Design of Enterprise Systems

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1 Design of Enterprise Systems Theory, Architecture, and Methods Ronald E. Giachetti CRC Press Taylor &. Francis Group Boca Raton London New York CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

2 Contents Preface I Enterprise Engineering 1 1 Enterprise Engineering Definition of Enterprise Engineering Enterprise Systems Enterprise Engineer Enterprise Life-Cycle Enterprise Design Method Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Engineering Projects Need for Enterprise Engineering Enterprise Engineering Compared to Systems Engineering Skills and Knowledge of Enterprise Engineers The Enterprise Environment History of Enterprise Engineering Scientific Management Humanist School General Systems Theory Movement Summary. 24 Bibliography Systems Theory Definition of a System Enterprise Boundaries Enterprise Subsystems Holism Open versus Closed Purposefulness Feedback and Control Complexity Dynamic Equifmality ' : System Dynamics Causal Loop Diagrams Stock and Flow Diagrams Critique of System Dynamics Systems Thinking Reductionist Perspective Systems Perspective How To Think Like a Systems Thinker 48 xiii

3 VI Implications for Enterprise System Design Summary 49 Bibliography 51 3 Modeling Concepts Model Definition Features of Models Model Viewpoint Modeling Language Types of Models Model Verification and Validation Model Verification and Validation Procedure Obstacles to Validation Modeling Process Modeling Project Initiation Model Construction Model Solving Reporting Model Implementation Model Reuse Summary 72 Bibliography 74 4 Enterprise Design Methodology Design Theory Design as Problem Solving The Design Problem Design Thinking Design for Change Design Methodologies Waterfall Design Model Spiral Design Model Controlled Iteration Design Model Methods in Practice Methodology Principles Capability Maturity Model Integration Summary 97 Bibliography 99 5 Enterprise Architecture Introduction Enterprise Architecture Frameworks Zachman's Framework TOGAF Other Enterprise Architectures Summary Enterprise Reference Architectures Developing the Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Reference Architecture Summary 115

4 Bibliography Enterprise Analysis and Design Methodology Enterprise Design Methodology Cross Life-Cycle Activities Project Management Requirements Management Quality Assurance Configuration Management and Control Risk Management Project Initiation Project Definition Define Project Scope, Schedule and Budget Project Scope Definition Project Budget Project Schedule Project Approval Business Case Project Planning Work Breakdown Structure Estimation Scheduling Budgeting Other Project Plans Analysis Generate and Evaluate Alternatives Design Construction Implementation Project Tools Summary 144 Bibliography 146 II Enterprise Project Strategy Strategy Definition Strategy Hierarchy Strategy Theory Resource-Based Theory of Strategy Market-Based Theory of Strategy Strategy Formulation Strategy in Highly Dynamic Environments Summary 159 Bibliography 161 Vll

5 Vlll 8 Problem Formulation and Requirements Data Gathering Document Collection and Analysis Observation Interview Questionnaire Requirements Workshops Putting It Together Issue and Problem Analysis Fishbone Diagram of Cause and Effect Causal Loop Analysis Document Problem Analysis Stakeholder Analysis Goals and Objectives Requirements Engineering Requirements Definition Good Requirement Statements Requirements Best Practices Linking Problem Analysis and Requirements Problem Analysis and Requirements Documentation Summary 193 Bibliography Generate and Evaluate Alternatives Generate Alternatives Brainstorming Delphi Method Literature Search Request for Proposals Benchmarking Morphological Analysis Document Alternatives Evaluate Alternatives Selection of Best Alternative Summary 207 Bibliography 208 III Process View Process Modeling Definition of Business Process Process Decomposition Classification of Business Processes Flowchart Data Flow Diagram Data Structure How To Construct a Data Flow Diagram IDEF0 Function Model IDEF0 Model Constructs 230

6 IDEFO Decomposition Hierarchy IDEFO Syntax and Semantics Other Process Modeling Techniques Summary 237 Bibliography Queueing Theory The Queueing System Understanding Variability Arrival Process The Queue The Server Queueing System Performance Queueing Model Assumptions Queueing System Notation Little's Law Queueing System Performance M/M/l Queue M/M/m Queue GI/G/1 Queue GI/G/m Queue Fork/Join Queue Transient Behavior of Queues Queueing Networks Psychology of Waiting Queueing Costs What Queueing Theory Tells Us about Business Processes Service Time Variation , Capacity Utilization Summary 269 Bibliography Process Design Process Analysis Method Process Goals Cycle Time and Throughput Rate Activity Components Bounding Process Performance Parallel Processes Capacity Pooling Capacity Cost Quality Process Improvement Summary 301 Bibliography 304 IV Information View 305 IX

7 13 Information Modeling Information Model Three-Schema Architecture Entity-Relationship Model Standardization and Semantics Summary 318 Bibliography ' Information Design Method To Build Entity-Relationship Model Information Modeling Project Initiation Entity Definition Relationship Definition Primary Key Definition Primary Key to Foreign Key Migration Resolve Many-to-Many Relationships Database Rules Non-Key Attribute Definition Relational Database SQL -,. 330' 14.3 Normalization Data Dictionary Data Design Deliverables Summary 343 V Organization View Organization Design Organizational Design Organization Structure Decision Processes Job Design Illustration of Job Design Approaches Reward System (Compensation The People Organization Culture Culture and Organization Design Summary 372 Bibliography 374 VI View Integration Enterprise Technology Introduction Integration Challenges System Architecture Enterprise Integration Levels Infrastructure Level 388

8 Information Level Application Level Process Level Organization Level Integration and Standardization Data Integration Technologies Application Integration Technologies Web Services Summary 401 Bibliography Enterprise Integration Introduction Correspondence between Views Data Integration Process Integration Interface Analysis Human System Interaction Testing T Summary 420 Bibliography 421 Index 423 XI

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