Contents RELATIONAL DATABASES

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1 Preface xvii Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Database-System Applications Purpose of Database Systems View of Data Database Languages Relational Databases Database Design Object-Based and Semistructured Databases Data Storage and Querying Transaction Management Data Mining and Analysis Database Architecture Database Users and Administrators History of Database Systems Summary 30 Exercises 31 Bibliographical Notes 32 PART 1 RELATIONAL DATABASES Chapter 2 Relational Model 2.1 Structure of Relational Databases Fundamental Relational-Algebra Operations Additional Relational-Algebra Operations Extended Relational-Algebra Operations Null Values Modification of the Database Summary 70 Exercises 71 Bibliographical Notes 73 vii

2 viii Contents Chapter 3 SQL 3.1 Background Data Definition Basic Structure of SQL Queries Set Operations Aggregate Functions Null Values Nested Subqueries Complex Queries Views Modification of the Database Joined Relations Summary 115 Exercises 116 Bibliographical Notes 120 Chapter 4 Advanced SQL 4.1 SQL Data Types and Schemas Integrity Constraints Authorization Embedded SQL Dynamic SQL Functions and Procedural Constructs Recursive Queries Advanced SQL Features Summary 158 Exercises 159 Bibliographical Notes 162 Chapter 5 Other Relational Languages 5.1 The Tuple Relational Calculus The Domain Relational Calculus Query-by-Example Datalog Summary 194 Exercises 195 Bibliographical Notes 198 PART 2 DATABASE DESIGN Chapter 6 Database Design and the E-R Model 6.1 Overview of the Design Process The Entity-Relationship Model Constraints Entity-Relationship Diagrams Entity-Relationship Design Issues Weak Entity Sets Extended E-R Features Database Design for Banking Enterprise Reduction to Relational Schemas Other Aspects of Database Design The Unified Modeling Language UML Summary 254 Exercises 256 Bibliographical Notes 261

3 ix Chapter 7 Relational Database Design 7.1 Features of Good Relational Designs Atomic Domains and First Normal Form Decomposition Using Functional Dependencies Functional-Dependency Theory Decomposition Using Functional Dependencies Decomposition Using Multivalued Dependencies More Normal Forms Database-Design Process Modeling Temporal Data Summary 304 Exercises 306 Bibliographical Notes 310 Chapter 8 Application Design and Development 8.1 User Interfaces and Tools Web Interfaces to Databases Web Fundamentals Servlets and JSP Building Large Web Applications Triggers Authorization in SQL Application Security Summary 350 Exercises 352 Bibliographical Notes 357 PART 3 OBJECT-BASED DATABASES AND XML Chapter 9 Object-Based Databases 9.1 Overview Complex Data Types Structured Types and Inheritance in SQL Table Inheritance Array and Multiset Types in SQL Object-Identity and Reference Types in SQL Implementing O-R Features Persistent Programming Languages Object-Oriented versus Object-Relational Summary 388 Exercises 389 Bibliographical Notes 393 Chapter 10 XML 10.1 Motivation Structure of XML Data XML Document Schema Querying and Transformation Application Program Interfaces to XML Storage of XML Data XML Applications Summary 431 Exercises 433 Bibliographical Notes 436

4 x Contents PART 4 DATA STORAGE AND QUERYING Chapter Overview of Physical Storage Media Magnetic Disks RAID Tertiary Storage Storage Access 460 Storage and File Structure 11.6 File Organization Organization of Records in Files Data-Dictionary Storage Summary 474 Exercises 476 Bibliographical Notes 478 Chapter Basic Concepts Ordered Indices B + -Tree Index Files B-Tree Index Files Multiple-Key Access Static Hashing Dynamic Hashing 511 Indexing and Hashing 12.8 Comparison of Ordered Indexing and Hashing Bitmap Indices Index Definition in SQL Summary 524 Exercises 526 Bibliographical Notes 529 Chapter 13 Query Processing 13.1 Overview Measures of Query Cost Selection Operation Sorting Join Operation Other Operations Evaluation of Expressions Summary 563 Exercises 566 Bibliographical Notes 568 Chapter 14 Query Optimization 14.1 Overview Transformation of Relational Expressions Estimating Statistics of Expression Results Choice of Evaluation Plans Materialized Views Summary 598 Exercises 599 Bibliographical Notes 602

5 xi PART 5 TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT Chapter 15 Transactions 15.1 Transaction Concept Transaction State Implementation of Atomicity and Durability Concurrent Executions Serializability Recoverability Implementation of Isolation Testing for Serializability Summary 630 Exercises 632 Bibliographical Notes 633 Chapter 16 Concurrency Control 16.1 Lock-Based Protocols Timestamp-Based Protocols Validation-Based Protocols Multiple Granularity Multiversion Schemes Deadlock Handling Insert and Delete Operations Weak Levels of Consistency Concurrency in Index Structures Summary 673 Exercises 676 Bibliographical Notes 680 Chapter 17 Recovery System 17.1 Failure Classification Storage Structure Recovery and Atomicity Log-Based Recovery Recovery with Concurrent Transactions Buffer Management Failure with Loss of Nonvolatile Storage Advanced Recovery Techniques Remote Backup Systems Summary 713 Exercises 716 Bibliographical Notes 718 PART 6 RETRIEVAL DATA MINING AND INFORMATION Chapter 18 Data Analysis and Mining 18.1 Decision-Support Systems Data Analysis and OLAP Data Warehousing Data Mining Summary 752 Exercises 754 Bibliographical Notes 756

