Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks

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1 Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks Guy Davies Telindus, UK John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

2 Contents List of Figures List of Tables About the Author Acknowledgements Abbreviations Introduction xi xiii xv xvii xix xxv 1 Hardware Design Separation of Routing and Forwarding Functionality Building Blocks Control Module Forwarding Module Non-Stop Forwarding Stateful Failover To Flow or Not to Flow? Hardware Redundancy, Single Chassis or Multi Chassis 5 2 Transport Media Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) Path MTU Discovery Port Density Channelized Interfaces 9

3 vi CONTENTS 2.2 Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) MTU Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Packet Over SONET (POS) SRP/RPR and DPT Intelligent Protection Switching (Fractional) E1/T1/E3/T Wireless Transport Regulatory Constraints Interference Obstructions Atmospheric Conditions If it is so bad Router and Network Management The Importance of an Out-Of-Band (OOB) Network Management Ethernet Console Port Auxiliary (Aux) Port Remote Power Management Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) Network Time Protocol (NTP) Logging Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) SNMPvl, v2c and v Remote Monitoring (RMON) Network Management Systems CiscoWorks JUNOScope Non-Proprietary Systems Configuration Management Concurrent Version System (CVS) Scripting and Other Automated Configuration Distribution and Storage Mechanisms To Upgrade or Not to Upgrade Software Release Cycles Capacity Planning Techniques 32 4 Network Security Securing Access to Your Network Devices Physical Security Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) 36

4 CONTENTS vii 4.2 Securing Access to the Network Infrastructure Authentication of Users, Hosts and Servers Encryption of Information Access Tools and Protocols IP Security (IPsec) Access Control Lists RFC 1918 Addresses Preventing and Tracing Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks Protecting Your Own and Others' Network Devices 47 5 Routing Protocols Why Different Routing Protocols? Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Authentication of OSPF Stub Areas, Not So Stubby Areas (NSSA) and Totally Stubby Areas OSPF Graceful Restart OSPFv Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) Authentication of IS-IS IS-IS Graceful Restart " Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) Stuck-in-Active Why use EIGRP? Exterior Protocols Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Authentication of BGP BGP Graceful Restart Multiprotocol BGP 69 6 Routing Policy What is Policy For? Who Pays Whom? Implementing Scalable Routing Policies How is Policy Evaluated? AND or OR? The Flow of Policy Evaluation Policy Matches Policy Actions 74

5 viii CONTENTS The Default Action Accept/Permit, Reject/Deny, and Discard Policy Elements AS Paths Prefix Lists and Route Lists Internet Routing Registries Communities Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) Local Preference Damping Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding Policy Routing/Filter-Based Forwarding Policy Recommendations Policy Recommendations for Customer Connections Policy Recommendations for Peering Connections Policy Recommendations for Transit Connections Side Effects of Policy 91 7 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering Label Distribution Protocols Tag Distribution Protocol (TDP) Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) LDP Graceful Restart RSVP with Traffic Engineering Extensions (RSVP-TE) RSVP-TE Graceful Restart OSPF with Traffic Engineering Extensions (OSPF-TE) IS-IS with Traffic Engineering Extensions (IS-IS-TE) Fast Reroute Integrating ATM and IP Networks Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) VPNs at Layer Layer 3 VPN (RFC 2547bis) Generic Router Encapsulation (GRE) IPsec VPNs at Layer Circuit Cross-Connect (CCC) Translational Cross-Connect (TCC) Martini (Layer 2 circuits) Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS) Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol (L2TP) 117

6 CONTENTS ix 9 Class of Service and Quality of Service 9.1 Design and Architectural Issues of CoS/QoS 9.2 CoS/QoS Functional Elements Classification Congestion Notification Mechanisms Congestion Avoidance Mechanisms Queueing Strategies 9.3 QoS Marking Mechanisms Layer 2 Marking Layer 3 QoS MPLS EXP 9.4 Integrating QoS at Layer 2, in IP and in MPLS DiffServ Integration with MPLS Multicast 10.1 Multicast Forwarding at Layer Multicast on Ethernet and FDDI Multicast Over Token Ring Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) IGMP Snooping PIM/DVMRP Snooping Immediate Leave Processing Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) 10.2 Multicast Routing Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) Check Dense Mode Protocols Sparse Mode Protocols Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) Multiprotocol BGP Multicast Scoping IPv Evolution and Revolution 11.2 IPv6 Headers 11.3 IPv6 Addressing Hierarchical Allocations Address Classes 11.4 Stateless Autoconfiguration 11.5 Domain Name System (DNS) 11.6 Transition Mechanisms Dual Stack Network Address Translation Protocol Translation Tunnelling IPv6 in IPv

7 CONTENTS 11.7 Routing in IPv IS-IS for IPv OSPFv RIPng Multiprotocol BGP Multicast in IPv IPv6 Security Mobility in IPv Complete Example Configuration Files (IOS and JUNOS Software) Core Router (P) Running MPLS TE Supporting LDP Tunnelled Through RSVP-TE, No Edge Interfaces, ibgp Only, Multicast RP (Anycast Static) MSDP, PIM-SM (JUNOS) Core Router (P) Running MPLS TE Supporting LDP Tunnelled Through RSVP-TE, No Edge Interfaces, ibgp Only, Multicast RP (Anycast Static) MSDP, PIM-SM (IOS) Aggregation Router (PE) Running MPLS L3 and L2VPN Over LDP, BGP Policy to Customers, MBGP, PIM-SM (JUNOS) Aggregation Router (PE) Running MPLS L3 and L2VPN Over LDP, BGP Policy to Customers, MBGP, PIM-SM (IOS) Border Router Running MPLS with LDP, BGP Policy to Peers, MBGP, PIM-SM (JUNOS) Border Router Running MPLS with LDP, BGP Policy to Peers, MBGP, PIM-SM (IOS) Transit Router Running MPLS with LDP, BGP Policy to Upstream Transit Providers, MBGP, PIM-SM (JUNOS) Transit Router Running MPLS with LDP, BGP Policy to Upstream Transit Providers, MBGP, PIM-SM (IOS) 257 References 263 Index 265

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