Data Model ing Essentials

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1 Data Model ing Essentials Third Edition Graeme C. Simsion and Graham C. Witt MORGAN KAUFMANN PUBLISHERS AN IMPRINT OF ELSEVIER AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO

2 Contents Preface xxiii Part I The Basics 1 Chapter 1 What Is Data Modeling? 1.1 Introduction A Data-Centered Perspective 3 A Simple Example 4 Design, > Choice, and Creativity 6 Why Is the Data Model Important? Leverage 8 Conciseness 9 Data Quality 10 Summary 10 What Makes a Good Data Model? Completeness NonRedundancy Enforcement of Business Rules Data Reusability Stability and Flexibility Elegance Communication Integration Conflicting Objectives 15 Performance Database Design Stages and Deliverables Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Data Models The Three-Schema Architecture and Terminology

3 viii Contents 1.9 Where Do Data Models Fit In? Process-Driven Approaches Data-Driven Approaches Parallel (Blended) Approaches Object-Oriented Approaches Prototyping Approaches Agile Methods Who Should Be Involved in Data Modeling? Is Data Modeling Still Relevant? Costs and Benefits of Data Modeling Data Modeling and Packaged Software Data Integration Data Warehouses Personal Computing and User-Developed Systems Data Modeling and XML Summary Alternative Approaches to Data Modeling Terminology Where to from Here?-An Overview of Part I Summary 32 l Chapter 2 Basics of Sound Structure Introduction An Informal Example of Normalization Relational Notation A More Complex Example Determining Columns One Fact per Column Hidden Data Derivable Data Determining the Primary Key Repeating Groups and First Normal Form Limit on Maximum Number of Occurrences Data Reusability and Program Complexity Recognizing Repeating Groups Removing Repeating Groups 45

4 Contents ix Determining the Primary Key of the New Table First Normal Form Second and Third Normal Forms Problems with Tables in First Normal Form Eliminating Redundancy Determinants Third Normal Form Definitions and a Few Refinements Determinants and Functional Dependency Primary Keys Candidate Keys A More Formal Definition of Third Normal Form Foreign Keys Referential Integrity Update Anomalies Denormalization and Unnormalization Column and Table Names Choice, Creativity, and Normalization Terminology Summary 63 Chapter 3 The Entity-Relationship Approach Introduction A Diagrammatic Representation The Basic Symbols: Boxes and Arrows Diagrammatic Representation of Foreign Keys Interpreting the Diagram Optionality Verifying the Model Redundant Arrows The Top-Down Approach: Entity-Relationship Modeling Developing the Diagram Top Down Terminology Entity Classes Entity Diagramming Convention Entity Class Naming Entity Class Definitions 80

5 Contents 3.5 Relationships Relationship Diagramming Conventions Many-to-Many Relationships One-to-One Relationships Self-Referencing Relationships Relationships Involving Three or More Entity Classes Transferability Dependent and Independent Entity Classes Relationship Names Attributes Attribute Identification and Definition Primary Keys and the Conceptual Model Myths and Folklore Entity Classes without Relationships Allowed Combinations of Cardinality and Optionality Creativity and E-R Modeling Summary 109 Chapter 4 Subtypes and Supertypes Introduction Different Levels of Generalization Rules versus Stability Using Subtypes and Supertypes Subtypes and Supertypes as Entity Classes Naming Subtypes Diagramming Conventions Boxes in Boxes UML Conventions Using Tools That Do Not Support Subtyping Definitions Attributes of Supertypes and Subtypes Nonoverlapping and Exhaustive 120

6 Contents xi 4.10 Overlapping Subtypes and Roles Ignoring Real-World Overlaps Modeling Only the Supertype Modeling the Roles as Participation in Relationships Using Role Entity Classes and One-to-One Relationships Multiple Partitions Hierarchy of Subtypes Benefits of Using Subtypes and Supertypes Creativity Presentation: Level of Detail Communication Input to the Design of Views Classifying Common Patterns Divide and Conquer When Do We Stop Supertyping and Subtyping? Differences in Identifiers Different Attribute Groups Different Relationships Different Processes Migration from One Subtype to Another Communication Capturing Meaning and Rules Summary Generalization of Relationships Generalizing Several One-to-Many Relationships to a Single Many-to- Many Relationship Generalizing Several One-to-Many Relationships to a Single One-to-Many Relationship Generalizing One-to-Many and Many-to-Many Relationships Theoretical Background Summary 143 Chapter 5 Attributes and Columns Introduction Attribute Definition 146

