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1 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Caption Page No. Figure 1.1 A Cellular Network.. 2 Figure 1.2 A Mobile Ad hoc Network... 2 Figure 1.3 Classifications of Threats. 10 Figure 1.4 Classification of Different QoS Metrics Figure 1.5 Classifications of QoS Approaches.. 12 Figure 1.6 NS2 Simulation Flow/Run Figure 1.7 Main Window of NAM 15 Figure 1.8 Pictorial Representation of the Work Carried out in this Thesis.. 17 Figure 2.1 Classification of Routing Protocols.. 21 Figure 2.2 Route Establishment in AODV 23 Figure 2.3 Route Maintenance in AODV.. 24 Figure 2.4 Route Establishment in DSR 26 Figure 2.5 Route Maintenance in DSR.. 27 Figure 2.6 Direct Acyclic Graph in TORA Figure 2.7 Route Maintenance in TORA.. 29 Figure 2.8 Topology Graph of the Network.. 30 Figure 2.9 Topology Graph of the Network When Node 7 Moves Figure 2.10 Selection of MPRset in OLSR. 34 Figure 3.1 Trust Computing Classifications. 44 Figure 3.2 Neighbour Sensing Based Direct Trust Establishment 44 Figure 3.3 Recommendation Based Indirect Trust Establishment 45 Figure 3.4 Hybrid Method of Trust Establishment 45 Figure 3.5 TA Based Centralized Trust Computation 47 Figure 3.6 Cryptography Based Hard Security Figure 3.7 Trust Based Soft Security. 48 Figure 3.8 SRP Header for Route Request Packet 60 Figure 3.9 SAODV Protocol Header. 62 iv

2 Figure 3.10 Route Maintenance in the SAODV Protocol Figure 4.1 Initial Positioning of 25 Nodes. 68 Figure 4.2 Scenario of Packet Transferring (When Number of Nodes are 100) 68 Figure 4.3 Scenario of Packets Drop (When Number of Nodes are 75) Figure 4.4 Packets Received when Number of nodes=25, Packet size = Figure 4.5 Packets Received when Number of nodes=50, Packet size = Figure 4.6 Packets Received when Number of nodes=75, Packet size = Figure 4.7 Packets Received when Number of nodes=100, Packet size = Figure 4.8 Packets Received when Number of nodes=25, Packet size = Figure 4.9 Packets Received when Number of nodes=50, Packet size = Figure 4.10 Packets Received when Number of nodes=75, Packet size = Figure 4.11 Packets Received when Number of nodes=100, Packet size = Figure 4.12 Packets Received when Number of nodes=25, Packet size = Figure 4.13 Packets Received when Number of nodes=50, Packet size = Figure 4.14 Packets Received when Number of nodes=75, Packet size = Figure 4.15 Packets Received when Number of nodes=100, Packet size = Figure 4.16 Packets Received when Number of nodes=25, Packet size =1000 v

3 Figure 4.17 Packets Received when Number of nodes=50, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.18 Packets Received when Number of nodes=75, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.19 Packets Received when Number of nodes=100, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.20 Packets Received when Number of nodes=25, Packet size =500 Figure 4.21 Packets Received when Number of nodes=50, Packet size =500 Figure 4.22 Packets Received when Number of nodes=75, Packet size =500 Figure 4.23 Packets Received when Number of nodes=100, Packet size =500 Figure 4.24 Packets Received when Number of nodes=25, Packet size =500 Figure 4.25 Packets Received when Number of nodes=50, Packet size =500 Figure 4.26 Packets Received when Number of nodes=75, Packet size =500 Figure 4.27 Packets Received when Number of nodes=100, Packet size =500 Figure 4.28 Packets Received when Number of nodes=25, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.29 Packets Received when Number of nodes=50, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.30 Packets Received when Number of nodes=75, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.31 Packets Received when Number of nodes=100, Packet size = vi

