Contents. Biography. Acknowledgments. List of Abbreviations. List of Symbols

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1 Contents Biography Preface Acknowledgments List of Abbreviations List of Symbols xi xiii xvii xix xxvii 1 Introduction Cellular Mobile Communication Systems The Cellular Concept Propagation Impairments in Cellular Systems Multiple-Access Schemes First- and Second-Generation Systems Third-Generation Systems Towards Fourth-Generation Systems Networks and Protocols Circuit-Switched and Packet-Switched Networks Internet Protocol Suite Routing in Internetworks Multipoint Communications Unicast Broadcast Multicast IP Multicast Multicast Groups Multicast Routing Multicast in Cellular Mobile Networks Cell Broadcast Service IP Multicast 17

2 vi Contents MBMS for UMTS BCMCS for CDMA Summary 18 2 Fundamentals of IP Multicast Introduction IP Multicast Service Models Multicast Addressing and Address Management IPv4 Multicast Addressing IPv6 Multicast Addressing Mapping between IP Multicast and MAC Addresses Assignment of Multicast Addresses Multicast Session Announcement Group Management Internet Group Management Protocol Multicast Listener Discovery IP Multicast Routing Multicast Distribution Trees Intradomain Routing Protocols Interdomain Routing Protocols Reliable Delivery of Multicast Traffic Early Approaches for Reliable Multicast Recent Developments in Reliable Multicast Asynchronous Layered Coding The FLUTE Protocol Multicast Flow and Congestion Control Multicast in Mobile and Wireless Networks Bidirectional Tunnelling Remote Subscription Extensions for Mobile Multicast Agent-Based Multicast Summary 43 3 An Overview of Third-Generation Networks Introduction Radio Access and Networking in UMTS Air Interface Radio Access Network Core Network Radio Access and Networking in CDMA Air Interface Radio Access Network Core Network Summary 65

3 Contents vii 4 Multicast Services for Third-Generation Networks Introduction Motivation for Multicast Revenue Growth Differentiation Cost of Service Delivery Multicast Services Mobile TV Multimedia Content Distribution General Content Distribution Enhanced Distribution Services Peer-to-Peer Communication Machine-to-Machine Distribution User Requirements and Technology Acceptance Requirement Analysis Technology Adoption Cycles User Acceptance of Mobile Services Summary 85 5 Multicast Extensions for Third-Generation Networks Introduction MBMS for UMTS Overview of MBMS Architecture Core Network Extensions Radio Access Network Extensions Multicast Service Provisioning Phases Broadcast Service Provisioning Phases BCMCS for CDMA Overview of BCMCS Architecture Core Network Extensions Radio Access Network Extensions Service Provisioning Phases Summary Protocols and Mechanisms for MBMS Introduction MBMS Bearer Service Basics MBMS Bearer Service Architecture MBMS Bearer Context MBMS UE Context MBMS Bearer Service Management MBMS Activation and Deactivation MBMS Registration and Deregistration 119

4 viii Contents MBMS Session Control MBMS Service Request Routing on the MBMS Bearer Path MBMS User Services MBMS Streaming Delivery Method MBMS Download Delivery Method MBMS User Service Announcement and Discovery File Repair Procedure Reception Reporting Procedure MBMS Security Summary Protocols and Mechanisms for BCMCS Introduction BCMCS Bearer Path Architecture BCMCS Bearer Service Management BCMCS Registration and RAN Session Discovery BCMCS Session Information Update BCMCS Bearer Set-Up BCMCS Bearer Release BCMSC Service Layer BCMCS Information Acquisition BCMCS Flow Management BCMCS Security Summary Multicast Capacity over the CDMA Air Interface Introduction PTP and PTM Channels for Multicast Power Control Soft and Hard Handover System Model Propagation Model Interference Model Analysis of Multicast Capacity Multicast Capacity with PTP Channels Multicast Capacity with PTM Channels Numerical Results Comparative Analysis Sensitivity Analysis Summary Cost Analysis of Multicast Routing Introduction Dynamic Multicast for UMTS 176

5 Contents ix Multicast Tables Group Management Multicast Mobility Management Multicast Packet Forwarding Cost Analysis Parameters for Cost Analysis Modelling of Multicast User Distribution Modelling of User Mobility Modelling of Packet Traffic Numerical Results Packet Delivery Cost Location Update Cost Summary Parity-Based Reliable Multicast Introduction Loss Recovery for Reliable Multicast Mechanisms for Parity-Based Loss Recovery Reliable Multicast for MBMS Performance Evaluation Method Performance Metrics Simulation Approach Packet Error Model Reliable Multicast over the Air Interface PTP Channels for Multicast PTM Channels for Multicast End-to-End Reliable Multicast Summary Mobile Multicast in Heterogeneous Networks Introduction Alternative Technologies for Mobile Multicast DVB-H MediaFLO Other Standards Interworking and Convergence Challenges for Multicast Delivery in Heterogeneous Networks Multicast Delivery Coordination in Heterogeneous Networks Resource Management Group Management Support Service Example Summary 236 Appendix A Derivation of Downlink Capacity 237 A.1 Ratio of Intercell Interference to Received Power 237

6 x Contents A.2 Derivation of Average Downlink Power Factor 239 A.3 Multicast Capacity with PTP Channels 240 A.4 Multicast Capacity with PTM Channels 242 Appendix B Cost Derivation of Multicast Routing 243 B.1 State Probabilities 243 B.2 Cost Variables 244 B.3 Packet Delivery Cost 244 B.4 Location Update Cost 247 Bibliography 251 Index 259

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