TABLE OF CONTENTS. Dedication. Table of Contents. Preface. Overview of Wireless Networks. vii xvii

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1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Dedication Table of Contents Preface v vii xvii Chapter 1 Overview of Wireless Networks Signal Coverage Propagation Mechanisms Multipath Delay Spread Coherence Bandwidth Doppler Spread Shadow Fading Radio Propagation Modeling Narrowband and Wideband Channel Models Signal Attenuation Received Power Characteristics High Frequency Propagation Channel Characteristics Gaussian Channel Rayleigh Channel Rician Channel Fading Mitigation Methods Antenna Diversity Equalization Error Control Multicarrier Transmission Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Wideband Systems Interference Cochannel Interference Mitigation Techniques Modulation Linear versus Constant Envelope Coherent versus Non-Coherent Detection

2 viii Multicarrier Modulation 1.8 Signal Duplexing Techniques Spectrum Considerations Radio Design Considerations Implementation Considerations 1.9 Mobility and Handoff Intracell versus Intercell Handoff Mobile-Intiated versus Network-Initiated Handoff Forward versus Backward Handoff Hard versus Soft Handoff 1.10 Channel Assignment Strategies 1.11 Synchronization 1.12 Power Management 1.13 Spectrum Allocation Chapter 2 Wireless Access Protocol Design Traffic Source Characterization Periodic Traffic Bursty Traffic Characterizing Applications Information Types Delivery Requirements Symmetry of Connection Communication Requirements BroadbandServices Resource Sharing Resource Sharing Principles The Global Queue Measuring Resource Usage Resource Sharing in WidebandWireless Networks Resource Reservation and Application Adaptation Admission Control Performance Analysis Performance Evaluation Efficiency Throughput

3 ix Response Time Fairness 2.6 Implementation Considerations Centralized versus Distributed Design Mobility versus Portability Integration with Higher Layer Functions Chapter 3 Multiple Access Communications 3.1 Characterizing the Access Problem General Characteristics Classification 3.2 Framework for Discussion General Network Assumptions Collisions User Population Propagation Delay Channel Feedback Full and Limited Sensing Chapter 4 Fixed Allocation Access Protocols Frequency Division Multiple Access Disadvantages Implementation Time Division Multiple Access Disadvantages Implementation Comparison of FDMA and TDMA Performance Evaluation Frequency Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Statistical Multiplexing

4 x 4.5 Polling Protocols PerformanceAnalysis Probing Adaptive Probing 4.6 Service Disciplines in Polling Systems Chapter 5 Contention Protocols General Characteristics ALOHA Protocols Unslotted ALOHA Slotted ALOHA Disciplined ALOHA Spread ALOHA Performance Analysis of ALOHA Protocols Throughput Analysis Average Number of Retransmissions Acknowledgments Power Capture Analyzing the Slotted ALOHA Protocol with Capture Controlled ALOHA Asymmetric Traffic Load Scheduling Retransmissions Delay Analysis Stability Problems in ALOHA Protocols Stability Characterization Dynamic Controls Feedback Algorithms The Binary Tree Algorithm Analyzing the Tree Algorithm Improving the Tree Algorithm The Splitting Algorithm Implementation Considerations

5 xi 5.6 Carrier Sense Multiple Access CSMA Variations Performance Considerations Implementation Considerations CSMA with Collision Detection Virtual-Time CSMA Busy Tone Multiple Access 5.7 Adaptive Protocols The URN Protocol 5.8 Hybrid Access Protocols Split Reservation Upon Collision Mixed ALOHA Carrier Sense Random Access Polling Chapter 6 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Spread Spectrum Communications Wideband Versus Narrowband Code Division Time Capture Collisions in SSMA Systems Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Processing Gain Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access Power Control Synchronization RAKE Receiver Benefits of DSSS Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum Slow and Fast FH BenefitsFHSS Spreading Code Protocols Common Code Transmitter-Directed Codes Receiver-Directed Codes Single Code for Pairs of Users

6 xii 6.6 CDMA Network Design Multirate CDMA CDMA Receivers Multiuser Detection Interference Cancellation and Suppression Multicarrier CDMA 6.7 PerformanceAnalysis Queuing Theory Modeling Estimating the Number of Users in DS-CDMA 6.8 Comparing FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA Advantages of CDMA Disadvantages of CDMA Chapter 7 Reservation Protocols 7.1 General Characteristics 7.2 Centralized and Distributed 7.3 Reservation-ALOHA Implementation Considerations Performance Considerations 7.4 Packet Reservation Multiple Access 7.5 Dynamic Reservation Implementation Considerations PerformanceConsiderations 7.6 Dynamic Reservation Multiple Access 7.7 Round-Robin Reservation Scheme 7.8 Split-Channel Reservation Multiple Access 7.9 Integrated Access Scheme 7.10Demand Access Multiple Access 7.11Priority-Oriented Demand Assignment 7.12Announced Retransmission Random Access 7.13Minislotted Protocols 7.14Bit Map Access Protocol 7.15Broadcast Recognition Access Method 7.16Multilevel Multiple Access

7 xiii Chapter 8 Broadband Wireless Access Protocols The 2.4 GHz IEEE Wireless LAN Standard The Distributed Coordination Function Virtual Sensing The Point Coordination Function The 5 GHz IEEE Wireless LAN Standard The HIPERLAN Type 1 Wireless LAN Standard The EY-NPMA MAC Protocol Quality of Service The HIPERLAN Type 2 Wireless LAN Standard HIPERLAN Type 2 MAC Protocol HiperLAN Type 2 Frame Format QoS support Home Networks HomeRF s Shared Wireless Access Protocol Bluetooth s Access Mechanism Wireless ATM Simple Asynchronous Multiple Access Distributed Queuing Request Update Multiple Access MASCARA WATMnet Access Protocol AWACS Access Protocol Satellite ATM Multibeam Systems Multifrequency TDMA Wireless Local Loop MMDS LMDS Access Methods in LMDS IMT Coverage Areas and Data Rates CDMA Proposals Wideband CDMA Time-Duplexed CDMA CDMA TDMA Proposals

8 xiv Chapter 9 A Generalized Broadband Wireless Access Protocol 9.1 Protocol Description 9.2 Protocol Evaluation 9.3 Analysis of Randomized Slotted ALOHA Throughput Analysis Stability Analysis 9.4 Analysis of the Generalized Protocol Throughput Analysis Delay Analysis 9.5 Performance Comparison 9.6 Traffic Load Balancing Protocol Description Simulation Results 9.7 OPNET Simulation Models 9.8 OPNET Models for Generalized Protocol User Model for Base Station User Model for User with Periodic Traffic Process Model for Base Station Process Model for User with Periodic Traffic 9.9 OPNET Models for Traffic Load Balancing User Model for Base Station User Model for User with Periodic Traffic Process Model for Base Station Process Model for User with Periodic Traffic 9.10Simulation Time 9.11Formal Verification of Generalized Protocol Correctness Safety Liveness Appendix Queuing Theory Primer A.1 The Poisson Process A.2 Little s Theorem A.3 The Single Server Queue A.3.1 M/G/1 Queue

9 xv A.3.2 M/M/1 Queue A.3.3 M/D/1 Queue A.4 Conservation Laws Acronyms About the Author Index

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