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1 DIGITAL VIDEO DISTRIBUTION IN BROADBAND, TELEVISION, MOBILE AND CONVERGED NETWORKS TRENDS, CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS Sanjoy Paul, Ph.D Formerly of Bell Labs and WINLAB, Rutgers University, USA, Limited, India now of Infosys Technologies %WILEY A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication

2 About the Author Preface xiii xv PART ONE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 1 1 Convergence Industry Convergence Device Convergence Network Convergence Service Convergence Summary 9 References 9 2 Video Compression, Encoding and Transport Still Image Compression Block Transform Quantization Encoding Compressing Even Further Adding Color to an Image Video Compression Motion Estimation and Compensation Group of Pictures (GOP) Video Transport Summary 15 References 15 3 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) versus Internet Television Internet Television and Video over IP Content Distribution Search Summary 19 References 19

3 vi 4 Multicast Multicast in IPTV Networks Multicast in Mobile Networks Summary 24 References 25 5 Technology Trend and its Impact on Video on Demand Service over Internet Open versus Closed Networks Open Networks Closed Networks Summary 33 References 34 6 Summary of Part One 35 PART TWO CHALLENGES OF DISTRIBUTING VIDEO IN OPEN NETWORKS 39 7 Movie-on-Demand over the Internet Resource Estimation Storage Bandwidth Download Alternative Distribution Models Content Distribution Network (CDN) Hosting Hosting versus CDN Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks P2P Networksfor Content Download CDN vs. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks CDN versus Caching Hybrid Networks Combining Caching and P2P Summary 56 References 57 8 Internet Television Resource Estimation Bandwidth Storage P2P Networks for Streaming Adaptive P2P Streaming Tree-Based P2P Streaming Mesh-Based P2P Streaming 67

4 vii Scalability of P2P Networks Comparison of Tree-Based and Mesh-Based P2P Streaming Provider Portal for P2P (P4P) Some Statistics of P2P Traffic Alternative Techniques to Deal with P2P Traffic in ISPs Network Adverse Interaction between ISP Traffic Engineering and P2P Optimization P4P Framework Summary 77 References 78 9 Broadcast Television over the Internet Resource Estimation Bandwidth Storage Technology CoolStreaming Design ofdonet Evaluation ofdonet GridMedia Products Satellite Direct Download Dish TVfor PC Internet Streaming PPMate Streaming TV SopCastTVStreaming webTotal Tv and Radio Tuner Free Internet TV Streams Online TV Live CoolStreaming PPLive Summary 104 References Digital Rights Management (DRM) DRM Functional Architecture Intellectual Property Asset Creation and Capture Intellectual Property Asset Management Intellectual Property Asset Usage Modeling Content in DRM Functional Architecture Modeling Rights Expression in DRM Functional Architecture How DRM works Content Packaging Content Distribution License Distribution License Creation and Assignment 112

5 viii License Acquisition Playing the Media File Summary 113 References Quality of Experience (QoE) QoE Cache: Designing a QoE-Aware Edge Caching System TCP Optimizer Streaming Optimizer Web Proxy/Cache Streaming Proxy/Cache DNS Optimizer TCP Optimizer (Details) Streaming Optimizer (Details) Web Proxy/Cache (Details) Streaming Proxy/Cache (Details) DNS Optimizer (Details) Further Insights and Optimizations for Video Streaming over Wireless QoE Cache Enhancement Insights Functional Enhancements to the Basic QoE-Cache Benefits Due to Basic QoE Cache Functional Enhancement to Generic QoE Cache Performance of the QoE Cache Web Browsing J. 2 Streaming Performance on a Typical Day Additional Features and Optimizations Possible for QoE-Cache Capability ofhandling Live Streams in addition to Video-on-Demand Hardware-Based Transcoding Video Bit Rate Adaptation with RTP over TCP Streaming Video Bit Rate Adaptation for HTTP-Based Progressive Download Adaptation of Video Based on Client Device Capabilities Summary 137 References Opportunistic Video Delivery Services in Delay Tolerant Networks Introduction Design Principles Alternative Architectures Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networking (RFC 4838) BBN's SPINDLE KioskNet Converged Architecture Cache and Forward Network Design Goals Architecture 156