4 Figure 4.32 Packets Received when Number of nodes=25, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.33 Packets Received when Number of nodes=50, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.34 Packets Received when Number of nodes=75, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.35 Packets Received when Number of nodes=100, Packet size =1000 Figure 4.36 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the Throughput (When Packet size=100 bytes, Packet Interval=0.15 sec) Figure 4.37 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the Throughput (When Packet size=500 bytes, Packet Interval=0.15 sec) Figure 4.38 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the Throughput (When Packet size=100 bytes, Packet Interval=0.015 sec) Figure 4.39 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the Throughput (When Packet size=500 bytes, Packet Interval=0.015 sec) Figure 4.40 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the Routing Load (When Packet size=100 bytes, Packet Interval=0.15 sec) Figure 4.41 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the Routing Load (When Packet size=500 bytes, Packet Interval=0.15 sec) Figure 4.42 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the Routing Load (When Packet size=100 bytes, Packet Interval=0.015 sec) Figure 4.43 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the Routing Load (When Packet size=100 bytes, Packet vii

5 Interval=0.015 sec) Figure 4.44 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the 81 Packet Delivery Ratio (When Packet size=100 bytes, Packet Interval=0.15 sec).. Figure 4.45 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the 81 Average End-To-End Delay (When Packet size=500 bytes, Packet Interval=0.15 sec).. Figure 4.46 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the 81 Packet Delivery Ratio (When Packet size=100 bytes, Packet Interval=0.015 sec)... Figure 4.47 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the 82 Packet Delivery Ratio (When Packet size=500 bytes, Packet Interval=0.015 sec) Figure 4.48 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the 82 Average End-To-End Delay (When Packet size=100 bytes, Packet Interval=0.15 sec).. Figure 4.49 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the 83 Average End-To-End Delay (When Packet size=500 bytes, Packet Interval=0.15 sec).. Figure 4.50 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the 83 Average End-To-End Delay (When Packet size=100 bytes, Packet Interval=0.015 sec) Figure 4.51 Impact of Varying the Number of Nodes, Mobility Rate on the 83 Average End-To-End Delay (When Packet size=500 bytes, Packet Interval=0.015 sec) Figure 5.1 Generic Search Algorithm. 89 Figure 5.2 Associate Memory Organization Figure 5.3 Working of Generic Search Algorithm. 90 Figure 5.4 Organization of Present and Modified Table 92 Figure 5.5 Coherence Check of Mobile Node C for Read Operation of Block i viii

6 Figure 5.6 Coherence Check of Mobile Node C for Write Operation of 94 Block i... Figure 6.1 Hybrid MANET 97 Figure 6.2(a-d) Parameters Setting for Routing Protocols. 99 Figure 6.3(a-e) Configured Routing Protocols, Proxy Server, SIP Client, Voice 100 Encoding and Voice Table Configuration on each Node Figure 6.4 Hybrid MANET for the Voice Communication (Network 100 Topology Used)..... Figure 6.5 Calling and Called Nodes in MANET Figure 6.6 SIP Active Calls 101 Figure 6.7 SIP Enabled Client Requests for Voice Communication to the SIP 102 Proxy Server.. Figure 6.8 Voice Traffic Sent. 102 Figure 6.9 Voice Traffic Received Figure 6.10 Voice Packet End-to-End Delay Figure 6.11 Voice Jitter 104 Figure 6.12 Voice Packet Delay Variation Figure 7.1 Propagation of Trust Figure 7.2 Trusted and Untrusted Routing. 109 Figure 7.3 Trust Conscious Secure Route Discovery between Mobile Node A 111 and B... Figure 7.4 Mobile Node B Acting as a Proxy Node Figure 7.5 Trust Conscious Secure Route Discovery between Mobile Node C 112 and A via Proxy Node B... Figure 8.1 QoS Routing in Ad hoc Network Figure 8.2 Hash-based Message Authentication Code Concept. 119 Figure 8.3 Ad hoc Network Topology 121 Figure 8.4 Bandwidth Reservation by Hop-by-Hop Approach Figure 8.5 (a) Time Slot (T) and Least Cost First (T LCF ) Reservation tree of path (S, A, B, D) 124 ix

