Computer Networks. A Top-Down Approach. Behrouz A. Forouzan. and. Firouz Mosharraf. \Connect Mc \ Learn. Hill

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1 Computer Networks A Top-Down Approach Behrouz A. Forouzan and Firouz Mosharraf \Connect Mc \ Learn Graw I Succeed* Hill

2 Preface xvii Trademarks xxiii Chapter 1 Introduction OVERVIEW OF THE INTERNET Networks Switching The Internet Accessing the Internet Hardware and Software PROTOCOL LAYERING Scenarios TCP/IP Protocol Suite The OSI Model INTERNET HISTORY Early History Birth of the Internet Internet Today STANDARDS AND ADMINISTRATION Internet Standards Internet Administration END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Further Reading Key Terms Summary PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS Applets Lab Assignments 32 Chapter 2 Application Layer INTRODUCTION Providing Services Application-Layer Paradigms 36

3 2.2 CLIENT-SERVER PARADIGM Application Programming Interface Using Services of the Transport Layer STANDARD CLIENT-SERVER APPLICATIONS World Wide Web and HTTP FTP Electronic Mail TELNET Secure Shell (SSH) Domain Name System (DNS) PEER-TO-PEER PARADIGM P2P Networks Distributed Hash Table (DHT) Chord Pastry Kademlia A Popular P2P Network: B ittorrent SOCKET INTERFACE PROGRAMMING Socket Interface in C END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Further Reading Key Terms Summary PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS Applets Lab Assignments PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENT 137 Chapter 3 Transport Layer INTRODUCTION Transport-Layer Services TRANSPORT-LAYER PROTOCOLS Simple Protocol Stop-and-Wait Protocol Go-Back-/V Protocol (GBN) Selective-Repeat Protocol Bidirectional Protocols: Piggybacking Internet Transport-Layer Protocols USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP) User Datagram UDP Services UDP Applications TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) TCP Services TCP Features 184

4 3.4.3 Segment A TCP Connection State Transition Diagram Windows in TCP Flow Control Error Control TCP Congestion Control TCP Timers Options END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Further Reading Key Terras Summary PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS Applets Lab Assignments PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENT 240 Chapter 4 Network Layer INTRODUCTION Network-Layer Services Packet Switching Network-Layer Performance Network-Layer Congestion Structure of A Router NETWORK-LAYER PROTOCOLS IPv4 Datagram Format IPv4 Addresses Forwarding of IP Packets ICMPv UNICAST ROUTING General Idea Routing Algorithms Unicast Routing Protocols MULTICAST ROUTING Introduction Multicasting Basics Intradomain Routing Protocols Interdomain Routing Protocols NEXT GENERATION IP Packet Format IPv6 Addressing Transition from IPv4 to IPv ICMPv6 359

5 4.6 END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Further Reading Key Terms Summary PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS Applets Lab Assignments PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENT 374 Chapter 5 Data-Link Layer: Wired Networks INTRODUCTION Nodes and Links Two Types of Links Two Sublayers DATA LINK CONTROL (DLC) Framing Flow and Error Control Error Detection and Correction Two DLC Protocols MULTIPLE ACCESS PROTOCOLS Random Access Controlled Access Channelization LINK-LAYER ADDRESSING WIRED LANS: ETHERNET PROTOCOL IEEE Project Standard Ethernet Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Virtual LANs OTHER WIRED NETWORKS Point-to-Point Networks SONET Switched Network: ATM CONNECTING DEVICES Repeaters or Hubs Link-Layer Switches Routers END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Recommended Reading Key Terms Summary 465

6 5.9 PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS Applets Lab Assignments PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENTS 477 Chapter 6.1 WIRELESS LANs Wireless Networks and Mobile IP Introduction IEEE802.il Project Bluetooth WiMAX OTHER WIRELESS NETWORKS Channelization Cellular Telephony Satellite Networks MOBILE IP Addressing Agents Three Phases Inefficiency in Mobile IP END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Further Reading Key Terms Summary PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS Applets Lab Assignments PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENT 545 Chapter 7 Physical Layer and Transmission Media DATA AND SIGNALS Analog and Digital Transmission Impairment Data Rate Limits Performance DIGITAL TRANSMISSION Digital-to-Digital Conversion Analog-to-Digital Conversion 569

7 7.3 ANALOG TRANSMISSION Digital-to-Analog Conversion Analog-to-Analog Conversion BANDWIDTH UTILIZATION Multiplexing Spread Spectrum TRANSMISSION MEDIA Guided Media Unguided Media: Wireless END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Recommended Reading Key Terms Summary PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems 601 Chapter 8 Multimedia and Quality of Service COMPRESSION Lossless Compression Lossy Compression MULTIMEDIA DATA Text Image Video Audio MULTIMEDIA IN THE INTERNET Streaming Stored Audio/Video Streaming Live AudioA'ideo Real-Time Interactive Audio/Video REAL-TIME INTERACTIVE PROTOCOLS Rationale for New Protocols RTP RTCP Session Initialization Protocol (SIP) H SCTP QUALITY OF SERVICE Data-Flow Characteristics Flow Classes Flow Control to Improve QoS Integrated Services (IntServ) Differentiated Services (DiffServ) END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Recommended Reading Key Terms Summary 688

8 8.7 PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS Applets Lab Assignments PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENTS 700 Chapter 9 Network Management INTRODUCTION Configuration Management Fault Management Performance Management Security Management Accounting Management SNMP Managers and Agents Management Components An Overview SMI MIB SNMP ASN.l Language Basics Data Types Encoding END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Further Reading Key Terms Summary PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems 728 Chapter 10 Network Security INTRODUCTION Security Goals Attacks Services and Techniques CONFIDENTIALITY Symmetric-Key Ciphers Asymmetric-Key Ciphers OTHER ASPECTS OF SECURITY Message Integrity Message Authentication Digital Signature 753

9 Entity Authentication Key Management INTERNET SECURITY Application-Layer Security Transport-Layer Security Network-Layer Security FIREWALLS Packet-Filter Firewall Proxy Firewall END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Further Reading Key Terms Summary PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS Applets Lab Assignments PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENTS 803 Chapter 11 Socket Programming In Java INTRODUCTION Addresses and Ports Client-Server Paradigm PROGRAMMING WITH UDP Iterative Approach Concurrent Approach PROGRAMMING WITH TCP Iterative Approach Concurrent Approach END-CHAPTER MATERIALS Further Reading Key Terms Summary PRACTICE SET Quizzes Questions Problems PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENTS 838 Appendix A Unicode 841 Appendix B Positional Numbering System 845 Appendix C HTML, CSS, XML, and XSL 853

10 Appendix D Miscellaneous Information Appendix E 8B/6T Code 865 Glossary 867 References 901 Index 905

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