7 xii Contents 5.3 Attribute Disaggregation: One Fact per Attribute Simple Aggregation Conflated Codes Meaningful Ranges Inappropriate Generalization Types of Attributes DBMS Datatypes The Attribute Taxonomy in Detail Attribute Domains Column Datatype and Length Requirements Conversion Between External and Internal Representations Attribute Names Objectives of Standardizing Attribute Names Some Guidelines for Attribute Naming Attribute Generalization Options and Trade-Offs Attribute Generalization Resulting from Entity Generalization Attribute Generalization within Entity Classes "First Among Equals" Limits to Attribute Generalization Summary 180 Chapter 6 Primary Keys and Identity Basic Requirements and Trade-Offs Basic Technical Criteria Applicability Uniqueness Minimality Stability Surrogate Keys Performance and Programming Issues Matching Real-World Identifiers Should Surrogate Keys Be Visible? Subtypes and Surrogate Keys Structured Keys When to Use Structured Keys Programming and Structured Keys Performance Issues with Structured Keys Running Out of Numbers 199

8 Contents xiii 6.5 Multiple Candidate Keys Choosing a Primary Key Normalization Issues Guidelines for Choosing Keys Tables Implementing Independent Entity Classes Tables Implementing Dependent Entity Classes and Many-to-Many Relationships Partially-Null Keys Summary 206 Chapter 7 Extensions and Alternatives Introduction Extensions to the Basic E-R Approach Introduction Advanced Attribute Concepts The Chen E-R Approach The Basic Conventions Relationships with Attributes Relationships Involving Three or More Entity Classes Roles The Weak Entity Concept Chen Conventions in Practice Using UML Object Class Diagrams A Conceptual Data Model in UML Advantages of UML Object Role Modeling Summary 228 Part II Putting It Together 229 Chapter 8 Organizing the Data Modeling Task Data Modeling in the Real World Key Issues in Project Organization Recognition of Data Modeling Clear Use of the Data Model 234

9 xiv Contents Access to Users and Other Business Stakeholders Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Models Cross-Checking with the Process Model Appropriate Tools Roles and Responsibilities Partitioning Large Projects Maintaining the Model Examples of Complex Changes Managing Change in the Modeling Process Packaging It Up Summary 249 Chapter 9 The Business Requirements Purpose of the Requirements Phase The Business Case Interviews and Workshops Should You Model in Interviews and Workshops? Interviews with Senior Managers Interviews with Subject Matter Experts Facilitated Workshops Riding the Trucks Existing Systems and Reverse Engineering Process Models Object Class Hierarchies Classifying Object Classes A Typical Set of Top-Level Object Classes Developing an Object Class Hierarchy Potential Issues Advantages of the Object Class Hierarchy Technique Summary 270

10 Contents xv Chapter 10. Conceptual Data Modeling Designing Real Models Learning from Designers in Other Disciplines Starting the Modeling Patterns and Generic Models Using Patterns Using a Generic Model Adapting Generic Models from Other Applications Developing a Generic Model When There Is Not a Generic Model Bottom-Up Modeling Top-Down Modeling When the Problem Is Too Complex Hierarchies, Networks, and Chains Hierarchies Networks (Many-to-Many Relationships) Chains (One-to-One Relationships) One-to-One Relationships Distinct Real-World Concepts Separating Attribute Groups Transferable One-to-One Relationships Self-Referencing One-to-One Relationships Support for Creativity Developing Entity Class Definitions Handling Exceptions The Right Attitüde Being Aware Being Creative Analyzing or Designing Being Brave Being Understanding and Understood Evaluating the Model Direct Review of Data Model Diagrams 306

11 xvi Contents Comparison with the Process Model Testing the Model with Sample Data Prototypes The Assertions Approach Naming Conventions Rules for Generating Assertions Summary 319 Chapter 11 Logical Database Design Introduction Overview of the Transformations Required Table Specification The Standard Transformation Exclusion of Entity Classes from the Database Classification Entity Classes Many-to-Many Relationship Implementation Relationships Involving More Than Two Entity Classes Supertype/Subtype Implementation Basic Column Definition Attribute Implementation: The Standard Transformation Category Attribute Implementation Derivable Attributes Attributes of Relationships Complex Attributes Multivalued Attribute Implementation Additional Columns Column Datatypes Column Nullability Primary Key Specification Foreign Key Specification One-to-Many Relationship Implementation One-to-One Relationship Implementation Derivable Relationships Optional Relationships 348