7 Figure 8.5 (b) Time Slot (T) and Least Cost First (T LCF ) Reservation tree of path 124 (S, E, F, D) Figure 8.5 (c) Time Slot (T) and Least Cost First (T LCF ) Reservation tree of path 125 (S, A, C, B, D)... Figure 8.5 (d) Time Slot (T) and Least Cost First (T LCF ) Reservation tree of path 125 (S, A, C, F, D)... Figure 8.5 (e) Time Slot (T) and Least Cost First (T LCF ) Reservation tree of path 125 (S, E, C, B, D)... Figure 8.5 (f) Time Slot (T) and Least Cost First (T LCF ) Reservation tree of path 126 (S, E, C, F, D) Figure 8.6 End to End Bandwidth by Hop-by-Hop and Least Cost First 126 Reservation Approach of path (S, A, B, D).. Figure 8.7 Unipath Discovered by Multipath Discovery Algorithm Figure 8.8 Multipath Route Maintenance x

8 LIST OF TABLES Table No. Caption Page No. Table 1.1 Comparison Between Cellular Networks and Ad hoc Wireless 3 Networks Table 1.2 QoS Parameters for various Applications.. 10 Table 2.1 Comparison of the Features of DSR, AODV and TORA.. 29 Table 2.2 Routing Table for Node Table 2.3 Modified Routing Table for Node Table 3.1 Comparison of Different Distributed Trust Computing Schemes. 45 Table 3.2 Comparison of Different Centralized Trust Computing Schemes. 47 Table 3.3 Operational Requirements of Secure Ad hoc Routing Protocols.. 56 Table 3.4 Security Protocols Parameters Table 3.5 Comparison of Security Protocols With Their Defense Against Attack 64 Table 4.1 Simulation Parameters Table 4.2 List of Various Simulation Scenarios 67 Table 4.3 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=25, Packet size= Table 4.4 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=50, Packet size= Table 4.5 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=75, Packet size= Table 4.6 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=100, Packet size= Table 4.7 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=25, Packet size= Table 4.8 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=50, Packet size= Table 4.9 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=75, Packet size= xi

9 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 4.13 Table 4.14 Table 4.15 Table 4.16 Table 4.17 Table 4.18 Table 4.19 Table 4.20 Table 4.21 Table 4.22 Table 4.23 Table 4.24 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=100, Packet size=500. Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=25, Packet size=1000 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=50, Packet size=1000 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=75, Packet size=1000 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=100, Packet size=1000 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=25, Packet size=1000. Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=50, Packet size=1000. Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=75, Packet size=1000. Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=100, Packet size=1000. Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=25, Packet size=500 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=50, Packet size=500 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=75, Packet size=500 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=100, Packet size=500 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=25, Packet size=500 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=50, Packet size= xii

10 Table 4.25 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=75, Packet size= Table 4.26 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=100, Packet size= Table 4.27 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=25, Packet size= Table 4.28 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=50, Packet size= Table 4.29 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=75, Packet size= Table 4.30 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=100, Packet size= Table 4.31 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=25, Packet size= Table 4.32 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=50, Packet size= Table 4.33 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=75, Packet size= Table 4.34 Performance Metrics with Number of nodes=100, Packet size= Table 6.1 Simulation Parameters.. 99 Table 6.2 List of Scenarios 99 Table 6.3 Voice Communication Setup. 101 Table 6.4 Comparisons of Call Setup Time, Active Calls, Voice Traffic Sent 102 and Voice Traffic Received... Table 6.5 Performance Analysis of Different Routing Protocols Table 8.1 Available Paths from node B to G Table 8.2 Available Paths from node B to G. 117 Table 8.3 Performance Comparison of QoS-aware Routing Protocol Table 8.4 Attacks on DSR and AODV Protocols Table 8.5 Secure Routing Solutions For DSR And AODV xiii