6 Usage ix Protocols Performance of Protocols in CNF Architecture Summary 166 References Summary of Part Two 169 PART THREE CHALLENGES FOR DISTRIBUTING VIDEO IN CLOSED NETWORKS Network Architecture Evolution IP Television (IPTV) IPTV Service Classifications Requirements for Providing IPTV Services Displayed Quality Requirements Bandwidth AudioNideo Compression Formats Resolution Transport Requirements Data Encapsulation Transmission Protocols Modes of Transport Unicast Transport for Video-on-Demand (VoD) Multicast Transportfor Live TV Summary 208 References Video Distribution in Converged Networks Impact of Treating Each Network as an Independent Entity Challenges in Synergizing the Networks and Avoiding Duplication Potential Approach to Address Multi-Channel Heterogeneity Rule-Based Transformation ofmedia Static versus Dynamic Transformation Dynamic Selection of Top 20% Videos and Top 20% Formats Templatefor Applications Commercial Transcoders Rhozet Carbon Coder - Mechanism Important Features Rhozet in a Representative Solution Rhozet in Personal Multimedia Content Distribution Solution Rhozet: Summary Architecture of a System that Embodies the Above Concepts Solution Architecture Diagram Benefits of the Proposed Architecture 224

7 X 16.7 Case Study: Virtual Personal Multimedia Library Summary 225 References Quality of Service (QoS) in IPTV QoS Requirements: Application Layer Standard-Definition TV(SDTV): Minimum Objectives High-Definition TV (HDTV): Minimum Objectives QoS Requirements: Transport Layer Standard-Definition Video: Minimum Objectives High-Definition Video: Minimum Objectives QoS Requirements: Network Layer QoE Requirements: Control Functions QoE Requirements for Channel Zapping Time QoE Requirements: VoD Trick Mode Trick Latency Requirements for VoD Trick Features IPTV QoS Requirements at a Glance Summary 242 References Quality of Service (QoS) Monitoring and Assurance A Representative Architecture for End-to-End QoE Assurance IPTV QoE Monitoring Monitoring Points Monitoring Point Definitions Monitoring Parameters Monitoring Methods Multi-Layer Monitoring Video Quality Monitoring Audio Quality Monitoring Internet Protocol TV QoE Monitoring Tools IQ Pinpoint Multidimensional Video Quality Management Headend Confidence Monitoring Field Analysis and Troubleshooting Product Lifecycle Test and Measurement Summary 266 References Security of Video in Converged Networks Threats to Digital Video Content Existing Video Content Protection Technologies DRM Systems Content Scrambling System (CSS) Content Protection for Recordable Media and Pre-Recorded Media (CPRM/CPPM) 273

8 xi Conditional Access System (CAS) 21A Advanced Access Content System 21A Content Protection System Architecture Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP) 21A High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) Comparison of Content Protection Technologies Threats in Traditional and Converged Networks Content in Converged Networks Threats in Traditional Networks Threats in Converged Networks Requirements of a Comprehensive Content Protection System Unified Content Management and Protection (UCOMAP) Framework Technical Assumptions Major Components of UCOMAP Other Advantages of UCOMAP Framework Case Study: Secure Video Store Summary 284 References Challenges for Providing Scalable Video-on-Demand (VoD) Service Closed-Loop Schemes Batching Patching Batched Patching Controlled (Threshold-Based) Multicast Batched Patching with Prefix Caching Segmented Multicast with Cache (SMcache) Open-Loop Schemes Equally Spaced Interval Broadcasting Staggered Broadcasting Harmonic Broadcasting Pyramid Broadcasting Skyscraper Broadcasting Comparison ofpb, PPB and SB Greedy Disk-Conserving Broadcast (GDB) Hybrid Scheme Summary 303 References Challenges of Distributing Video in Mobile Wireless Networks Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) MBMS User Services MBMS Architecture MBMS Attributes and Parameters Multicast Tree in Cellular Network MBMS Procedures 318

9 Handhelds xii MBMS Channel Structure Usage ofmbms Channel Structure MBMS Security Digital Video Broadcast (DVB-H) Forward Link Only (FLO) Digital Rights Management (DRM) for Mobile Video Content Summary 331 References IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and IPTV IMS Architecture Layering on IMS Architecture Overview of Components in IMS Architecture J Some Important Components in IMS Architecture IMS Service Model IMS Signaling SIP Registration/Deregistration IMS Subscriber to IMS Subscriber Integration of IPTV in IMS Architecture Functional Architecture and Interfaces Integrated IMS-IPTV Architecture Discovery and Selection ofiptv Service and Establishment of an IPTV Session Summary 350 References Summary of Part Three 353 Index 359

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