v 1 from this graph G to obtain G then in G for all i =,... d the degree of v i is d i 1 while for j = d 1 +,..., n the degree of v j is d j because v 1 is not adjacent to v d1 +,..., v n by choice of G. Thus G has degree sequence (d 1,..., d d1 +1 1, d d1 +,..., d n ) and thus it is graphic. ( ) Now suppose that (d 1,..., d d1 +1 1, d d1 +,..., d n ) is graphic. Then there is some graph G that has this as its degree sequence. We can construct a new graph G from G by 1 k

25 adding a vertex v 1 to G and creating an edge from v 1 to each vertex v through v d1 +1. It is clear that the degree of v 1 is d 1, while the degrees of all other vertices v i must be d i and thus d = (d 1,..., d n ) is graphic because it is the degree sequence of G. This completes the proof. Remark.4. Naturally one might have to rearrange the ordering of the degree sequence (d 1,..., d d1 +1 1, d d1 +,..., d n ) to ensure it is in descending order. Example.44. Consider the degree sequence d = (5, 5, 4,,, 1). One might ask, is this degree sequence graphic. Note that = 0 so at least the necessary condition, that the degree sequence sum to an even number is satisfied. In this d we have d 1 = 5, d = 5, d = 4, d 4 =, d 5 = and d 6 = 1. Applying the Havel-Hakimi Theorem, we know that this degree sequence is graphic if and only if: d = (4,,, 1, 0) is graphic. Note, that this is (d 1, d 1, d 4 1, d 5 1, d 6 1) since d = = 6. Now, if d where graphic, then we would have a graph with 5 vertices one of which has degree 4 and another that has degree 0 and no to vertices have the same degree. Applying either Theorem.6 (or its proof), we see this is not possible. Thus d is not graphic and so d is not graphic. Exercise 7. Develop a (recursive) algorithm based on Theorem.4 to determine whether a sequence is graphic. [Hint: See Page 10 of [GY05].] Theorem.45 (Erdös-Gallai Theorem ). A degree sequence d = (d 1,..., d n ) is graphic if and only if its sum is even and for all 1 k n 1: (.6) k d i k(k + 1) + i=1 n 1 i=k+1 min{k + 1, d i } Exercise 8 (Independent Project). There are several proofs of Theorem.45, some short. Investigate them and reconstruct an annotated proof of the result. In addition investigate Berg s approach using flows [Ber7]. Remark.46. There has been a lot of interest recently in degree sequences of graphs, particularly as a result of the work in Network Science on so-called scale-free networks. This has led to a great deal of investigation into properties of graphs with specific kinds of degree sequences. For the brave, it is worth looking at [MR95], [ACL01], [BR0] and [Lu01] for interesting mathematical results in this case. To find out why all this investigation started, see [BAJB00]..1. Types of Graphs from Degree Sequences. Definition.47 (Complete Graph). Let G = (V, E) be a graph with V = n with n 1. If the degree sequence of G is (n 1, n 1,..., n 1) then G is called a complete graph on n vertices and is denoted K n. In a complete graph on n vertices each vertex is connected to every other vertex by an edge. Thanks to an anonymous comment from the Internet, that detected a small typo in Equation.6 in versions before

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