11 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. Candidate Declaration Acknowledgement List of Publications List of Figures List of Tables List of Abbreviations Abstract Table of Contents i ii iii iv xi xiv xvi xviii Chapter 1: Introduction Cellular Networks Vs Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Mobile Ad Hoc Networks MANETs Features that Impact Security and QoS Applications of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Issues in Ad Hoc Wireless Network Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Security Goals Security Attacks on Ad Hoc Routing Protocols Definition of QoS QoS in Different Layers Classification of QoS Metrics Classifications of QoS Approaches Simulation tools Introduction to NS OPNET-Network Simulator 15 xviii

12 1.8 Research Objective Thesis Organization 18 Chapter 2: Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols The Goals of a Routing Protocol in Ad Hoc Wireless Classification of Routing Protocols Based on the Routing Information Update Mechanism Based on the Use of Temporal Information for Routing Based on the Routing Topology Based on the Utilization of Specific Resources On-Demand / Reactive Routing Protocols Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Dynamic Source Routing Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm Proactive or Table-Driven Routing Protocols Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol Optimized Link State Routing 32 Chapter 3: Literature Survey Overview of Scalability Role of Caching in Route Optimization Associative Search and Issue of Cache Coherence Issue of Cache Coherence Overview of Session Initiation Protocol for Voice Support Session Initiation Protocol Overview of Trust Computations Distributed Trust Computations Centralized Trust Establishment Trust Based Network Security Cryptography Based Hard Security Services Trust Based Soft Security Services Design Considerations for QoS-Aware Routing Security Mechanisms 53 xix

13 3.7.1 Message Encryption Digital Signature and Hashing Key Management Secure Routing Protocols Authenticated Routing for Ad hoc Networks (ARAN) ARIADNE Secure and Efficient Ad hoc Distance Vector (SEAD) Routing 59 Protocol Secure Routing Protocol (SRP) Secure Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (SAODV) Security-aware Ad hoc Routing (SAR) 63 Chapter 4: Impact of Scalability on QoS-Aware Routing Introduction QoS based Performance Metrics Performance Evaluation Results and Discussion Throughput Routing Load Packet Delivery Ratio Average End-To-End Delay Conclusion 84 Chapter 5: Cache Coherence Handling Scheme for DSR Routing Introduction Proposed Cache Search Algorithm Generic Search Algorithm Working of Generic Search Algorithm Cache Coherence Handling Scheme Existing Dynamic Coherence Check Scheme Proposed Optimized Dynamic Cache Coherence Handling Scheme Conclusion 95 xx

14 Chapter 6: Voice Communication Over Hybrid MANETs Introduction Performance Analysis Performance Metrics Simulation Results and Discussion Conclusion 105 Chapter 7: A Trust Conscious Secure Route Data Communication in MANETs 7.1 Introduction AODV with Embedded Soft Security Proposed Trust Conscious Secure Route Mechanism Joining a New Node in Ad hoc Network and Trust Relationship is 110 Nil A Trusted Intermediate Node Act as a Proxy Node to Dynamically 111 Increase the Trust 7.4 Conclusion 113 Chapter 8: Secure QoS Enabled On-Demand Link-State Multipath Routing Introduction Routing Security Issue and Their Existing Solution Proposed Multipath Routing Protocol Secure Broadcasting QRREQ Packets Unipath Discovery Operations Perform By Destination Node Multipath Discovery Operation Perform By Destination Secure Unicasting of QRREP Packets to Source Node Multipath Route Maintenance Conclusion 129 Chapter 9: Conclusion and Further Scope of Research Conclusion Further Scope of Research 132 References xxi

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