6 xii Contents Chapter 19 Information Retrieval 19.1 Overview Relevance Ranking Using Terms Relevance Using Hyperlinks Synonyms, Homonyms and Ontologies Indexing of Documents Measuring Retrieval Effectiveness Web Search Engines Information Retrieval and Structured Data Directories Summary 776 Exercises 777 Bibliographical Notes 779 PART 7 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE Chapter 20 Database-System Architectures 20.1 Centralized and Client Server Architectures Server System Architectures Parallel Systems Distributed Systems Network Types Summary 803 Exercises 805 Bibliographical Notes 807 Chapter 21 Parallel Databases 21.1 Introduction I/O Parallelism Interquery Parallelism Intraquery Parallelism Intraoperation Parallelism Interoperation Parallelism Design of Parallel Systems Summary 827 Exercises 829 Bibliographical Notes 831 Chapter 22 Distributed Databases 22.1 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Databases Distributed Data Storage Distributed Transactions Commit Protocols Concurrency Control in Distributed Databases Availability Distributed Query Processing Heterogeneous Distributed Databases Directory Systems Summary 870 Exercises 873 Bibliographical Notes 876

7 xiii PART 8 OTHER TOPICS Chapter 23 Advanced Application Development 23.1 Performance Tuning Performance Benchmarks Standardization Application Migration Summary 900 Exercises 902 Bibliographical Notes 903 Chapter 24 Advanced Data Types and New Applications 24.1 Motivation Time in Databases Spatial and Geographic Data Multimedia Databases Mobility and Personal Databases Summary 927 Exercises 929 Bibliographical Notes 931 Chapter 25 Advanced Transaction Processing 25.1 Transaction-Processing Monitors Transactional Workflows E-Commerce Main-Memory Databases Real-Time Transaction Systems Long-Duration Transactions Transaction Management in Multidatabases Summary 959 Exercises 962 Bibliographical Notes 964 PART 9 CASE STUDIES Chapter 26 PostgreSQL 26.1 Introduction User Interfaces SQL Variations and Extensions Transaction Management in PostgreSQL Storage and Indexing Query Processing and Optimization System Architecture 994 Bibliographical Notes 995

8 xiv Contents Chapter 27 Oracle 27.1 Database Design and Querying Tools SQL Variations and Extensions Storage and Indexing Query Processing and Optimization Concurrency Control and Recovery System Architecture Replication, Distribution, and External Data Database Administration Tools Data Mining 1025 Bibliographical Notes 1026 Chapter 28 IBM DB2 Universal Database 28.1 Overview Database-Design Tools SQL Variations and Extensions Storage and Indexing Multidimensionsal Clustering Query Processing and Optimization Materialized Query Tables Autonomic Features in DB Chapter 29 Microsoft SQL Server 29.1 Management, Design, and Querying Tools SQL Variations and Extensions Storage and Indexing Query Processing and Optimization Concurrency and Recovery System Architecture Data Access Tools and Utilitites Concurrency Control and Recovery System Architecture Replication, Distribution and External Data Business Intelligence Features 1054 Bibliographical Notes Distributed Heterogeneous Query Processing Replication Server Programming in.net XML Support in SQL Server SQL Server Service Broker Data Warehouse and Business Intelligence 1096 Bibliographical Notes 1100 PART 10 Appendix A APPENDICES Network Model (contents online) A.1 Basic Concepts A1 A.2 Data-Structure Diagrams A2 A.3 The DBTG CODASYL Model A7 A.4 DBTG Data-Retrieval Facility A13 A.5 DBTG Update Facility A20 A.6 DBTG Set-Processing Facility A22 A.7 Mapping of Networks to Files A27 A.8 Summary A31 Exercises A32 Bibliographical Notes A35

9 xv Appendix B B.1 Basic Concepts B1 B.2 Tree-Structure Diagrams B2 B.3 Data-Retrieval Facility B13 B.4 Update Facility B18 B.5 Virtual Records B21 Hierarchical Model (contents online) B.6 Mapping of Hierarchies to Files B22 B.7 The IMS Database System B24 B.8 Summary B25 Exercises B26 Bibliographical Notes B29 Appendix C online) C.1 Multivalued Dependencies C1 C.2 Join Dependencies C5 C.3 Domain-Key Normal Form C8 Advanced Relational Database Design (contents C.4 Summary C10 Exercises C10 Bibliographical Notes C11 Bibliography 1101 Index 1129

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