HO Policies for Combined WLAN/UMTS Networks

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1 HO Policies for Combined WLAN/UMTS Networks Sven Wiethölter Telecommunication Networks Group TU Berlin Telecommunication Networks Group Technische Universität Berlin

2 Project Overview Project partners Goal: Uni Würzburg, Lehrstuhl für verteilte Systeme (Prof. Tran-Gia), Rastin Pries, Dr. Dirk Staehle, Simulative and analytical performance evaluation of UMTS and WLAN, TU Berlin, Fachgebiet Telekommunikationsnetze (Prof. Wolisz), Sven Wiethölter, Performance evaluation of WLAN in combination with perceived QoS, Design and investigation of policies for handovers in heterogeneous networks (UMTS/WLAN). 2

3 Overview Introduction: Motivation Issues for handover policies Evaluation criterion basic idea Evaluation criterion for WLAN UMTS VHO policy framework Summary Outlook 3

4 Motivation Common approaches for handover decision: Based on single threshold, e.g., dependent on RX power level, Number of retransmissions, Loss of connectivity. Issue: When should a mobile be served by which technology, if and when to handover? Depends on Characteristics of each technology: Available resources vs. supported degree of mobility, Weaknesses, e.g., overhead due to MAC scheme. Radio resource management, and Perceived quality of user. Provider vs. User view 4

5 Issues for Handover Policies (2) Handover, yes or no? (3) If yes, when to handover? WLAN Hotspot (1) Which connection to choose? WLAN or UMTS? 5 UMTS NodeB

6 WLAN or UMTS? Decision requires knowledge of current situation in WLAN and UMTS evaluation of situation Evaluation criterion for each technology must Reflect current situation, and Allow a predictive investigation of networks`behaviors. Evaluation functions For Admission Control in each network, as well as For Handover Control, most probably at different places. Investigations for evaluation criterion include: For WLAN CSMA/CA-specific behavior: Inter-frame spaces, (Post)backoff, Rate adaptation. For UMTS Limitations due to interferences / maximum transmit power, and Allocation of channelization codes. 6

7 Principle of Evaluation Function Evaluation: High load case Perceived quality of user HO Control invokes check of UMTS cell Admission Control VoIP Mail VoIP 7

8 Overview Introduction: Motivation Issues for handover policies Evaluation criterion basic idea Load-based evaluation criterion for WLAN UMTS VHO policy framework Summary Outlook 8

9 WLAN Simulation Scenario Goals: Two investigations: Maximum capacity, and Degradation by low-rate users. ST VoIP traffic in b: Identification of costs due to low-rate transmissions, Derivation of Evaluation criterion. Bi-directional CBR streams, ITU-T G711-codec, 64kbps, ST ST Various packetizations, Call has lousy quality, if: 5 percent packet loss, ST ST ST ST ST Including packets with a one-way delay > 150ms. ST 9

10 WLAN Capacity at homogeneous rates G711, packetizations ranging from 10 to 50 ms 10

11 WLAN Mixed Data Rate Environment I G711, 20ms packetization 22% 11% 20% 10% 11

12 WLAN Mixed Data Rate Environment II G711, 50ms packetization 18% 8% 13% 5% 12

13 WLAN Virtual Utilization Occupancy time for each transmission, including packet headers, inter-frame spaces, immediate ACK, (post)backoff Virtual Utilization at AP (i.e., at bottleneck): U uplink = t busy,uplink "t average U downlink = t busy,downlink "t average +3 to 4% U backoff = t busy,overhead "t average 12% 13!

14 Overview Introduction: Motivation Issues for handover policies Evaluation criterion basic idea Load-based evaluation criterion for WLAN UMTS VHO policy framework Summary Outlook 14

15 UMTS Characteristics Our current focus: UMTS FDD Dedicated channels on uplink and downlink QoS is supported for real-time applications Slow rate control/adaptation for best-effort applications Future focus: High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) Enhanced Uplink with E-DCH Characteristics of UMTS Wideband CDMA as multiple access technology Users share the same frequency band at the same time Signals are separated by using different codes Signals interfere with each other Capacity is interference limited 15