12 Contents xvii Overlapping Foreign Keys Split Foreign Keys Table and Column Names Logical Data Model Notations Summary 357 i Chapter 12 Physical Database Design Introduction Inputs to Database Design Options Available to the Database Designer Design Decisions Which Do Not Affect Program Logic Indexes Data Storage Memory Usage Crafting Queries to Run Faster Locking Logical Schema Decisions Alternative Implementation of Relationships Table Splitting Table Merging Duplication Denormalization Ranges Hierarchies Integer Storage of Dates and Times Additional Tables Views Views of Supertypes and Subtypes Inclusion of Derived Attributes in Views Denormalization and Views Views of Split and Merged Tables Summary 386

13 xviii Contents Part III Advanced Topics 389 Chapter 13 Advanced Normalization Introduction Introduction to the Higher Normal Forms Common Misconceptions Boyce-Codd Normal Form Example of Structure in 3NF but not in BCNF Definition of BCNF Enforcement of Rules versus BCNF A Note on Domain Key Normal Form Fourth Normal Form (4NF) and Fifth Normal Form (5NF) Data in BCNF but not in 4NF Fifth Normal Form (5NF) Recognizing 4NF and 5NF Situations Checking for 4NF and 5NF with the Business Specialist Beyond 5NF: Splitting Tables Based on Candidate Keys Other Normalization Issues Normalization and Redundancy Reference Tables Produced by Normalization Selecting the Primary Key after Removing Repeating Groups Sequence of Normalization and Cross-Table Anomalies Advanced Normalization in Perspective Summary 416 Chapter 14 Modeling Business Rules Introduction Types of Business Rules Data Rules Process Rules 420

14 Contents xix What Rules are Relevant to the Data Modeler? Discovery and Verification of Business Rules Cardinality Rules Other Data Validation Rules Data Derivation Rules Documentation of Business Rules Documentation in an E-R Diagram Documenting Other Rules Use of Subtypes to Document Rules Implementing Business Rules Where to Implement Particular Rules Implementation Options: A Detailed Example Implementing Mandatory Relationships Referential Integrity Restricting an Attribute to a Discrete Set of Values Rules Involving Multiple Attributes Recording Data That Supports Rules Rules That May Be Broken Enforcement of Rules Through Primary Key Selection Rules on Recursive Relationships Types of Rules on Recursive Relationships Documenting Rules on Recursive Relationships Implementing Constraints on Recursive Relationships Analogous Rules in Many-to-Many Relationships Summary 450 I Chapter 15 Time-Dependent Data The Problem When Do We Add the Time Dimension? Audit Trails and Snapshots The Basic Audit Trail Approach Handling Nonnumeric Data The Basic Snapshot Approach Sequences and Versions Handling Deletions Archiving 463

15 xx Contents 15.7 Modeling Time-Dependent Relationships One-to-Many Relationships Many-to-Many Relationships Self-Referencing Relationships Date Tables Temporal Business Rules Changes to the Data Structure Putting It into Practice Summary 474 Chapter 16 Modeling for Data Warehouses and Data Marts Introduction Characteristics of Data Warehouses and Data Marts Data Integration: Working with Existing Databases Loads Rather Than Updates Less Predictable Database "Hits" Complex Queries Simple Interface History Summarization Quality Criteria for Warehouse and Mart Models Completeness Nonredundancy Enforcement of Business Rules Data Reusability Stability and Flexibility Simplicity and Elegance Communication Effectiveness Performance The Basic Design Principle Modeling for the Data Warehouse An Initial Model Understanding Existing Data Determining Requirements Determining Sources and Dealing with Differences Shaping Data for Data Marts 487

16 Contents xxi 16.6 Modeling for the Data Mart The Basic Challenge Multidimensional Databases, Stars and Snowflakes Modeling Time-Dependent Data Summary 496 Chapter 17 Enterprise Data Models and Data Management Introduction Data Management Problems of Data Mismanagement Managing Data as a Shared Resource The Evolution of Data Management Classification of Existing Data A Target for Planning A Context for Specifying New Databases Determining Scope and Interfaces Incorporating the Enterprise Data Model in the Development Life Cycle Guidance for Database Design Input to Business Planning Specification of an Enterprise Database Characteristics of Enterprise Data Models Developing an Enterprise Data Model The Development Cycle Partitioning the Task Inputs to the Task Expertise Requirements External Standards Choice, Creativity, and Enterprise Data Models Summary 517 Further Reading 519

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