About the Authors Preface Acknowledgements List of Acronyms

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1 Contents About the Authors Preface Acknowledgements List of Acronyms xiii xv xvii xix Part One Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networking 1 1 Introduction Information Security Computer Security Communications Security Scope of the Book Structure of the Book Electronic Resources for the Book Review Questions 7 2 Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks Ad Hoc Networks and Applications Application Examples Challenges Sensor and Actuator Networks Application Examples Challenges Mesh Networks Application Examples Challenges Tactical Communications and Networks Blue Force Tracking System Factors Influencing the Design of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks Wireless Medium Networking Regime 25

2 viii Contents Nature of Traffic Quality of Service Requirements Mobility Fault Tolerance Operating Environment Power Efficiency Requirements Scalability Hardware Requirements and Production Cost Review Questions 28 3 The Wireless Medium Wireless Channel Fundamentals and Security Capacity Electromagnetic Spectrum Path Loss and Attenuation Other Transmission Impairments and Jamming Modulation and Demodulation Manchester Encoding Multiplexing and Duplexing Advanced Radio Technologies Directional and Smart Antennas Software Radios Cognitive Radios Multiradio/Multichannel Systems MIMO Systems Review Questions 45 4 Medium Access and Error Control Medium Access Control Generic MAC Protocols MAC Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks Error Control Error Correction Error Detection Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks IEEE WiMAX Wireless Local Area Networks IEEE Wi-Fi Wireless Personal Area Networks IEEE Bluetooth IEEE

3 Contents ix ZigBee WiMedia Review Questions 64 5 Routing Internet Protocol and Mobile IP IPv4, IPv6 and Security in IP Distance Vector and Link State Algorithms Internetworking Multicasting, Geocasting, Anycasting and Broadcasting Mobile IP Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Flooding and Gossiping Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) Dynamic Source Routing Routing in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks Directed Diffusion Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (SPIN) Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) Power-Aware Many-to-Many Routing (PAMR) Review Questions 79 6 Reliability, Flow and Congestion Control Reliability Non-Acknowledgement-Based Schemes Acknowledgement-Based Schemes Flow and Congestion Control Review Questions 88 7 Other Challenges and Security Aspects Localization and Positioning Time Synchronization Addressing Data Aggregation and Fusion Data Querying Database Approach Task Sets Other Data-Querying Schemes Coverage Mobility Management Cross-layer Design Review Questions 103

4 x Contents Part Two Security in Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networking Security Attacks in Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks Security Attacks Passive Attacks Active Attacks Attackers Security Goals Review Questions Cryptography Symmetric Encryption Asymmetric Encryption Hash Functions and Message Authentication Code Cascading Hashing Hash Chains Hash Trees TESLA Review Questions Challenges and Solutions: Basic Issues Bootstrapping Security in Ad Hoc Networks Bootstrapping Security in Sensor Networks Key Distribution, Exchange and Management Standards Classification of Key Management Schemes Contributory Schemes Distributive Schemes Authentication Issues Integrity Review Questions Challenges and Solutions: Protection Privacy and Anonymity Intrusion Detection Architectures for IDS in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Defense Against Traffic Analysis Access Control and Secure Human Computer Interaction Software-Based Anti-Tamper Techniques Encryption Wrappers Code Obfuscation Software Watermarking and Fingerprinting Guarding Tamper Resilience: Hardware Protection Availability and Plausibility Review Questions 185

5 Contents xi 12 Secure Routing Defense Against Security Attacks in Ad Hoc Routing Techniques Against Wormhole Attacks Techniques Against Sybil Attacks Techniques Against Selective Forwarding Secure Routing in Sensor Networks Routing Schemes That Enhance Security Secure Ad Hoc Routing Protocols Intrusion-Tolerant Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (INSENS) Authenticated Routing for Ad Hoc Networking (ARAN) On-Demand Secure Ad Hoc Routing (ARIADNE) Watchdog Pathrater Secure Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (SAODV) Secure Link State Routing Protocol (SLSP) Further Reading Review Questions Specific Challenges and Solutions SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks SNEP μtesla Quarantine Region Scheme for Spam Attacks Secure Charging and Rewarding Scheme Establishing a Session Packet Delivery Acknowledging Delivery Terminating a Session Secure Node Localization Detection of Malicious Beacon Nodes and Replayed Beacon Signals Attack-Resistant Location Estimation Secure Time Synchronization Secure Event and Event Boundary Detection Stage 1: Detection of Faulty Nodes Stage 2: Detection of Event Boundary Nodes Stage 3: Improvement of Event Boundary Node Detection Review Questions Information Operations and Electronic Warfare Electronic Support Electronic Attack Electronic Protection Review Questions 225

6 xii Contents 15 Standards X.800 and RFC Security Threats and Attacks Security Services Security Mechanisms Relationships between Security Services and Mechanisms Placements of Security Services and Mechanisms Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) How Does WEP Work? WEP Weaknesses Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) How Does WPA Work? WEP and WPA Comparison WPA2 242 References 245 Index 253

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