16 UMTS Capacity, Admission Control, and QoS Uplink Capacity Soft capacity: limited by multiple access interference (MAI) Downlink capacity Soft capacity: limited by multiple access interference (available Node B transmit power) Code capacity: limited by available channelization codes per sector/cell Admission control (AC) QoS Uplink: threshold on measured noise-rise Downlink: threshold on measured Node B transmit power and occupied channelization codes Bearer defines net bit rate and target FER Rate of best-effort services is slowly adapted to interference, Node B transmit power, and code situation 16

17 number of web users (full activity) UMTS Web vs. Voice on the Downlink Voice: AMR codec with 12.2 kbps bearer, 50% activity Web with adaptive bearer: bit rate: 64kbps, 144kbps, 384 kbps realistic activity: 62.5%, 27.7%, 10% with 100kB web page, 20s loading plus viewing time limited by soft capacity 64 kbps 144 kbps 384 kbps number of voice users (12.2kbps, 50% activity) number of web users (more realistic activity) limited by code capacity 64 kbps 144 kbps 384 kbps limited by soft capacity number of voice users (12.2kbps, 50% activity) 17

18 UMTS Uplink AC and System Load AC Measures noise rise, Translates noise rise to system load, and Estimates system load increase by new user noise rise= measured interference interference in empty system noise rise overload area marginal area initiate vertical handover 2 admissible area system load applicable for comparing WLAN and UMTS load 18

19 ] W [ UMTS Downlink AC and System Load AC r e w o p Measures sector transmit power, and Estimates sector transmit power increase by new user. t i m s n a r t sector transmit power [W] r o t c e s overload area marginal area admissible area constant power system load initiate vertical handover applicable for comparing WLAN and UMTS load 19

20 Overview Introduction: Motivation Issues for handover policies Evaluation criterion basic idea Load-based evaluation criterion for WLAN UMTS VHO policy framework Summary Outlook 20

21 VHO Policy Framework I Utilization-based criterion each technology Reflects current situation, Will enable a predictive evaluation, and Is a basis for the evaluation function. Utilization Margins: Specify an upper level of cell utilization, For perceived quality of different applications, Rescue Margins For non-preventable handovers, Depend on (vertical) neighbor cell and their users. Place for HO control Centralized rendezvous entity Signaling delay determines requirements on prediction, But collection of distributed pieces of information among Mobile, RNC, and AP. 21

22 VHO Policy Framework II Information service: Between UMTS / WLAN networks: status information exchange Enables HO management functionality (e.g., adaptation of rescue margins) Between mobile and WLAN / UMTS networks: Policies: Results in information about (vertical) neighbor cells, Enables pre-configuration of devices + higher layer settings, Allows vague prediction of handovers. Costs of each user identified By evaluation criterion including technology-specific weaknesses In Combination with perceived quality metrics. Perform Handover, if In WLAN: low goodput, high virtual utilization, low perceived QoS, high influence on perceived QoS of other users, IN UMTS: system load (up-, downlink, code) in marginal area, low level of perceived QoS for best effort users. 22

23 Summary Goal: Design of Policies for the decision when a mobile should be served by which technology, and If and when a VHO should be performed. Evaluation of situation in each technology: WLAN: VoIP simulations show great impact of Overhead due to MAC specific behavior, Users with lower rates and identify their provoked costs. Motivation for virtual utilization at bottleneck, separation into Up, Downlink and overhead part allows fine-grained Admission / HO control. UMTS: Evaluation criterion for load situation of sector/cell (UMTS FDD) that is applicable in vertical handover decision WLAN/UMTS policy framework Utilization criterion for both technologies combined with perceived quality metrics, Utility margins for HO decisions. 23

24 Outlook WLAN: UMTS: Investigation of VoIP / web-traffic mixes with respect to virtual utilization and perceived QoS, Short-term predictive investigation of virtual utilization. Measure for best-effort users level of perceived quality, Extension to HSDPA and Enhanced Uplink. Combined WLAN/UMTS networks: Place of HO decision, including bounds of signaling delay, Simulative investigation of WLAN/UMTS evaluation criteria and handover function, Identification of best user to handover. 24

25 Thanks for your attention. Questions? 25

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